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Dr. Sergey V. Zagraevsky

 

The Grand Princes castle in Bogolyubovo:

an experience of graphic reconstruction

 

Published in Russian: .. : . .: XVIII (20 2012 .). . 1. , 2013. . 296312.

 

 

Annotation

 

The author proposes and justifies a graphic reconstruction of the palace-temple complex of Grand Prince Andrey Bogolyubsky in Bogolyubovo.

 

 

 

Attention!

The following text was translated from Russian original by the computer program

and has not yet been edited.

So it can be used only for general introduction.

     RUSSIAN VERSION

 

 

Issues of architectural history of the Palace-temple complex of Andrei Bogolyubsky devoted two scientific work of the author of the article "the Bogolyubov the architectural ensemble of the end of 1150 x-beginning 1170-ies: the questions of history and reconstruction"1 and the head of the monograph "New study of architectural monuments of Vladimir-Suzdal Museum-reserve"2. Expressed in these works some considerations for the original form of the Bogoliubov architectural ensemble and analyzing options for its reconstruction, proposed by other researchers, the author, however, refrained from creating your own graphic reconstruction of confining verbal descriptions. I think it is time to propose and justify a graphic reconstruction of the Grand castle.

First, please specify: as we are in these works showed that Bogolyubovo at the Grand Prince Andrei was a big city with the capital functions and developed trade and handicraft Posad3, then under "Grand-Ducal castle" we will not understand Bogolubovo in General, but only the white stone Palace-temple complex, which until now remained lower part of the Church of the Nativity of the virgin and stairwell with the transition (Fig. 1). Recall that in these works on the basis of the chronicle and architectural and archaeological information we have determined that the Church was built in 11584 and the rest part of the complex stages5 were built before the mid-1160-ies, and possibly later.

 

The Church of the Nativity of the virgin with the Northern range extensions. Modern look.

 

Silt. 1. The Church of the Nativity of the virgin with the Northern range extensions. Modern look.

 

Classical reconstruction of the Central part of the Bogoliubov Grand-Ducal castle in our time are the two options proposed by N.N. Voronin in his fundamental work "the Architecture of North-Eastern Russia XII-XV centuries"6 and differ only by the end of the towers (Fig. 2 and 3).

 

The complex of buildings around the Church of the Nativity of the virgin in the XII century. Reconstruction Voronin (option).

 

Silt. 2. The complex of buildings around the Church of the Nativity of the virgin in the XII century. Reconstruction Voronin (option).

 

The complex of buildings around the Church of the Nativity of the virgin in the XII century. Reconstruction Voronin (option).

 

Silt. 3. The complex of buildings around the Church of the Nativity of the virgin in the XII century. Reconstruction Voronin (option).

 

The latest researcher of the monument VK Yemelin made a number of observations7that allows to clarify the purpose of remaining from the Palace buildings - stair towers and arches with the transition8 the choir of the Church of the Nativity of the virgin.

First, attention was drawn to the fact that in the tower and moving to the West slit Windows and loopholes, and to the East - "civil" three-box.

Secondly, doubt was expressed that, because of a few steps away from the stair of the tower to the choir of the Church of the Nativity of the virgin took build bulky transition over the arched opening. The researcher suggested that the archways located gate leading into the fortified princely court.

Third, on the southern facade of the quadrangle of the first tier of the belfry of the XVII century, built over the stairwell before the destruction of the Church of the Nativity of the virgin at the beginning of the XVIII century, was discovered doorway, adopted by the researcher for laid door9 (Fig. 4).

 

The doorway in the southern facade of the quadrangular bell.

 

Silt. 4. The doorway in the southern facade of the quadrangular bell.

 

On the basis of these observations VK Yemelin made the assumption that the transition located above the gate and was a princely the porch to the temple, in fact, the gate Church (this assumption is correlated with the hypotheses V.I. dobrohotova10 and A.I. Nekrasov11 that transition had a Church purpose).

Reconstruction VK Emelin architectural complex that includes the Church of the Nativity of the Theotokos, gate to gate princely temple and stair tower, is shown in the sludge. 512.

 

The Church of the Nativity of the virgin and the Northern range extensions in the XII century. Reconstruction VK Emelina.

 

Silt. 5. The Church of the Nativity of the virgin and the Northern range extensions in the XII century. Reconstruction VK Emelina.

 

We will support the position VK Emelina that the Western facades of the tower and the Church was part of the complex of the fortifications of the princely court, and in the archways under the transition located gate leading into the courtyard. This position was confirmed by field research conducted by the author of this article with OTHER Timofeeva in 2006: under the arch were found symmetric traces of the inherent hinges gate (Fig. 6).

 

The arch of the Northern passage. Traces of the inherent gate hinges are marked by arrows.

