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S. V. Zagraevsky

 

The architect of Friedrich Barbarossa

 

 

Published in Russian: .. . .: 酻. . . , 56 2011 . , 2013. . 184195.

 

 

Annotation

 

In the article the message of the Russian historian of the eighteenth century V.N. Tatishchev about the working at Prince Andrey Bogolyubsky of the architect sent by the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, is confirmed. The origin of this architect and of the builders who came with him, is investigated. His buildings in Russia are determined (Assumption Cathedral and Golden Gate in Vladimir, the Churches of the Intersession on the Nerl and of the Nativity of the Holy Virgin in Bogolyubovo, and hypothetically Assumption Cathedral in Rostov and the Church of our Saviour in Vladimir). The author draws attention to the likelihood that in Russia this Imperial architect had the nickname "German Kufir".

 

 

Attention!

The following text was translated from Russian original by the computer program

and has not yet been edited.

So it can be used only for general introduction.

     RUSSIAN VERSION

 

 

First of all here is the message V.N. Tatishchev on the construction of the assumption Cathedral in Vladimir: "On making Bo him (Andrew Bogolyubsky - SZ) Dadi him God masters for the construction thereof, of the smart lands that were built and adorned her way over all churches... stavshemu in Vladimir structure, and above the gate of the city seems that the architect was sufficient. The far caves of the ancient buildings are very few, and repair of new very canceled. The Church, of course, must be preimuschestvovat. But as aforesaid, after nikakim bricklayer of perestraivaya, now has no sign of architectural science in it. IV (VI - SZ). Hsieh also mentions ambassadors from the Caesar's and architects sent than friendship this argues"1.

The loyalty of this message V.N. Tatishchev confirmed by the following provisions:

- because the information that was available to the scientist, was based on not survived to our time Chronicles, we may assess his message along with annalistic sources;

- except for typos in figure VI, the message does not have internal contradictions;

- scientist refers not only to information, records, but at the mention of the Imperial ambassadors and architects Henry VI (perhaps at the disposal of the Tatishchev was appropriate certificate or letter);

different parts of the message Tatishchev given in different places his books, eliminating the accident;

- Tatishev has confirmed this information in his Lexicon: "Andrei Bogolyubsky, uchenica Grand Duke, in 1157 the throne from Rostov in Vladimir had been received of architecture from the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, the Church and the gates of the town was built, which dodnes though through restorana much lepota lost, yet another vision of decent"2;

message Tatishchev not contradict the message of the Laurentian chronicle: "...Given him (Andrew Bogoliubsky - SZ) God of all lands, all the masters"3;

message Tatishchev is confirmed by the words of Aristotle Fioravanti on Vladimir's assumption Cathedral: "Nekiy our masters work"4.

The invitation by Western European masters in this case seems quite logical and justified, as specified Tatishchev objects - the assumption Cathedral and the Golden gate in Vladimir - were built in a much larger scale compared with the churches of Yuri Dolgoruky:

- dome side of the square in the assumption Cathedral - 6,4 mspan of the Golden gate - 6 m (and in the Holy Transfiguration Cathedral of Pereslavl-Zalessky side of the omphalos - 5,1 m);

- the height of the arches of the assumption Cathedral 18 m, the arch of the Golden gate (where the top was built not drum and heavy multi-tier structure with the Church of deposition of the robe) - 14 m (and in Pereslavl height arches - 12 m).

The Church of Andrew Bogolyubsky for the first time in Russia appeared and "full" Romanesque sculptures zooantropomorfnogo type.

Based on the foregoing, we may take the above message V.N. Tatishchev about coming to Bogolyubsky masters, Friedrich Barbarossa adequately reflect historical reality.

Analyze the issue of the composition of these masters.

