Sergey V. Zagraevsky
Grand Prince’s castle in Bogolyubovo:
an experience of graphic reconstruction
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The author proposes and justifies a
graphic reconstruction of the palace-temple complex of Grand Prince Andrey
Bogolyubsky in Bogolyubovo.
The following text was
translated from Russian original by the computer program
and has not yet been
So it can be used
only for general introduction.
Issues of architectural history of the Palace-temple complex of Andrei
Bogolyubsky devoted two scientific work of the author of the article "the
Bogolyubov the architectural ensemble of the end of 1150 x-beginning 1170-ies:
the questions of history and reconstruction"1
and the head of the monograph "New study of architectural monuments of
Vladimir-Suzdal Museum-reserve"2. Expressed in these works some
considerations for the original form of the Bogoliubov architectural ensemble
and analyzing options for its reconstruction, proposed by other researchers,
the author, however, refrained from creating your own graphic reconstruction of
confining verbal descriptions. I think it is time to propose and justify a
graphic reconstruction of the Grand castle.
First, please specify: as we are in these works showed that Bogolyubovo
at the Grand Prince Andrei was a big city with the capital functions and
developed trade and handicraft Posad3, then under "Grand-Ducal
castle" we will not understand Bogolubovo in General, but only the white
stone Palace-temple complex, which until now remained lower part of the Church
of the Nativity of the virgin and stairwell with the transition (Fig. 1).
Recall that in these works on the basis of the chronicle and architectural and
archaeological information we have determined that the Church was built in 11584
and the rest part of the complex stages5 were built before the
mid-1160-ies, and possibly later.
Silt. 1. The
Church of the Nativity of the virgin with the Northern range extensions. Modern
Classical reconstruction of the Central part of the Bogoliubov
Grand-Ducal castle in our time are the two options proposed by N.N. Voronin in
his fundamental work "the Architecture of North-Eastern Russia XII-XV
centuries"6 and differ only by the end of the towers (Fig. 2
Silt. 2. The complex of buildings around the Church of the Nativity of the virgin in the XII century. Reconstruction Voronin (option).
Silt. 3. The
complex of buildings around the Church of the Nativity of the virgin in the XII
century. Reconstruction Voronin (option).
The latest researcher of the monument VK Yemelin made a number of
observations7that allows to clarify the purpose of remaining from
the Palace buildings - stair towers and arches with the transition8
the choir of the Church of the Nativity of the virgin.
First, attention was drawn to the fact that in the tower and moving to the
West slit Windows and loopholes, and to the East - "civil" three-box.
Secondly, doubt was expressed that, because of a few steps away from the
stair of the tower to the choir of the Church of the Nativity of the virgin
took build bulky transition over the arched opening. The researcher suggested
that the archways located gate leading into the fortified princely court.
Third, on the southern facade of the quadrangle of the first tier of the
belfry of the XVII century, built over the stairwell before the destruction of
the Church of the Nativity of the virgin at the beginning of the XVIII century,
was discovered doorway, adopted by the researcher for laid door9
Silt. 4. The
doorway in the southern facade of the quadrangular bell.
On the basis of these observations VK Yemelin made the assumption that
the transition located above the gate and was a princely the porch to the
temple, in fact, the gate Church (this assumption is correlated with the
hypotheses V.I. dobrohotova10 and A.I. Nekrasov11 that
transition had a Church purpose).
Reconstruction VK Emelin architectural complex that includes the Church of the Nativity of the Theotokos, gate to gate princely temple and stair tower, is shown in the sludge. 512.
Silt. 5. The
Church of the Nativity of the virgin and the Northern range extensions in the
XII century. Reconstruction VK Emelina.
We will support the position VK Emelina that the Western facades of the
tower and the Church was part of the complex of the fortifications of the
princely court, and in the archways under the transition located gate leading
into the courtyard. This position was confirmed by field research conducted by
the author of this article with OTHER Timofeeva in 2006: under the arch were
found symmetric traces of the inherent hinges gate (Fig. 6).