 

Silt. 6. The arch of the Northern passage. Traces of the inherent gate hinges are marked by arrows.

 

The imposts under the arch in the form in which they exist today, and in which they portrayed VK Emelin (Fig. 5), would prevent the gate open. However, monitoring ETC. Timofeeva, exterior stone imposts were later replaced, and, most likely, in their place were the top gate hinges. Therefore, if the gates were opened to the outside (in the absence of a moat and drawbridge, it is just as probable as the opening of the gate to the inside), imposts they did not interfere, and when the door is closed were not visible from the outside and let knocking door in case of assault.

In this regard, we draw on our reconstruction is not open doorway under the arch of transition (as it was done in their reconstructions N.N. Voronin - see ill. 2 and 3), and the doorway, an indoor solid gates, without slots for mullion (albeit with the proviso that is possible and the option of cutting through the gate under imposts, as shown in the reconstruction VK Emelina). Accordingly, the "close" we in our reconstruction of the gate and all other openings under the arches, discovered by excavations N.N. Voronin North and South remaining buildings13.

All other specific features of reconstruction VK Emelina - proportions of the Church of the Nativity, the presence of two column-type zones and adjacent gate of the temple - we can not accept. Of the original view of the Church of the Nativity of the Theotokos will be discussed later, and the existence of the gate of the temple it is doubtful due to the following reasons:

- if to reconstruct the hypothetical gate of the temple by VK Amelino - in one volume with two column-type zones (see ill. 5), then the opening in the southern wall of the quadrangular bell tower of the XVII century is about 2 m above floor level gate of the temple, i.e. leads "in the air";

- at the edges of the southern wall of the bell tower survived pilasters (see ill. 4). Accordingly, to be placed between the pilasters, the upper part of the hypothetical gate of the temple would have to be significantly lower already. But then she could stand only on the arches of the transition, since the thickness of the walls of the transition is not enough for such a far indent;

if we assume that the hypothetical gatehouse Church stood on the vaults of the transition, the level of the floor had to match the height of an aperture in the southern wall of the square belfry. But in this case between the arches of the transition and the floor of the temple was a gap of about a meter and a half, and the vaults of the gate of the temple was great height (above the arches of the Church of the Nativity of the virgin);

- doorway in the southern facade of the square belfry (see ill. 4) more like arstesanai box than the mortgaged door (no on this window decor is explained by the fact that it goes up on the roof of transition and almost imperceptibly from the bottom, i.e. plays no role in the architectural appearance of the belfry);

- hypothetical door in a hypothetical gatehouse Church punched in the square belfry, tentatively dated back to the end of the XVII century. Therefore, with high degree of probability that the gate of the temple would have to be present at a fairly realistic picture of the Church of the Nativity of the virgin on the icon of our lady of Bogolyubovo XVII century14 (Fig. 7). However, on a designated icon you can't see it - there is depicted an existing transition, with the only difference that he raised a little higher and the window depicted in each gap between columns.

 

The Icon Of Our Lady Of Bogolyubovo. XVII century.

 

Silt. 7. The Icon Of Our Lady Of Bogolyubovo. XVII century.

 

Thus, we cannot accept any hypothesis VK Emelina about one-volume of the gate of the temple arch, nor his hypothesis that the temple gate was located on the arches of the passage. Accordingly, we must assume that over the gate was the transition from the stair tower of the Palace on the Church choirs of Christmas (because stair tower and the Church of the Nativity of the virgin were included in the system of fortifications of the court, such a transition is served and the battle ground of the gate, was necessary in the fortification purposes).

In principle, the vaults of transition could be more open battle ground. But we are on our reconstruction is not reflected neither this, nor is this a hypothetical open battle sites as the Grand-Ducal castle still had primarily Palace nature, and its value as an independent strengthening was not very large: it when many gates had no ditches or shafts or landing bridges.

However, we will not diminish the value of princely castle as Bogoliubov citadel. In any case, if the enemy had been able to overcome the main town fortifications and capture the city, the capture of the citadel is just a matter of a relatively small time.

Speaking of our reconstruction of the shape of the Windows facing the square in front of the castle, it should be noted that currently exist on the transition, and on the second floor stair tower rough, asymmetrically located open rectangular form are not primary. The traces of numerous turnings walls are visible under all preserved column-type belts between capitals and bases of the columns (traces of turnings on the transition is shown in the sludge. 8).

 

The Western wall of the transition. Arrows indicate the traces of turnings.

 

Silt. 8. The Western wall of the transition. Arrows indicate the traces of turnings.

 

Like Windows and loopholes in our reconstruction we are represented in all of the walls, outside the fortified Palace-temple complex. "Civil" open three-part form, in our opinion, were only inside the princely court, and on our reconstruction, showing a view of the castle from the main square of the city hierarchy, they are not visible.