That of Frederick Barbarossa came complete the construction team (from architect to ordinary masons), it is unlikely for the following reasons:

- size of building the farm of the whole, as demonstrated by this study, was to make 70-80 masters (and with their wives and children - much more)5. The transition of such a large number of people through the troubled Eastern European and Russian principalities was highly unlikely;

- if Bogolyubsky worked full Imperial team, we would be entitled to expect the construction of temples in a larger scale comparable with the "sign" of Western European cathedrals (earlier we saw that the great Prince Andrew aimed to increase the size of the buildings). For example, the Cathedral in Pavia (Northern Italy) has a size of 60 x 42 m and the span of the arches of the Central nave about 10 m. In Germany, worms Cathedral - about 105 x 36 m, and also with the ten spans of the arches, and the Cathedral in Speyer (Speyer) - 130 x 65 mspan arches - 14 m. The size of the assumption Cathedral of Andrei Bogolyubsky - about 28 x 18 m span arches - 6,4 m;

- on the rocks and temples Yuri Dolgoruky, and the Golden gate, and buildings in the hierarchy we find the same marks of the Prince of master masons6;

- in the technique of masonry also happened more or less significant changes.

This suggests that the arrival of the Imperial building the farm to Andrew had not taken place, and Dolgoruky and Bogolyubsky worked one and the same gang.

V.N. Tatishchev announces the arrival of the architect (the"architect was sufficient") or more of architects ("the architects sent"). Most likely, in the second case, along with the architect it was either about his co-authors, or the helpers, or "the older masters" on major construction specialities (designed to educate local construction personnel and organize their work), or about all of these masters simultaneously.

We can put that together with the architect also came specialists in the field of decorative art and sculpture. This is confirmed by the following provisions:

message Laurentian chronicle about coming to Andrew "masters of all lands" refers primarily to the decoration of the assumption Cathedral: "That summer was given the established Church Holy mother of God in Volodimira noble and Bogolubsky Prince Andrew, and decorate W marvellous manifold icons, and dragon stone be-Wisla and Church vessels and the top of her poslati by the faith of him, and on its efforts to sweatey mother of God, given to him by the God of all lands, all the masters and decorate W pace of INAH tserkvei"7. Therefore, in this case we are talking about the icon-painters, jewelers and other masters of decorative and applied arts;

- the only sector of the construction Bogolyubsky, not developed Dolgoruky, sculpture zooantropomorfnogo type8. Therefore, the arrival of the masters in the field of monumental sculpture was necessary.

But for our study the question of who came together with the Imperial architect, is secondary, since in the Middle ages, and in modern times worldwide in the construction prevailed monarchy, all artists regardless of their qualification was subordinated to the architect and co-authors were United by a single author's intention and responsibility for its implementation9.

It is important to note that any large stone Church - the most complicated engineering construction, all the components of its architectural forms and decor could not violate its structural integrity, and someone had to take responsibility for the possible construction of a catastrophe10.

Consequently, at the level we have now information we may speak about the architect Frederick Barbarossa in the singular.

Status Imperial architect dictated to him the execution of the work, which was carried out by the architects in the whole world: he was the author and the responsible executor of construction projects11. And who came with him, any local masters he had engaged for the construction of whether these are the same builders who previously worked at Dolgoruky, were United in the last permanent team, in this case not just in principle. As secondary and the issue of the relations between the architect's and the Grand Duke: a pair of "architect - customer" at all times working together on any project, but still, in the words CENTURIES Kavelmahera, "through scaffolding building sees only one person - the architect"12.

All the above allows to consider the authorship of the Imperial architect in respect of named V.N. Tatishchev the assumption Cathedral and the Golden gate in Vladimir13.

We can show that the construction of these buildings is the work of architect Frederick Barbarossa in Russia is not limited. It is an author of more, at least, the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl and the Nativity of the virgin in the hierarchy, and the maximum - more and the Church of our Saviour in Vladimir, and the Dormition Cathedral in Rostov.

We know from Chronicles that the construction of the assumption Cathedral in Vladimir began in 115814. And in accordance with the results of recent research we know that in the same year there was built a Church of the Intercession on the Nerl and the Nativity of the virgin in Bogolyubovo15.

In this regard, we may assume the authorship of the architect Frederick Barbarossa against and the last two buildings. This is confirmed by the following provisions:

- the assumption Cathedral and churches on the Nerl and in Bogolyubovo the same year construction began, coinciding with the year start working in Russia Imperial architect;

- these buildings are located close to each other (in Vladimir and Bogolyubovo), which facilitated the unified supervision of construction;

- data stylistic analysis confirms the similarity of all elements of architectural and sculptural decor, the decor, the General tendency-up of these buildings16;

- a comprehensive, systematic and unprecedented in Russia application of Romanesque zooantropomorfnogo sculptural decoration could only take place under the guidance of an experienced architect;

- final appearance of any building is determined first of all by the architect (this is what we discussed above).