Silt. 6. The
arch of the Northern passage. Traces of the inherent gate hinges are marked by
The imposts under the arch in the form in which they exist today, and in
which they portrayed VK Emelin (Fig. 5), would prevent the gate open. However,
monitoring ETC. Timofeeva, exterior stone imposts were later replaced, and,
most likely, in their place were the top gate hinges. Therefore, if the gates
were opened to the outside (in the absence of a moat and drawbridge, it is just
as probable as the opening of the gate to the inside), imposts they did not
interfere, and when the door is closed were not visible from the outside and
let knocking door in case of assault.
In this regard, we draw on our reconstruction is not open doorway under
the arch of transition (as it was done in their reconstructions N.N. Voronin -
see ill. 2 and 3), and the doorway, an indoor solid gates, without slots for
mullion (albeit with the proviso that is possible and the option of cutting
through the gate under imposts, as shown in the reconstruction VK Emelina).
Accordingly, the "close" we in our reconstruction of the gate and all
other openings under the arches, discovered by excavations N.N. Voronin North
and South remaining buildings13.
All other specific features of reconstruction VK Emelina - proportions
of the Church of the Nativity, the presence of two column-type zones and
adjacent gate of the temple - we can not accept. Of the original view of the
Church of the Nativity of the Theotokos will be discussed later, and the
existence of the gate of the temple it is doubtful due to the following
- if to reconstruct the hypothetical gate of the temple by VK Amelino -
in one volume with two column-type zones (see ill. 5), then the opening in the
southern wall of the quadrangular bell tower of the XVII century is about
- at the edges of the southern wall of the bell tower survived pilasters
(see ill. 4). Accordingly, to be placed between the pilasters, the upper part
of the hypothetical gate of the temple would have to be significantly lower
already. But then she could stand only on the arches of the transition, since
the thickness of the walls of the transition is not enough for such a far
if we assume that the hypothetical gatehouse Church stood on the vaults of
the transition, the level of the floor had to match the height of an aperture
in the southern wall of the square belfry. But in this case between the arches
of the transition and the floor of the temple was a gap of about a meter and a
half, and the vaults of the gate of the temple was great height (above the
arches of the Church of the Nativity of the virgin);
- doorway in the southern facade of the square belfry (see ill. 4) more
like arstesanai box than the mortgaged door (no on this window decor is explained
by the fact that it goes up on the roof of transition and almost imperceptibly
from the bottom, i.e. plays no role in the architectural appearance of the
- hypothetical door in a hypothetical gatehouse Church punched in the
square belfry, tentatively dated back to the end of the XVII century.
Therefore, with high degree of probability that the gate of the temple would
have to be present at a fairly realistic picture of the Church of the Nativity
of the virgin on the icon of our lady of Bogolyubovo XVII century14
(Fig. 7). However, on a designated icon you can't see it - there is depicted an
existing transition, with the only difference that he raised a little higher
and the window depicted in each gap between columns.
Silt. 7. The
Icon Of Our Lady Of Bogolyubovo. XVII century.
Thus, we cannot accept any hypothesis VK Emelina about one-volume of the
gate of the temple arch, nor his hypothesis that the temple gate was located on
the arches of the passage. Accordingly, we must assume that over the gate was
the transition from the stair tower of the Palace on the Church choirs of
Christmas (because stair tower and the Church of the Nativity of the virgin
were included in the system of fortifications of the court, such a transition
is served and the battle ground of the gate, was necessary in the fortification
In principle, the vaults of transition could be more open battle ground.
But we are on our reconstruction is not reflected neither this, nor is this a
hypothetical open battle sites as the Grand-Ducal castle still had primarily
Palace nature, and its value as an independent strengthening was not very
large: it when many gates had no ditches or shafts or landing bridges.
However, we will not diminish the value of princely castle as Bogoliubov
citadel. In any case, if the enemy had been able to overcome the main town
fortifications and capture the city, the capture of the citadel is just a
matter of a relatively small time.
Speaking of our reconstruction of the shape of the Windows facing the square in front of the castle, it should be noted that currently exist on the transition, and on the second floor stair tower rough, asymmetrically located open rectangular form are not primary. The traces of numerous turnings walls are visible under all preserved column-type belts between capitals and bases of the columns (traces of turnings on the transition is shown in the sludge. 8).
Silt. 8. The
Western wall of the transition. Arrows indicate the traces of turnings.
Like Windows and loopholes in our reconstruction we are represented in
all of the walls, outside the fortified Palace-temple complex.