Long narrow Windows, illuminating the stairs inside the well-preserved stair tower, judging by the identical cutting through their jumpers are primary. Accordingly, we reflected such Windows and in our reconstruction.

Consider how could look princely Palace-temple complex in General.

N.N. Voronin on the basis of excavations on the South wall of the Church of the Nativity of the virgin rightly believed that there was occupied buildings, similar to the North. But Il. 915 and 1016 you can see that the South and East of the Church of the Nativity of the virgin to the Palace buildings were very few places (even taking into account the fact that in the pre-Mongolian time to break the Klyazma was a little further from the temple). Therefore, if we assume that the Grand court had "full" walls (and even more "self-sufficient system of passages and stair towers, depicted on reconstruction N.N. Voronin - see ill. 2 and 3), then the free space inside them would be very small: VK Emelino, she was only 8 acres17.

 

The plan of the ancient part of modern village of Bogolyubovo (NN Voronin).

 

Silt. 9. The plan of the ancient part of modern village of Bogolyubovo (NN Voronin).

 

The plan of the city hierarchy in the XII century (reconstruction VK Emelina).

 

Silt. 10. The plan of the city hierarchy in the XII century (reconstruction VK Emelina).

 

It turns out that if the Prince's Palace was separate building inside the walls of the yard (with a gap between the Palace walls, ramparts and walls of the Church at least 2-3 m), he would have been very small and would not be in a princely status of Andrei Bogolyubsky. Perhaps for this reason VK Yemelin not display the Palace on its reconstruction plan hierarchy (see ill. 10).

Apparently, this problem is faced and N.N. Voronin: at its reconstruction (Fig. 2 and 3) he did not reflect the Palace buildings at least schematically, although, in theory, they should be visible if not over passages, through a large number of open arches.

Can not display the Palace of its reconstruction and S.A. Balloon Delaunay (Fig. 11), who offered the same "self-sufficient system of navigation, as N.N. Voronin, although in several other forms, closer to the architecture of the XVII century18. (Inadmissibility of reconstruction S.A. Ball-Delaunay Church of the Nativity of the Theotokos will be discussed later).

 

The complex of buildings around the Church of the Nativity of the virgin in the XII century. Reconstruction S.A. Sharova-Delaunay.

 

Silt. 11. The complex of buildings around the Church of the Nativity of the virgin in the XII century. Reconstruction S.A. Sharova-Delaunay.

 

This problematic situation with the free space under the Palace is resolved as follows: the walls of the Palace to a considerable extent at the same time were the walls of the princely court, i.e. the court actually was not fenced area, and fortified complex of buildings. Most of the Palace buildings could enter the system of fortifications about the same as the Church of the Nativity of the virgin. During bogolyubski on similar principles were built many German and North Italian "boroughs", and many centuries later, so was built Mikhailovsky castle in St. Petersburg.

Accordingly, the open excavations the remains of the white-stone laying to the North and South of the Church of the Nativity of the virgin could belong to both walls, and the complex of Palace buildings.

Was there a southern complex of buildings symmetric North? We believe that a fully symmetric he was not, but it was like. The thing is that in the Western part of the southern wall of the existing building of the Church of the Nativity of the virgin is no window of the upper tier (Fig. 12) - despite the fact that the location of all other Windows on the southern and Western walls subordinated to a single system. Draws attention to the shift of the southern portal to the East. These observations suggest that, in the middle of the XVIII century, when it was built the existing temple to the South wall is bordered transition over the arch, similar to the North.

 

Existing Church of the Nativity of the virgin. The southern wall.

 

Silt. 12. Existing Church of the Nativity of the virgin. The southern wall.

 

This position is confirmed by archaeological research NN Voronin, who showed that the southern extension were like Northern19, and in the XVII century, they still existed20. The fact that the southern extension were not reflected in the icon of our lady of Bogolyubovo XVII century (see ill. 7), it is not surprising: the Church is on the very edge of the icon, and these additions could not fit in the picture.

Judging by the top level of the decoration of the lower tier of the Western part of the southern wall of the existing Nativity Church, unpreserved southern transition adjacent to the wall of the Church is slightly higher than the North, which is consistent with our understanding of the difference of construction of various parts of the Palace Bogolyubsky. To confirm this hypothesis requires disclosure existing masonry Church from plaster, but we still believe that we have to reflect this asymmetry on our reconstruction.

Let us consider the issue of the original Church of the Nativity of the virgin, which was probably the Central, highest and most richly decorated with white-stone construction of the Prince "Burg".