We have a number of data and to assume (though with much less certainty)that the project and under the guidance of the Imperial architect built the Church of our Saviour in Vladimir assumption Cathedral in Rostov. In favor of this hypothesis is the following:

- Church of the Saviour was first laid in 116017ever were under construction, or had just finished the construction of the assumption Cathedral in Vladimir18;

- the Church of our Saviour probably had a "ceremonial" status similar to the status of the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl19;

Dormition Cathedral in Rostov was built after a fire in the year of 116020, i.e. about the same time as the Church of our Saviour;

- at the Rostov excavations 1939 was found chip canted console from columnar zone, the same as the decorations of the assumption Cathedral in Vladimir21;

- as shown by archaeological research 1986-1995 period, initially Rostov Cathedral was four pillars22, i.e. at dome square with sides about 6.7 m (in six pillars of Vladimir assumption Cathedral - about 6,4 m he was a huge tower-like building, which had no analogues neither in Russian nor in world architecture. This "architectural adventurism" more likely to "coach" ambitious architect, rather than for some of the local architects who risked in the case of building disaster his head in a literal sense23.

We conjecture about the authorship of the Imperial architect in respect of the assumption Cathedral in Rostov there is one more confirmation message Rostov historian YA Near, about which we will talk a little later.

Did the architect Friedrich Barbarossa and the Palace of the Grand Duke in the hierarchy? Perhaps, Yes, but not his remaining part (stair tower with the transition), adjacent to the Church of the Nativity of the virgin. These parts are very rude and applied to each other, and to the Church; well traced a lot of stages and unsystematic building24. But the fact of sending of the architect Emperor Grand Duke (by V.N. Tatischev, also consisting with it in friendship) said that it was one of the leading architects of Western Europe, which could hardly afford such sloppy and unsystematic.

High professional level of the Imperial architect and the breadth of his aesthetic views are confirmed by the fact that he did not impose Bogolyubsky Western (Catholic) architectural traditions, and stylized their buildings under successive line of the old Russian cross - architecture-from its Byzantine origins to the temples of Yuri Dolgoruky25.

Probably architect Barbarossa remembered and respected by his successors in the Vladimir-Suzdal. This respect was expressed, in particular, that the masters who erected an Annex to the churches of the era of Andrei Bogolyubsky, gently "bypassed" blocked column-type belt, but it is much easier it would be to stesti26. Perhaps this respect became one of the reasons that the master of Vsevolod the Big Nest after the arrival of Vladimir assumption Cathedral in the state of emergency after fire27 chose not to build a new temple, and to expand and strengthen the old28.

Important disclaimer vsevolodova chronicler that the Prince "who is not looking masters from the Germans, but used the wizards from the clergy of the Holy virgin and of his"29. Hence, the memory of the architect Friedrich Barbarossa in the times of Vsevolod was still fresh.

The question is, from what part of the "Holy Roman Empire" was the Imperial architect. O.M. ioannisyan believed that the master of Barbarossa came from Northern Italy30, The A.I. Komech of Germany31. Both researchers attracted to justify their position data stylistic analysis of the various elements of the architectural decor of old Russian, German and Lombard temples. For example, O.M. ioannisyan rightly said many community features of Vladimir-Suzdal decor, decor of the Cathedral in Modena, Pavia and Como; the A.I. Komech, not less true, with the decor of the Cathedral in Speyer, Mainz and worms.

I think the problem here is that the differences between the architectural decor and construction of the cathedrals of Germany and Northern Italy are much less significant than the differences between them and the churches of Vladimir-Suzdal land. Therefore, any search for specific Western prototypes architectural decoration of churches of Andrei Bogolyubsky gives too rough results are applicable to Germany, and Northern Italy, and France.

For example, just two window openings of the Imperial Cathedral of Speyer, we see almost the entire set of basic decorative solutions, characteristic for the churches of Vladimir-Suzdal land (see ill. 1 and 2).

 

 

Silt. 1. Cathedral of Speyer. Window decor.

 

 

Silt. 2. Cathedral of Speyer. Window decor.