"Civil" open three-part form, in our opinion, were only inside the
princely court, and on our reconstruction, showing a view of the castle from
the main square of the city hierarchy, they are not visible.
Long narrow Windows, illuminating the stairs inside the well-preserved
stair tower, judging by the identical cutting through their jumpers are
primary. Accordingly, we reflected such Windows and in our reconstruction.
Consider how could look princely Palace-temple complex in General.
N.N. Voronin on the basis of excavations on the South wall of the Church
of the Nativity of the virgin rightly believed that there was occupied
buildings, similar to the North. But Il. 915 and 1016 you
can see that the South and East of the Church of the Nativity of the virgin to
the Palace buildings were very few places (even taking into account the fact
that in the pre-Mongolian time to break the Klyazma was a little further from the
temple). Therefore, if we assume that the Grand court had "full"
walls (and even more "self-sufficient system of passages and stair towers,
depicted on reconstruction N.N. Voronin - see ill. 2 and 3), then the free
space inside them would be very small: VK Emelino, she was only 8 acres17.
Silt. 9. The
plan of the ancient part of modern village of Bogolyubovo (NN Voronin).
The plan of the city hierarchy in the XII century (reconstruction VK Emelina).
It turns out that if the Prince's Palace was separate building inside
the walls of the yard (with a gap between the Palace walls, ramparts and walls
of the Church at least 2-
Apparently, this problem is faced and N.N. Voronin: at its
reconstruction (Fig. 2 and 3) he did not reflect the Palace buildings at least
schematically, although, in theory, they should be visible if not over
passages, through a large number of open arches.
Can not display the Palace of its reconstruction and S.A. Balloon
Delaunay (Fig. 11), who offered the same "self-sufficient system of
navigation, as N.N. Voronin, although in several other forms, closer to the
architecture of the XVII century18. (Inadmissibility of
reconstruction S.A. Ball-Delaunay Church of the Nativity of the Theotokos will
be discussed later).
The complex of buildings around the Church of the Nativity of the virgin in the
XII century. Reconstruction S.A. Sharova-Delaunay.
This problematic situation with the free space under the Palace is
resolved as follows: the walls of the Palace to a considerable extent at the
same time were the walls of the princely court, i.e. the court actually was not
fenced area, and fortified complex of buildings. Most of the Palace buildings
could enter the system of fortifications about the same as the Church of the
Nativity of the virgin. During bogolyubski on similar principles were built
many German and North Italian "boroughs", and many centuries later,
so was built Mikhailovsky castle in St. Petersburg.
Accordingly, the open excavations the remains of the white-stone laying
to the North and South of the Church of the Nativity of the virgin could belong
to both walls, and the complex of Palace buildings.
Was there a southern complex of buildings symmetric North? We believe
that a fully symmetric he was not, but it was like. The thing is that in the
Western part of the southern wall of the existing building of the Church of the
Nativity of the virgin is no window of the upper tier (Fig. 12) - despite the fact
that the location of all other Windows on the southern and Western walls
subordinated to a single system. Draws attention to the shift of the southern
portal to the East. These observations suggest that, in the middle of the XVIII
century, when it was built the existing temple to the South wall is bordered
transition over the arch, similar to the North.
Existing Church of the Nativity of the virgin. The southern wall.
This position is confirmed by archaeological research NN Voronin, who
showed that the southern extension were like Northern19, and in the
XVII century, they still existed20. The fact that the southern
extension were not reflected in the icon of our lady of Bogolyubovo XVII
century (see ill. 7), it is not surprising: the Church is on the very edge of
the icon, and these additions could not fit in the picture.
Judging by the top level of the decoration of the lower tier of the
Western part of the southern wall of the existing Nativity Church, unpreserved
southern transition adjacent to the wall of the Church is slightly higher than
the North, which is consistent with our understanding of the difference of
construction of various parts of the Palace Bogolyubsky. To confirm this
hypothesis requires disclosure existing masonry Church from plaster, but we
still believe that we have to reflect this asymmetry on our reconstruction.
Let us consider the issue of the original Church of the Nativity of the
virgin, which was probably the Central, highest and most richly decorated with
white-stone construction of the Prince "Burg".
During the reconstruction of the Church in the eighteenth century the Western part of the Northern wall, which belonged to the arch and passage, survived above the choir, but was turned from the side of the interior (Fig. 13). The remaining walls are preserved in 2-3 rows of masonry.