During the reconstruction of the Church in the eighteenth century the Western part of the Northern wall, which belonged to the arch and passage, survived above the choir, but was turned from the side of the interior (Fig. 13). The remaining walls are preserved in 2-3 rows of masonry.

 

Fragment of the Western part of the Northern wall of the Church of the Nativity of the virgin. View from the interior. The arrows indicate the traces of turning.

 

Silt. 13. Fragment of the Western part of the Northern wall of the Church of the Nativity of the virgin. View from the interior. The arrows indicate the traces of turning.

 

Thus, the plan of the Church of the Nativity of the virgin known to us (Fig. 14). The temple was four pillars, apses, slightly elongated from East to West (length without apses about 13 m, width - about 10 m). The side of the omphalos - average 4.5 m. The temple had not cross, and round pillars (their remains have survived and were discovered by excavations N.N. Voronin21).

 

The plan of the Church of the Nativity of the virgin of XII century (by N.N. Voronin).

 

Silt. 14. The plan of the Church of the Nativity of the virgin XII century (by N.N. Voronin).

 

The blades of the temple had columns in the middle and the quarter-columns on the sides angled blades were combined angular three-quarter columns, the apse were thin pilasters-control (four in the middle apse and two - on the side). The socle of the Cathedral was decorated attic profile. Base half - and quarter-columns were decorated attic profile and had a corner "horn-vultures" ("talons"). Let's note, that similar "claw" found in a large number of Romanesque and Gothic churches of Western Europe.

The Church of the Nativity of the virgin had a column-type belt (its remains are preserved in the Western part of the Northern wall). N.N. Voronin based on the analysis of the frescos of the XVIII century with figures, partially covered Northern additions to the temple, showed that in place of the frescos of the XVIII century were the frescoes of the XII century and, accordingly, column-type belt was painted, as well as on the assumption Cathedral in Vladimir22. (These paintings we are not reproducible on our reconstruction).

The question about the number of heads of the temple is solved simply - single-headed he was depicted on the icon of our lady of Bogolyubovo XVII century (see ill. 7), the closest to it at its time of construction, distance, architectural sculpture and proportions of the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl also domed. But the question of the proportions of the Christmas Church deserves separate consideration.

The temple had choruses ("loft"which did not belong to the Orthodox denomination guests of Andrei Bogolyubsky was to "see the true Christianity and baptized"23). The Northern entrance to the gallery of the gate survived the transition, the threshold current opening is at height 8,1 m the floor of the ancient Church.

But in relatively close in size and proportions of the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl height choir, located almost in the middle of the pillars is just 5,4 m. Accordingly, assuming that the level of floor choir Christmas temple was, as in the Church of the Intercession, halfway between the floor of the Church and the fifth arches, the height of the temple was to be 19,2 m just before sailing rings. N.N. Voronin rightly pointed out that this height is clearly exaggerated, since the temple has become abnormally stretched up proportion, and believed that the choir was not in the middle of the height of the pillars, and is much higher, nearly two-thirds of the height24 (reconstruction of the original form of the Church of the Nativity of the virgin by N.N. Voronin see the sludge. 15).

 

The original view of the Church of the Nativity of the virgin. Reconstruction N.N. Voronin.

 

Silt. 15. The original view of the Church of the Nativity of the virgin. Reconstruction N.N. Voronin.

 

VK Yemelin believed that the Church choirs of Christmas was located in the middle pillar, and reconstructed the Church with elongated proportions up by typing in the reconstruction of even the second column-type belt25 (see ill. 5). But we can't accept this reconstruction for the following reasons:

- no Church in Suzdal had two column-type zones. Such a system decor, we see only in the civil construction - Bogoliubov stair tower, but it was built in two stages26that is , most likely, each tier was taken by the builders as a separate volume and received your decor;

- no Church in Suzdal land was not so elongated upwards proportions. Thus, the ratio of the width of the Western facade to its height in Vladimir's assumption Cathedral of Andrey Bogolyubsky in the Cathedral of St. Demetrius is close to unity in the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl - 0,85, and in the reconstruction Vghenemine - 0,77;

is that in the assumption Cathedral of Vladimir, the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl and the Dmitrievsky Cathedral choirs are located in the middle of the pillars, in any case not a General and mandatory system for all pre-Mongol Suzdal churches, and especially the temples of other ancient kingdoms27.

Same as VK Yemelin, pulled up the proportions of the Church of the Nativity of the Theotokos in their reconstruction and S.A. Balloon Delaunay28 (Fig. 11): the ratio of the width of the Western facade of the temple to its height is about 0,76.

All reconstructions, S.A. proposed Ball-Delaunay in his book29we in due time have devoted special review30here only the basic unacceptable in principle features of his reconstruction of the Bogoliubov of the temple.