 

And every researcher, meeting on trips to Western Europe, for example, the decor as the Romanesque Church in the small Bavarian village of Geisenfeld near the town of Inau (Fig. 3), and spending a fair parallel with the decor of the Vladimir-Suzdal churches, should remember that in the Western romanik like plastic solutions many hundreds, if not thousands.

 

 

Silt. 3. Romanesque Church in the village of Geisenfeld under the city of Inau (Germany). The decoration of the portal.

 

In connection with the foregoing, we may say that the conclusions about the specific origin of the Western European artists who participated in the work of the churches of Vladimir-Suzdal land, is possible only on the basis of documentary evidence, which as yet we have not.

But on the question of the origin of the architect Frederick Barbarossa we can try to use the method of historical and motivational model, in his time suggested by the author of this article32and to bring the following provisions:

German capital Romanesque architecture had pronounced "Imperial" character, and commercial North Italian cities are built with a certain "merchant" bias. In this regard, we can assume that the level of relations Barbarossa and Bogolyubsky more likely ward architect from Germany;

- the birthplace of Friedrich Barbarossa was Germany, and Italy - hostile country. And because the Emperor was carrying a moral responsibility for the quality of work submitted them to the architect, the more likely that this was not an enemy but a friend (at least compatriot);

- clear continuity architecture Bogolyubsky relatively architecture Dolgoruky, a direct source of which was the Imperial Cathedral of Speyer33gives additional confirmation version about coming to Andrey artists from Germany;

in the XII century in the German Central regions of the Empire was much more massive temple construction than in the constantly warring and fragmented Northern Italy (author came to write that war is the worst enemy of architecture). The scale of the German construction that time, says at least one fact: only in the city of Cologne has survived 12 (twelve!) large Romanesque churches, not counting demolished and rebuilt;

- it is possible to recall a reservation vsevolodova chronicler: "Who is not looking masters from the German". In Russia "the Germans" was often called, and other foreigners, but still this reservation in the light of all the above observations is also important34.

All this makes us to believe that the architect of operation Barbarossa were of Germanic origin. However, in no case does not preclude the use of elements of architectural decoration, characteristic for other countries, including Lombardy: undoubtedly, the Imperial architect was completely familiar with the architectural styles of the world (this is confirmed by the fact that he was able to stylize their Vladimirskaya of construction under the local Byzantine tradition).

And the conclusion of German origin architect Frederick Barbarossa makes us attentive to the message of Rostov historian YA Near that vaults of the Dormition Cathedral of Andrey Bogolyubsky in Rostov fell "from none nemcina Sefira"35. N.N. Voronin, negatively related to the haphazard activity YA Near on the collection and analysis of local Chronicles36, called it the message "fantasy elements"37. But it is unlikely that the historian of the second half of the XIX century - the era of "Orthodoxy, autocracy, and nationality" - suddenly decided arbitrarily assign ancient landmark, the temple of the German authorship, and even invented for this German brand uncommon name "Kafir"38. In favor of the message Near evidenced by the high probability of the construction of the Rostov Cathedral exactly architect Barbarossa, what we talked about above.

Note that "Kafir" could not name or surname, and some Guild nickname, as it is with stress on the first syllable in tune with the German word "Kupfer" (copper, brass)39. Less consonant, but also probably the origin of this name, surname or nickname of the word "Kaufer" (buyer)40.

Thus, we have the right albeit with reservations, but to accept the message Near YA41 and to think that the name, surname or nickname of the Imperial architect we know, at least at the level of a working hypothesis42.

Remember, V.N. Tatishchev in his message said that ambassadors and architects from Barbarossa "mentions" Henry VI. Probably at the disposal of scientist were some documents (such as a letter or certificate of Henry) regarding this Imperial Embassy. This gives hope that in the Russian and foreign archives ever will be found, and these, and other documents that shed light on the identity of the architect sent to Andrei Bogolyubsky.

When the architect Barbarossa came to Russia, we can say quite definitely: since Vladimir assumption Cathedral was founded on April 8, 1158,43, the architect, in time to get acquainted with local experience white-stone building, and then develop projects of its future buildings, was to arrive in Vladimir, no later than the autumn-winter 1157. It should be noted that Dolgoruky died on 15 may 1157, i.e. Russian Embassy architects and other artists, most likely, was sent to the Emperor still Yuri44.