Fragment of the Western part of the Northern wall of the Church of the Nativity
of the virgin. View from the interior. The arrows indicate the traces of
Thus, the plan of the Church of the Nativity of the virgin known to us
(Fig. 14). The temple was four pillars, apses, slightly elongated from East to
West (length without apses about
Silt. 14. The
plan of the Church of the Nativity of the virgin XII century (by N.N. Voronin).
The blades of the temple had columns in the middle and the
quarter-columns on the sides angled blades were combined angular three-quarter
columns, the apse were thin pilasters-control (four in the middle apse and two
- on the side). The socle of the Cathedral was decorated attic profile. Base
half - and quarter-columns were decorated attic profile and had a corner
"horn-vultures" ("talons"). Let's note, that similar
"claw" found in a large number of Romanesque and Gothic churches of
The Church of the Nativity of the virgin had a column-type belt (its
remains are preserved in the Western part of the Northern wall).
N.N. Voronin based on the analysis of the frescos of the XVIII century
with figures, partially covered Northern additions to the temple, showed that
in place of the frescos of the XVIII century were the frescoes of the XII
century and, accordingly, column-type belt was painted, as well as on the assumption
Cathedral in Vladimir22. (These paintings we are not reproducible on
The question about the number of heads of the temple is solved simply -
single-headed he was depicted on the icon of our lady of Bogolyubovo XVII
century (see ill. 7), the closest to it at its time of construction, distance,
architectural sculpture and proportions of the Church of the Intercession on
the Nerl also domed. But the question of the proportions of the Christmas
Church deserves separate consideration.
The temple had choruses ("loft"which did not belong to the
Orthodox denomination guests of Andrei Bogolyubsky was to "see the true
Christianity and baptized"23). The Northern entrance to the
gallery of the gate survived the transition, the threshold current opening is
But in relatively close in size and proportions of the Church of the
Intercession on the Nerl height choir, located almost in the middle of the
pillars is just
The original view of the Church of the Nativity of the virgin. Reconstruction
VK Yemelin believed that the Church choirs of Christmas was located in
the middle pillar, and reconstructed the Church with elongated proportions up
by typing in the reconstruction of even the second column-type belt25
(see ill. 5). But we can't accept this reconstruction for the following
- no Church in Suzdal had two column-type zones. Such a system decor, we
see only in the civil construction - Bogoliubov stair tower, but it was built
in two stages26that is , most likely, each tier was taken by the
builders as a separate volume and received your decor;
- no Church in Suzdal land was not so elongated upwards proportions. Thus,
the ratio of the width of the Western facade to its height in Vladimir's
assumption Cathedral of Andrey Bogolyubsky in the Cathedral of St. Demetrius is
close to unity in the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl - 0,85, and in the
reconstruction Vghenemine - 0,77;
is that in the assumption Cathedral of Vladimir, the Church of the
Intercession on the Nerl and the Dmitrievsky Cathedral choirs are located in
the middle of the pillars, in any case not a General and mandatory system for
all pre-Mongol Suzdal churches, and especially the temples of other ancient kingdoms27.
Same as VK Yemelin, pulled up the proportions of the Church of the
Nativity of the Theotokos in their reconstruction and S.A. Balloon Delaunay28
(Fig. 11): the ratio of the width of the Western facade of the temple to its
height is about 0,76.
First, S.A. Balloon Delaunay in his reconstruction of the Church of the
Nativity of the virgin turned into a justification for departing from the
classic cross-system of a purely technical problem-based arches of the
temple on the capitals of the Koruna31. This problem was formulated
and solved N.N. Voronin32 (arch cut capitals, in any case not
"spoiling" them), and inevitably the question arises, what is easier
- cut capitals or to change the system of vaults? The latter would be just as
strange, how to rebuild the house because there is nowhere to hang a chandelier
or a picture (remember the "Occam's razor" - "should not
multiply entities beyond necessity"). As for S. Sharov-Delaunay false
problem cutting through the capitals became the cornerstone for further logical
constructs, occupying many pages.
Secondly, S.A. Balloon Delaunay based on the analysis of the columns
preserved under the Bogoliubov arch, called "obviously erroneous
assumption N.N. Voronin on the number of columns in the middle fence of the
Church33. But no connection is seen as the arch is attached not to
the middle and the side fence.