First, S.A. Balloon Delaunay in his reconstruction of the Church of the Nativity of the virgin turned into a justification for departing from the classic cross-system of a purely technical problem-based arches of the temple on the capitals of the Koruna31. This problem was formulated and solved N.N. Voronin32 (arch cut capitals, in any case not "spoiling" them), and inevitably the question arises, what is easier - cut capitals or to change the system of vaults? The latter would be just as strange, how to rebuild the house because there is nowhere to hang a chandelier or a picture (remember the "Occam's razor" - "should not multiply entities beyond necessity"). As for S. Sharov-Delaunay false problem cutting through the capitals became the cornerstone for further logical constructs, occupying many pages.

Secondly, S.A. Balloon Delaunay based on the analysis of the columns preserved under the Bogoliubov arch, called "obviously erroneous assumption N.N. Voronin on the number of columns in the middle fence of the Church33. But no connection is seen as the arch is attached not to the middle and the side fence.

Thirdly, in his reconstruction S.A. Balloon Delaunay was offered such unprecedented for the Vladimir-Suzdal architecture solution, as box-wild in the middle fence on the Western facade of the Church of the Nativity of the virgin34 (Fig. 11). Archaeological substantiation of this position was the chip of some archivolt radius 55 cm35. But this could be the chip archivolt column-type belt, once himself S.A. Balloon Delaunay believes that the migration zone in the middle of the Central fence around 1.10 m36. But much more likely that this chip belonged to any of the many Palace buildings.

In-fourth, about the height of the choir of the Church and the unacceptability of elongated upwards proportions of the temple, we already have discussed above.

In connection with the foregoing, we can not accept any one of the specific features of the reconstruction of the Church of the Nativity of the virgin, S.A. proposed Ball-Delaunay.

In respect to the Bogoliubov Church we believe the most reasonable reconstruction NN Voronin (see ill. 2, 3 and 15) and fully accepted, albeit with some reservations.

The fact that the existing opening in the Northern wall of the Church, previously led to the choir with the transition over the arch, situated approximately 0.8 m above and the existing and ancient gender transition. It looks very strange: why floors of transition it was initially to build on the level of the choir, why do this in the "parade" the passage from the Prince Palace and the choir of the Church two or three "extra" leg up?

To answer this question, we can hypothesize that the gap between the transition to the choir in its present form is not the door and the window. Originally this place was full the door, and when in the end of XVII century choir stalls were broken, this doorway is that it does not break "in the air", turned to the window, laying the bottom two-three rows of stone. Perhaps the transformation of the doors in the window was connected with the fact that, as we noted above, from the interior of the Northern wall of the Church of the Nativity has been turned.

Of course, this is only a hypothesis, to confirm or deny that a probe can only be covered with a thick layer of plaster bottom of the existing opening. But in accordance with this hypothesis, we can reconstruct the chorus of the Church of the Nativity of the virgin of the XII century at the height of about 7.3 m. This is only 1.9 m higher than the chorus of the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl. And since the temple in Bogolyubovo more the Church of the Intercession (the side of the omphalos - about 4.5 m against 3.2 m, sizes without apses - about 13 x 10 m against 10 x 10 m), then the adoption of the proportions of the Church of the Nativity of the virgin similar proportions of Intercession Church choirs Bogoliubov temple are almost in the middle of the height of the pillars.

However, as we showed above, the location of the choir at two-thirds the height of the pillars is absolutely normal, moreover, reinforces the "height" of the interior of the temple and emphasizes its solemnity (low choirs, on the contrary, create a sense of "setesnast" interior and "pressure" being in the temple).

Judging by archaeological finds in Bogolyubov (carved female and lion masks, head of the beast from the white-water-cannon), we have every reason to believe after N.N. Voronin37that the temple had approximately the same system of sculptural decoration, which is present in the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl. During excavations in Bogolyubovo was found small zoomorphic sculptures38therefore, the base columns column-type zones Church of the Nativity could not only canted, and zoomorphic as the base of the columns of the Church of the Intercession.

Christmas temple had advanced portals. Their columns were smooth, and archivolts, probably, were decorated with carvings39.

Consider the arches of the Church of the Nativity of the virgin.

In the "Tale of the death of Andrew says that the Prince's body was laid in the vestibule40. But no remains of the porch of a large-scale archaeological studies have found41. In this regard, E.E. Golubinsky assumed that the Western porch was an open porch42, DI ilovayskaya - that the temple was open "portico"43, N.N. Voronin - that the Western porch could be an open from three sides "canopy", arches resting on the wall of the Cathedral and two pillars44. However, all these assumptions were very arbitrary, and even N.N. Voronin, putting forward his version of the type and location of the porch, found impossible to reflect it in their reconstructions of the temple.