When the Imperial architect has stopped working in Russia, can say only approximately. If true the hypothesis that he built the Rostov Cathedral, it is approximately 1162 year. If the Church of our Saviour in Vladimir, it 1164. Care architect at about this time indirectly confirmed by the fact that in 1164, Andrei Bogolyubsky began continuous series of wars (1164 - with the Bulgarians, 1168 - Polovtsians, 1169 - for Kiev, 1170 - Novgorod, 1171 - again with the Bulgarians, 1173 - Rostislav). 45).

Do we have the right to say that this architect was hired Andrew? Probably Yes: even if he was not invited by the Grand Duke in the service, and sent by the Emperor as "friendly help", it is still charge for their work in Russia he was to receive from the great Prince "in fact". Accordingly, we are dealing with a very common phenomenon "of a foreigner in the Russian service, and can note significant fact: given the status of the "Holy Roman Empire" in the XII century, the foreigner is of such a high level ever in Russia have not worked either before or after.

And, ultimately, the level of the architect Barbarossa is confirmed by the constructed buildings, the original appearance of which we can confidently enough to judge46, Vladimir's assumption Cathedral, the Golden gate and the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl.

These masterpieces of Russian and world architecture, the author of which is the Imperial architect, allow us to make significant conclusions about the positioning of ancient Russian architecture in the world context.

The fact that the architecture of Byzantium stereotypical perceived as self-sufficient, "indigenous" phenomenon, and architecture of Ancient Russia, starting with the tithe Church - like "spin-off" from his direction. The inevitable consequence of this approach was the perception of ancient architecture in the world context as the "border" and "provincial". Anyway, among the foreign experts on the history of architecture there is such a point of view.

But actually the Byzantine influence on the architecture of Ancient Russia was determined only up to the early-mid XII century, and then to Russia came romanik47. The further Genesis of ancient architecture was defined by a unique blend of the Byzantine canonical traditions (especially christofoletti), on the one hand, and the Romanesque and later Gothic, on the other hand. G. Wagner even wrote (although in later time - XVI century), the Roman-Gothic reminiscences were used as a kind of antimitoticescoe tool"48.

And the presence of not one but two basic sources of ancient architecture allows to speak of it not as a "late Byzantine provincial, and as an independent phenomenon of global importance.

And the fact of the work of Andrei Bogolyubsky Imperial architect, who built in the traditions already established in Russia architectural forms, is of enormous importance for an adequate understanding of the degree of inclusion of ancient architecture in the global context at the level of the most developed countries.

 

NOTES

 

1. Tatischev V.N. History Of Russia. So 3. M.-Leningrad, 1964. C. 244-245 (notes on the second part of the history of Russian [Chapter 20 [22]th, 483]); C. 253 [Chapter 22 [31]th, 547]; also see: Tatischev V.N. History of Russia since the most ancient times. M., 1768-SPb, 1784. KN. 3. C. 127, 487, 500; also see: Tatischev V.N. History Of Russia. M., 2005. So 2. C. 319, 687, 703. (In the 2005 edition of the text partially and not always justified modernized).

V.N. Tatishchev also writes: "stavshemu structure seems that the architect thereof [stavshemu... it VM. the more. This is note worthy that Andrei had the architecture of friendship from the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, as N. 382] was clever [hereinafter the why. for ustavshie its structure], and especially the gates of the city on the then vremyani vision [vision VM. the more. surprise] the decent [hereinafter the why. pace same for memory than it would skilful to copy and print]. The Church of the same add-on, of course, would be that [in that VM. the more. Allah] to presedential, but as aforesaid, after perestraivaya, then Baty burnt and damaged, and after pacinian, its magnificence and that with architekturou agreed, nothing is visible. The masters, Power, have been sent by the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, with whom Andrew friendship had" (Tatischev V.N. History Of Russia. Volume three. M-Leningrad, 1964. Options to the notes. C. 295).

The author thanks SO Timofeeva for clarification of the text V.N. Tatishchev.

2. Tatischev V.N. Lexicon of Russian historical, geographical, political and civil. In the book: Selected works. Leningrad, 1979. C. 213. (Article: Vladimir Belarusian and Volodimer); St.Petersburg, 2008. (Reprint ed. 1793.).