Thirdly, in his reconstruction S.A. Balloon Delaunay was offered such
unprecedented for the Vladimir-Suzdal architecture solution, as box-wild in the
middle fence on the Western facade of the Church of the Nativity of the virgin34
(Fig. 11). Archaeological substantiation of this position was the chip of some
archivolt radius 55 cm35. But this could be the chip archivolt
column-type belt, once himself S.A. Balloon Delaunay believes that the migration
zone in the middle of the Central fence around 1.10 m36. But much
more likely that this chip belonged to any of the many Palace buildings.
In-fourth, about the height of the choir of the Church and the
unacceptability of elongated upwards proportions of the temple, we already have
In connection with the foregoing, we can not accept any one of the
specific features of the reconstruction of the Church of the Nativity of the
In respect to the
The fact that the existing opening in the Northern wall of the Church,
previously led to the choir with the transition over the arch, situated
To answer this question, we can hypothesize that the gap between the
transition to the choir in its present form is not the door and the window. Originally
this place was full the door, and when in the end of XVII century choir stalls
were broken, this doorway is that it does not break "in the air",
turned to the window, laying the bottom two-three rows of stone. Perhaps the
transformation of the doors in the window was connected with the fact that, as
we noted above, from the interior of the Northern wall of the Church of the
Nativity has been turned.
Of course, this is only a hypothesis, to confirm or deny that a probe
can only be covered with a thick layer of plaster bottom of the existing
opening. But in accordance with this hypothesis, we can reconstruct the chorus
of the Church of the Nativity of the virgin of the XII century at the height of
However, as we showed above, the location of the choir at two-thirds the
height of the pillars is absolutely normal, moreover, reinforces the
"height" of the interior of the temple and emphasizes its solemnity
(low choirs, on the contrary, create a sense of "setesnast" interior
and "pressure" being in the temple).
Judging by archaeological finds in Bogolyubov (carved female and lion
masks, head of the beast from the white-water-cannon), we have every reason to
believe after N.N. Voronin37that the temple had approximately
the same system of sculptural decoration, which is present in the Church of the
Intercession on the Nerl. During excavations in Bogolyubovo was found small
zoomorphic sculptures38therefore, the base columns column-type zones
Church of the Nativity could not only canted, and zoomorphic as the base of the
columns of the Church of the Intercession.
Christmas temple had advanced portals. Their columns were smooth, and
archivolts, probably, were decorated with carvings39.
Consider the arches of the Church of the Nativity of the virgin.
In the "Tale of the death of Andrew says that the Prince's body was
laid in the vestibule40. But no remains of the porch of a
large-scale archaeological studies have found41. In this regard,
E.E. Golubinsky assumed that the Western porch was an open porch42,
DI ilovayskaya - that the temple was open "portico"43,
N.N. Voronin - that the Western porch could be an open from three sides
"canopy", arches resting on the wall of the Cathedral and two pillars44.
However, all these assumptions were very arbitrary, and even N.N. Voronin,
putting forward his version of the type and location of the porch, found
impossible to reflect it in their reconstructions of the temple.
S.A. Balloon Delaunay believed that the Church of the Nativity of the
virgin had no porch45and that "porch" in the message
Hypatian chronicle46 identical to a premise under Seni" (i.e.
under the stairs) in the Laurentian chronicle47. But the Ipatiev
chronicle clearly and repeatedly States that the body of Andrew Bogolyubsky lay
in the vestibule, and the context indicates that the porch was the Church
("in the vestibule at Bojnice"). In the Laurentian same chronicle
this episode is described in a significant reduction. So, Laurentian chronicle
cannot be considered a source on the availability of the porch of the
Our position relative of some of the porch was discussed in the
"Tale of the death of Andrei", based on the following:
- the position of the body of the murdered Prince in the open narthex
(even if under the "canopy") was practically equivalent to leaving it
on the street for everyone to see, and the logic of "the Story"
indicates that the body was put in a room where two days later, he saw Abbot
Arseny and insisted on the burial service48;
- outdoor white stone porch (at least in the form of "canopy")
would have to have the foundations under the pillars, as well as very detailed
excavations discovered the foundations, it is likely that they never existed.