S.A. Balloon Delaunay believed that the Church of the Nativity of the virgin had no porch45and that "porch" in the message Hypatian chronicle46 identical to a premise under Seni" (i.e. under the stairs) in the Laurentian chronicle47. But the Ipatiev chronicle clearly and repeatedly States that the body of Andrew Bogolyubsky lay in the vestibule, and the context indicates that the porch was the Church ("in the vestibule at Bojnice"). In the Laurentian same chronicle this episode is described in a significant reduction. So, Laurentian chronicle cannot be considered a source on the availability of the porch of the Bogoliubov Church, and in this regard should focus on the Ipatiev.

Our position relative of some of the porch was discussed in the "Tale of the death of Andrei", based on the following:

- the position of the body of the murdered Prince in the open narthex (even if under the "canopy") was practically equivalent to leaving it on the street for everyone to see, and the logic of "the Story" indicates that the body was put in a room where two days later, he saw Abbot Arseny and insisted on the burial service48;

- outdoor white stone porch (at least in the form of "canopy") would have to have the foundations under the pillars, as well as very detailed excavations discovered the foundations, it is likely that they never existed.

In this regard, we suggest the following conclusion: the temple had closed the porch, but not white stone, and wood (archaeological research with such a complicated stratigraphy virtually unable to detect residues of such chapels).

Between the building of the Church and the Palace (the end of 1150 x-mid 1160-ies) and the murder Bogolyubsky ten to fifteen years, and it is no wonder that the white-stone "Burg" in terms of prosperity of the great Principality of Suzdal when Andrey (i.e. in complete safety from external enemies attacks) gradually "overgrown" many wooden additions utilitarian nature (than, typically, are the arches for churches). This situation is absolutely typical for Ancient Russia.

Theoretically, such wooden arches might be and West, and South, and North of the Church of the Nativity of the virgin. But from the North and South, they would prevent the passage under the arch. Accordingly, we believe that the Church had a Western narthex and the Prince's body was laid in it. It is absolutely necessary that the porch spoil the appearance of the ensemble: it could be plastered, lined by quadras, whitewashed, and even decorated with carvings.

But we are on our reconstruction abstained from the image of the porch, because then you would have to portray and many other wooden outbuildings, and could have lost the feeling of solemnity and "state" unique castle of Andrei Bogolyubsky.

This "magnificence" is emphasized by the chronicler, "And in Bogoliubov, and Volodimira city top Bo gold the called and mosquitoes pozolota and the gold belt called the, stone of osviti, and the pillar of poslati, and isono Church and the mosquitoes same patchy of Golden, Kubka, and sailing yacht gold constructed, placed, and on all the Church and on the mosquito about"49. However, we do not have any idea about the specific location and views listed here, works of decorative art and not display them on our reconstruction. We only found it possible to conditionally mark the gate of the icon.

Based on the General understanding of a Byzantine form of chapters and nadroparina crosses in pre-Mongol Russia50we reconstructed the form of the head of the Church of the Nativity of the virgin as a simple cupola dome roof and significantly reduced the size of the cross in comparison with reconstruction N.N. Voronin (Fig. 2 and 3), VK Emelina (Fig. 5) and S. Sharov-Delaunay (Fig. 11).

About the appearance of all the buildings of "Burg" (except the Church and preserved additions to it) we can imagine no more than hypothetical. Accordingly, on our reconstruction, reproducing the full panorama of the Grand castle when viewed from the Bogoliubov city square, we may portray these buildings (towers, a corner of the stair tower etc) only conditionally, "reply" in their General outlines of the plan of the castle by V.K. Emelin (see ill. 10).

Part of the houses we have represented three-storied, on the basis that the foundations and walls of the Palace buildings were built very reliably and could withstand the weight of the third floor (for example, over preserved stair tower in the XVII century was successfully built bulky steepled bell tower). However, given the above about the numerous wooden structures around the "Burg", we assume that there were some wooden towers within it (at least the upper part). But this is only a hypothesis, does not affect the appearance of the castle on our reconstruction.

Probably the tower had a canopied close depicted on the miniature of the illuminated Chronicles of the XVI century51 (Fig. 16) and the relevant General principles of Romanesque and Gothic. Such complete corresponding to one of variants of reconstruction N.N. Voronin (Fig. 2), we have displayed on our reconstruction.

 

The construction of temples in Bogolyubovo. Thumbnail Personal chronicle of the XVI century.

 

Silt. 16. The construction of temples in Bogolyubovo. Miniature illuminated Chronicles of the XVI century.

 

A large number found during the excavation of various carved stones52 indicates that the building was richly decorated. Of course, we can draw on our reconstruction of this decor is only symbolically.