3. PSRL 1:351.

4. PSRL 6:199.

5. Zagraevsky SV Yuri Dolgoruky and old white-stone architecture. M, 2001. C. 27-48.

6. Voronin N.N. The architecture of North-Eastern Russia XII-XV centuries. M., 1961-1962. So 1. C. 323, 325; O.M. ioannisyan ON the early development of the Galician architecture. In the book: THE USSR ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. Short communications. No 164. Slavic-Russian archeology. M., 1981. C. 41.

7. PSRL 1:351.

8. The author of this study has shown that in times Dolgoruky was the prohibition of the Russian Orthodox Church in the Romanesque sculptures zooantropomorfnogo type (see: Zagraevsky SV Yuri Dolgoruky... S. 117-121).

9. In particular, see: Alberti HP-B. the Ten books on architecture. M., 1935. Medieval design and described in detail in the book: General history of architecture. So 4. L.-M., 1966. C. 637-658.

10. For more information, see: Zagraevsky SV Some issues of organization of ancient building. M., 2011. The article is on the web-site www.zagraevsky.com.

11. Note that all the above arguments about the authorship applicable to any ancient temple, regardless of the architect and what team it was built. And amputation in every Church of the author's start - a very promising area of modern history of architecture.

12. Kavelmaher CENTURY Church of the Transfiguration in the Island. M., 2009. C. 101.

13. The authorship of the Imperial architect in respect of, at least, named V.N. Tatishchev the assumption Cathedral and the Golden gate in Vladimir was not secret and for all Soviet historians of architecture, which recognized loyalty messages Tatishchev. But at the same time and in the scientific and popular literature that authorship is still almost never sounds with the same clarity and honesty, as, for example, the authorship of Aristotle Fioravanti in respect of the Moscow Uspenie Cathedral.

Perhaps, Soviet scientists were shackled "ideologically grounded theory "nation-builders", leading back from I.E. Zabelin (I.E. Zabelin features of identity in the ancient Russian architecture. In collection: old and New Russia, 3 and 4, 1878). Perhaps above them hung and theory of mandatory transition from construction to the construction site of artels in full composition (from architect to ordinary masons), according to which the principal author of the building was artel, i.e. actually the same "people" (in particular, see: Rappoport P.A. of the old Russian architecture. St. Petersburg, 1993. C. 255-269).

In any case, in our time, this is absolutely unfair.

14. PSRL 1:348.

15. Detail questions of the Dating of the Church of the Nativity of the virgin in the hierarchy and of the Intercession on the Nerl with criticism of earlier adopted Dating considered in the book: Zagraevsky SV New research... S. 122, 141. Here, only remind, that "Short of the Vladimir chronicle reports: "And then I come from Kiev Andrey and cytori Loving castle and debris, and set, and placed two churches kameny (Tikhomirov, MN. Little-known chronicle monuments. "Historical archive", T. 7. M., 1951. C. 211). What we are talking about the Church of the Nativity of the virgin in the hierarchy and of the Intercession on the Nerl, confirmed by the message of Novgorod (I Chronicles: "And placed her (mother of God SZ) temple in Rotz Klyazma, two stone Church in the name of the Holy mother of God" (the first Novgorod chronicle senior and Junior nagged. Ryazan, 2001. C. 467).

Both messages clearly link the basis of the hierarchy of the city and the construction of churches of the Nativity of the virgin and protection. The dates in these two Chronicles are not given, but the date of the Foundation of the Bogolyubov unequivocally informs the Novgorod IV chronicle under the year 1158: "And founded the castle of God" (PSRL 4:10). Therefore, we must take this year as the date of the churches of the Nativity of the virgin and of the Intercession on the Nerl.

This position is confirmed by the message Vladimir chronicle of the XVI century under 1158: "These same Prince Andrei Bogolubskii hail debris, and set, built the stone Church of the Christmas we sweatey of the Holy virgin on Klyazma the river, and another Cover sweatey of the Holy virgin on the Nerl, and called monastery" (PSRL. So 30. M. 1965. C. 68). For the first time on this message drew attention ETC. Timofeeva (Timofeeva SO, Novakovskiy-Buchman S.M. Church of the Intercession on the Nerl. M., "Northern pilgrim". 2003. C. 8).