In this regard, we suggest the following conclusion: the temple had
closed the porch, but not white stone, and wood (archaeological research with
such a complicated stratigraphy virtually unable to detect residues of such
Between the building of the Church and the Palace (the end of 1150 x-mid
1160-ies) and the murder Bogolyubsky ten to fifteen years, and it is no wonder
that the white-stone "Burg" in terms of prosperity of the great
Principality of Suzdal when Andrey (i.e. in complete safety from external
enemies attacks) gradually "overgrown" many wooden additions utilitarian
nature (than, typically, are the arches for churches). This situation is
absolutely typical for Ancient Russia.
Theoretically, such wooden arches might be and West, and South, and
North of the Church of the Nativity of the virgin. But from the North and
South, they would prevent the passage under the arch. Accordingly, we believe
that the Church had a Western narthex and the Prince's body was laid in it. It
is absolutely necessary that the porch spoil the appearance of the ensemble: it
could be plastered, lined by quadras, whitewashed, and even decorated with
But we are on our reconstruction abstained from the image of the porch,
because then you would have to portray and many other wooden outbuildings, and
could have lost the feeling of solemnity and "state" unique
This "magnificence" is emphasized by the chronicler, "And
in Bogoliubov, and Volodimira city top Bo gold the called and mosquitoes
pozolota and the gold belt called the, stone of osviti, and the pillar of
poslati, and isono Church and the mosquitoes same patchy of Golden, Kubka, and
sailing yacht gold constructed, placed, and on all the Church and on the
mosquito about"49. However, we do not have any idea about the
specific location and views listed here, works of decorative art and not
display them on our reconstruction. We only found it possible to conditionally
mark the gate of the icon.
Based on the General understanding of a Byzantine form of chapters and
nadroparina crosses in pre-Mongol Russia50we reconstructed the form
of the head of the Church of the Nativity of the virgin as a simple cupola dome
roof and significantly reduced the size of the cross in comparison with
reconstruction N.N. Voronin (Fig. 2 and 3), VK Emelina (Fig. 5) and S. Sharov-Delaunay
About the appearance of all the buildings of "Burg" (except
the Church and preserved additions to it) we can imagine no more than
hypothetical. Accordingly, on our reconstruction, reproducing the full panorama
of the Grand castle when viewed from the Bogoliubov city square, we may portray
these buildings (towers, a corner of the stair tower etc) only conditionally,
"reply" in their General outlines of the plan of the castle by V.K.
Emelin (see ill. 10).
Part of the houses we have represented three-storied, on the basis that
the foundations and walls of the Palace buildings were built very reliably and
could withstand the weight of the third floor (for example, over preserved
stair tower in the XVII century was successfully built bulky steepled bell
tower). However, given the above about the numerous wooden structures around
the "Burg", we assume that there were some wooden towers within it
(at least the upper part). But this is only a hypothesis, does not affect the
appearance of the castle on our reconstruction.
Probably the tower had a canopied close depicted on the miniature of the
illuminated Chronicles of the XVI century51 (Fig. 16) and the
relevant General principles of Romanesque and Gothic. Such complete
corresponding to one of variants of reconstruction N.N. Voronin (Fig. 2), we
have displayed on our reconstruction.
The construction of temples in Bogolyubovo. Miniature illuminated Chronicles of
the XVI century.
A large number found during the excavation of various carved stones52
indicates that the building was richly decorated. Of course, we can draw on our
reconstruction of this decor is only symbolically.
In the South wing of the castle we conventionally depicted another gate,
because, apparently, with the city square separate entrances were almost in
every courtyard of the castle.
As shown by archaeological research N.N. Voronin, the square in front of
the gate to the Grand Bourg "was landscaped, paved with stone plates, it
housed eight tabernacle over the bowl53. We carried in our
The question of the origin of the so-called "four faces"
capital (Fig. 17) long-held researchers. A.I. Nekrasov believed that this
capital belonged to the "main pillar of princes chambers54. N.N. Voronin
attributed it to one of the pillars of hypothetical open
"Cityrealty Capitol". Modern look.
"God pillar" in the XII century. Reconstruction Of Wagner.