In the South wing of the castle we conventionally depicted another gate, because, apparently, with the city square separate entrances were almost in every courtyard of the castle.

As shown by archaeological research N.N. Voronin, the square in front of the gate to the Grand Bourg "was landscaped, paved with stone plates, it housed eight tabernacle over the bowl53. We carried in our reconstruction.

The question of the origin of the so-called "four faces" capital (Fig. 17) long-held researchers. A.I. Nekrasov believed that this capital belonged to the "main pillar of princes chambers54. N.N. Voronin attributed it to one of the pillars of hypothetical open Western porch-canopy Church of the Nativity of the virgin55 (of the arches of the Christmas temple we discussed above). G. Wagner believed that near the entrance to the Church of the Nativity was detached "virgin of the pillar crowned with a specified capital56 (Fig. 18).

 

"Cityrealty Capitol". Modern look.

 

Silt. 17. "Cityrealty Capitol". Modern look.

 

"God pillar" in the XII century. Reconstruction Of Wagner.

 

Silt. 18. "God pillar" in the XII century. Reconstruction Of Wagner.

 

The author of the study believes G. Wagner as the most reasonable from a historical point of view (the researcher provided a number of examples of the installation of these pillars in Jerusalem, Byzantium and Western Europe57). In favor of this hypothesis, we can give an optional argument: "cityrealty" block in the XIX century ctalsa as a Shrine (by mid-century, it was inserted into a monastery fence near the Church of Nativity and marked the place where, according to legend, was thrown killers the Prince's body; in this place over the fence was built a small Church cupola, and the end of the century over the stone fence was built a wooden chapel with the image of the reclining body of Prince Andrey58). Hardly such an exceptional honor could deserve the simple building chip.

The only clarification, which we can make here, is that the block of stone with the faces of the virgin in the XII century could not stand on a high column, and on the lower pedestal, so that believers could to him "kiss" (as we depicted the "virgin of the pillar on our reconstruction). This explains the poor preservation of faces, made of high quality stone that can effectively resist the "normal" weathering. In XIX century the block was laid in the wall, and "kiss" to him could only from one side59 and as poorly preserved all four faces, so in the past couple of centuries to block "was put" on all sides.

All the above considerations have allowed us to create a graphic reconstruction of the Bogoliubov Grand-Ducal castle in the form presented on the sludge. 19.

 

The Grand-Ducal castle in Bogolyubovo. Reconstruction of the author.

 

Silt. 19. The Grand-Ducal castle in Bogolyubovo. Reconstruction of the author.

 

For clarity, we can represent our reconstruction of a quasi-color variant (Fig. 20).

 

 

Silt. 20. The Grand-Ducal castle in Bogolyubovo. Reconstruction of the author. Conditionally color option.

 

When developing conditionally-color variant of reconstruction we were guided by:

- chronicle message that the Bogoliubov Church, as the assumption Cathedral in Vladimir, were gilded dome and arches and "belt" (apparently, in the latter case, meant floor tide)60;

- chronicle message that Church door in Bogolyubovo was "gold kovani"61;

- considerations N.N. Voronin that column-type belt Bogoliubov Church was painted the same way as the zone of the assumption Cathedral in Vladimir62;

- data about the fact that in Ancient Russia the most common roofing stone buildings was the lead63.

Color of a covering of the gate we selected provisionally in accordance with the color of a covering of roofs. The color of the roof of the tabernacle also conditionally selected, in accordance with the color of the roofing of the Church.

 

Notes

 

1. Zagraevsky SV Bogoliubov architectural ensemble of the end of 1150 x-beginning 1170-ies: problems of history and reconstruction. In collection: the Memory of Andrei Bogolyubsky. Sat. articles. Moscow - Vladimir, 2009. C. 141-167.

2. Zagraevsky SV New study of architectural monuments of Vladimir-Suzdal Museum-reserve. M., 2008. C. 108-129.

3. Zagraevsky SV Bogoliubov architectural ensemble... S. 143; Zagraevsky SV New research... S. 110.

4. Zagraevsky SV Bogoliubov architectural ensemble... S. 157; Zagraevsky SV New research... S. 122.

5. Zagraevsky SV Bogoliubov architectural ensemble... S. 149, 155; Zagraevsky SV New research... S. 116, 120.

6. Voronin N.N. The architecture of North-Eastern Russia XII-XV centuries. M., 1961-1962. So 1. C. 252, 258.

7. Emelin VK "Transition" or "prayer room"? (An attempt of reconstruction of the Princely court in the hierarchy). In collection: the Memory of Andrei Bogolyubsky. Sat. articles. Moscow - Vladimir, 2009. C. 131-141.

8. Classic view is that over the arch was located exactly transition, given in the book.: Voronin N.N. The decree. back With. 234.