16. For more information, see: Voronin N.N. The architecture of North-Eastern Russia... So 1. C. 304.

17. For more information, see: Zagraevsky SV New research... S. 144.

18. PSRL 1:348.

19. For more information, see: Zagraevsky SV New research... S. 146.

20. PSRL 9:230.

21. Voronin N.N. The architecture of North-Eastern Russia... So 1. C. 195.

22. During archaeological researches 1986-1995 period were found the remains of the Western wall of the Cathedral, which soon was dismantled and instead of it was built the narthex. This confirms the information of "the life of Leontius of Rostov" that Andrey Bogolyubsky originally built "small" Cathedral and then at the request Rostovtsev its expanded (O.M. ioannisyan, Leontiev AU, P.L. Zykov, Torshin E.N. Monuments of old Russian architecture of the XII-XIII centuries in Rostov Veliky. In the book. Proceedings of the VI International Congress on Slavonic archaeology. So 5. History and culture of ancient and medieval Slavs. M, 1999. C. 252-256).

23. According to research by the author, to ensure the required reliability of the white-stone temple's cross in the Russian context the internal space of the main volume should not exceed 200 square metersand the side of the omphalos - 6 m (see: Zagraevsky SV Yuri Dolgoruky... S. 82).

Not surprisingly, the Dormition Cathedral in Rostov, significantly exceeding this limit of reliability, collapsed after 42 years after construction. But it is hardly possible to blame for this disaster exclusively Imperial architect: reliability was influenced by the lack of professionalism of the masons, and the Russian climatic and living conditions. The architect, by the time of laying of the Cathedral who worked in Russia in just 3 years, could not consider all this in full measure. Formally he has fulfilled all conditions of the order, the construction there were no catastrophes, and the temple was hit already during the life of the next generations.

Note that the Moscow Dormition Cathedral, built Fioravanti, came to the state of emergency is also quite fast: already in 1624 threatening drop in the vaults of the Cathedral were completely shifted with reinforcement connected with iron, and with the introduction of additional arches (Kavelmaher CENTURIES on the initial appearance of the assumption Cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin. In the book: Architectural heritage. Vol. 38. M., 1995. C. 214).

24. Read more about the stages of construction-preserved pre-Mongol buildings in Bogolyubov, see: Zagraevsky SV New research... S. 115-116.

25. This line of succession, in particular, traced the article: A.I. Komech Demetrius Cathedral in Vladimir as a result of the development of architectural school. In the book: Demetrius Cathedral in Vladimir. 800 years since creation. M., 1997. C. 10-19.

26. In Bogolyubovo wizard "bypassed" column-type belt stone walls (see: Zagraevsky SV New research... S. 115), in the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl - roofs on the wooden rafters (for details, see ibid., C. 133). Note that the "bypass" column, laying stone walls and roof of the freakish form, it is much more difficult than just knock them down a few strokes of the axe, and then stesti their bases and capitals (equivalent to rough handling just one side of the stone block).

27. Further discussion about emergency condition of Vladimir assumption Cathedral Bogolyubsky considered ibid, S. 98-101.

28. That gallery Vsevolod are not independent architectural work, the author wrote there, S. 150-152.

29. PSRL 1:411.

30. O.M. ioannisyan Vladimir-Suzdal architecture and Lombard Romanesque. In the book: The 2000 anniversary of Christianity. The Byzantine world: the art of Constantinople and national traditions. Abstracts of the international conference. SPb, 2000. C. 19-24; O.M. ioannisyan Romanesque origins of the architecture of Vladimir-Suzdal time of Andrei Bogolyubsky (Germany or Italy?). In the book: The Byzantine world: the art of Constantinople and national traditions. The 2000 anniversary of Christianity. SPb., 2005. C. 31-69.

31. The A.I. Komech Architecture of Vladimir 1150-1180's. Artistic nature and Genesis of the "Russian romanik. In the book. Old Russian art. Russia and the countries of the Byzantine world. XII century. SPb, 2002. C. 232-254.

32. O.M. ioannisyan Vladimir-Suzdal architecture...; O.M. ioannisyan Romanesque origins...

33. For more information, see: Zagraevsky SV ANDPology Rostov chronicler (to the question about the Dating temples Yuri Dolgoruky). Abstracts. In the book: Materials of the regional conference dedicated to the centenary of the birth of N.N. Voronin (19 April 2004.). Vladimir, 2004. C. 16; Zagraevsky SV New research... 40 C..