9. Emelin VK Decree. back With. 134.

10. Dobrokhotov V.I. Ancient city of Bogolyubov and monastery with its surroundings. M., 1852. C. 16.

11. Nekrasov A.I essays on the history of old Russian architecture of XI-XVII century. M., 1936. C. 111.

12. Emelin VK Decree. cit. Il. 5.

13. Voronin N.N. The decree. back With. 236, 243, 245.

14. The icon is kept in the Vladimir-Suzdal Museum-reserve. Electronic reproduction of an icon courtesy ETC. Timofeeva.

15. Ibid. 201 S..

16. Emelin VK Decree. cit. Il.

17. Ibid. C. 133.

18. Balloon Delaunay S.A. Men and stones North-Eastern Russia. XII century. M., 2007. C. 144.

19. Voronin N.N. The decree. back With. 244-246.

20. Ibid. C. 261.

21. Ibid. C. 210.

22. Ibid. C. 214.

23. PSRL 2:591.

24. Voronin N.N. The decree. back With. 220.

25. Emelin VK Decree. cit. Il. 5.

26. Zagraevsky SV Bogoliubov architectural ensemble... S. 149; Zagraevsky SV New research... S. 116.

27. Thus, in the Holy Transfiguration Cathedral of Pereslavl-Zalessky and the Church of Boris and Gleb in Kideksha choirs are roughly three-fifths of the height of the pillars. In the temples of other ancient kingdoms (Kiev, Chernigov, Novgorod, Pskov and other), no General and compulsory system in the height of the choir. For example, in the Cathedral of the Ivanovo monastery (Pskov) choirs are approximately two-thirds of the height of the pillars in the Church of St. Nicholas in Lipno (Novgorod) - by about one third, Boris and Gleb Cathedral (Chernigov), approximately three-fifths, Pyatnitskaya Church (Chernihiv) - about two-fifths.

28. Balloon Delaunay S.A. Decree. back With. 144.

29. Balloon Delaunay S.A. Decree. cit.

30. Zagraevsky SV Pacensia on the book S.A. Sharova-Delaunay "Men and stones North-Eastern Russia. XII century. Scientific electronic library on the history of ancient architecture "Rusarh", 2009.

31. Balloon Delaunay S.A. Decree. back With. 100-103.

32. Voronin N.N. The decree. back With. 221.

33. Balloon Delaunay S.A. Decree. back With. 122-124.

34. Ibid. C. 125.

35. Ibid.

36. Ibid. C. 127.

37. Voronin N.N. The decree. back With. 214-217.

38. Timofeeva ETC. Vladimir-Suzdal lapidary and its importance for the study of white-stone architecture of XII-XIII centuries. In the book: Soviet archaeology. So 1. M., 1990. C. 58.

39. Voronin N.N. The decree. back With. 214.

40. PSRL 2:591.

41. Voronin N.N. The decree. back With. 218.

42. E.E. Golubinsky Decree. cit. So 1, 2 hours. C. 69.

43. Ilovaisky DI memories of Galich in the Dniester. In Ukr.: Old and new Russia, 2, 1878.

44. Voronin N.N. The decree. back With. 219.

45. Balloon Delaunay S.A. Decree. back With. 131.

46. PSRL 2:591.

47. Chronicle on Lavrentyevskaya the list. SPb, 1872. C. 350.

48. PSRL 2:591.

49. PSRL 2:582-583.

50. For more information, see: Zagraevsky SV Form of domes of ancient Russian temples. M., 2008.

51. Reproduced from the book: Voronin N.N. The decree. back With. 241.

52. Ibid.

53. Ibid. C. 235, 252.

54. Nekrasov A.I essays on the history of old Russian architecture of XI-XVII centuries M, 1936. C. 112.

55. Voronin N.N. The decree. back With. 219.

56. Wagner G.K. Sculpture of ancient Russia. Vladimir. Bogolyubovo. XII century. M., 1969. C. 93.

57. Ibid. C. 88-93.

58. Dobrokhotov V.I. Decree. back With. 30; ostrovzorov N. Historical description of Bogolyubovo monastery. Vladimir, 1875. C. 29; Bogolyubov monastery and attributed to him Pokrovsky and Nicholas-hair. Vyazniki, 1891. C. 31. The author thanks SO Timofeeva for selection of these materials.

59. According to local legend, reported ETC. Timofeeva, in the XIX century believers "grizzly" this stone block in order to cure a toothache.

60. PSRL 2:582-583.

61. PSRL 2:581-582.

62. Voronin N.N. The decree. back With. 214.

63. Rappoport P.A. Construction production of Ancient Rus (X-XIII centuries). St.Petersburg, 1994. C. 98-99.

 

 

Sergey Zagraevsky

 

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