34. Occurred feedback Aristotle Fioravanti on Vladimir's assumption Cathedral: "Nekiy our masters work" (PSRL 6:199) could only refer to Western European architects in General (as rightly believed N.N. Voronin - see: Voronin N.N. The architecture of North-Eastern Russia... So 1. C. 331), as more than three hundred years after construction Fioravanti could hardly identify specific national identity of the architect, especially seeing the Cathedral in the building 1186-1189.

35. The message is made on the basis of local Chronicles, United by the name "Rostov chronicler" (CIT. in book.: Voronin N.N. The architecture of North-Eastern Russia... So 1. C. 522).

36. In particular, see: Voronin N.N. "The legend of Russia and of the Council Else" in the manuscripts PRODUCED Near. The history of literary forgeries beginning of the XIX century In the book: Archaeography Yearbook 1974. M., 1975. C. 175-198.

37. Voronin N.N. The architecture of North-Eastern Russia... So 1. C. 522.

38. Conducted by the author of this study, the analysis of the data of Internet search engines is not found anywhere in the world any more or less well-known media such name or names (for analysis, we used a variety of spellings - "Kufir", "Kuvier", "Kufier", "Cufier", "Coufier" etc).

39. The consonance of the words "Kefir" and "Kupfer" found L. kleshnina (forum on the Internet site www.sobory.EN).

40. The consonance of the words "Kefir" and "Kaufer" found SO Timofeeva.

41. The statement "the blundering" architect could be a personal point of view of the chronicler, which quoted YA Artynov.

42. In popular literature can find references that Barbarossa was sent to Bogolyubsky architect Lanfranco, who had previously built a Cathedral in Modena. But the version of the coming to Russia Lanfranco groundless because this architect in 1099 led the beginning of construction of Modena Cathedral: his name and the date of Foundation of the temple stands on the stove, embedded in the apse. Other sources of information about this architect is missing (for example, see: F. Gandolfo. Enciclopedia Dell'arte Medievale. Magistri (ad vocem). Roma, 1991. II, 68-70).

In 1099 Lanfranco had to be at a Mature age, otherwise he would not have received an order for building a great Cathedral. Its age is confirmed by the fact that the text in the apse of the Cathedral, he is a famous and experienced master ("maestro ingenio clarus... et doctus aptus... operis princeps huius rectorque magister..."). It is unlikely that he almost 60 years later could build something, the more so far in Russia.

43. PSRL 1:348.

44. Path Embassy in the Empire could take several months. A few weeks (or even months) ambassadors could expect masters of operation Barbarossa (or with the permission of the Emperor's own conduct searches free construction personnel). A few months took way back in Suzdal land. So even if we assume that Andrei Bogolyubsky, became Grand Duke, immediately sent an Embassy to the Barbarossa for the masters, but he didn't manage to get them in the fall and winter of 1157 (see: Zagraevsky SV New research... S. 45-49).

45. In particular, in the second half of 1160-s-early 1170-ies was completed strengthening and princely Palace in Bogolyubovo (see: Zagraevsky SV New research... S. 111, 120).

46. The issues of reconstruction of the original form of these buildings are considered in detail:

Assumption Cathedral in Vladimir - in the book: Zagraevsky SV New research... S. 95-101; Timofeeva ETC. TO the issue of the five-domed assumption Cathedral of Andrei Bogolyubsky of Vladimir. Materials studies conference 2004. Vladimir, 2005. C. 27-34;

- Golden gate in Vladimir - in the book: Timofeeva ETC. Golden gate in Vladimir. M., 2002. C. 29-54; Zagraevsky SV New research... S. 106;

- the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl - ibid., C. 131-137; Timofeeva SO, Novakovskiy-Buchman S.M. Church of the Intercession on the Nerl. M., 2003. C. 8.

47. For more information, see: Voronin N.N. The architecture of North-Eastern Russia... So 1. C. 332; A.I. Komech Architecture Vladimir S.... 232-254; Zagraevsky SV New research... S. 27-30.

48. Wagner G.K. of originality of style formation in the architecture of Ancient Russia (return to the problem). In the book: Architectural heritage. Vol. 38. M., 1995. C. 28.

 

Sergey Zagraevsky

 

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