The author of the study believes G. Wagner as the most reasonable
from a historical point of view (the researcher provided a number of examples
of the installation of these pillars in
The only clarification, which we can make here, is that the block of
stone with the faces of the virgin in the XII century could not stand on a high
column, and on the lower pedestal, so that believers could to him
"kiss" (as we depicted the "virgin of the pillar on our
reconstruction). This explains the poor preservation of faces, made of high
quality stone that can effectively resist the "normal" weathering. In
XIX century the block was laid in the wall, and "kiss" to him could
only from one side59 and as poorly preserved all four faces, so in
the past couple of centuries to block "was put" on all sides.
All the above considerations have allowed us to create a graphic reconstruction of the Bogoliubov Grand-Ducal castle in the form presented on the sludge. 19.
The Grand-Ducal castle in Bogolyubovo. Reconstruction of the author.
For clarity, we can represent our reconstruction of a quasi-color
variant (Fig. 20).
The Grand-Ducal castle in Bogolyubovo. Reconstruction of the author.
Conditionally color option.
When developing conditionally-color variant of reconstruction we were
- chronicle message that the
- chronicle message that Church door in Bogolyubovo was "gold
- considerations N.N. Voronin that column-type belt
- data about the fact that in Ancient Russia the most common roofing
stone buildings was the lead63.
Color of a covering of the gate we selected provisionally in accordance
with the color of a covering of roofs. The color of the roof of the tabernacle
also conditionally selected, in accordance with the color of the roofing of the
1. Zagraevsky SV Bogoliubov
architectural ensemble of the end of 1150 x-beginning 1170-ies: problems of
history and reconstruction. In collection: the Memory of Andrei Bogolyubsky.
2. Zagraevsky SV New study of
architectural monuments of Vladimir-Suzdal Museum-reserve. M.,
3. Zagraevsky SV Bogoliubov
architectural ensemble... S. 143; Zagraevsky SV New research... S. 110.
4. Zagraevsky SV Bogoliubov architectural
ensemble... S. 157; Zagraevsky SV New research... S. 122.
5. Zagraevsky SV Bogoliubov
architectural ensemble... S. 149, 155; Zagraevsky SV New research... S. 116,
6. Voronin N.N. The architecture of
North-Eastern Russia XII-XV centuries. M., 1961-1962. So
7. Emelin VK "Transition"
or "prayer room"? (An attempt of reconstruction of the Princely court
in the hierarchy). In collection: the Memory of Andrei Bogolyubsky. Sat.
8. Classic view is that over the
arch was located exactly transition, given in the book.: Voronin N.N. The
decree. back With. 234.
9. Emelin VK Decree. back With. 134.
10. Dobrokhotov V.I. Ancient city of
11. Nekrasov A.I essays on the
history of old Russian architecture of XI-XVII century. M.,
12. Emelin VK Decree. cit. Il. 5.
13. Voronin N.N. The decree. back
With. 236, 243, 245.
14. The icon is kept in the
Vladimir-Suzdal Museum-reserve. Electronic reproduction of an icon courtesy
15. Ibid. 201 S..
16. Emelin VK Decree. cit. Il.
17. Ibid. C. 133.
18. Balloon Delaunay S.A. Men and
stones North-Eastern Russia. XII century. M.,
19. Voronin N.N. The decree. back
20. Ibid. C. 261.
21. Ibid. C. 210.
22. Ibid. C. 214.
23. PSRL 2:591.
24. Voronin N.N. The decree. back
25. Emelin VK Decree. cit. Il. 5.
26. Zagraevsky SV Bogoliubov
architectural ensemble... S. 149; Zagraevsky SV New research... S. 116.
27. Thus, in the Holy
Transfiguration Cathedral of Pereslavl-Zalessky and the
28. Balloon Delaunay S.A. Decree.
back With. 144.
29. Balloon Delaunay S.A. Decree.
30. Zagraevsky SV Pacensia on the book S.A.
Sharova-Delaunay "Men and stones North-Eastern Russia. XII century.
Scientific electronic library on the history of ancient architecture
31. Balloon Delaunay S.A. Decree.
back With. 100-103.
32. Voronin N.N. The decree. back
33. Balloon Delaunay S.A. Decree.
back With. 122-124.
34. Ibid. C. 125.
36. Ibid. C. 127.
37. Voronin N.N. The decree. back
38. Timofeeva ETC. Vladimir-Suzdal
lapidary and its importance for the study of white-stone architecture of XII-XIII
centuries. In the book: Soviet archaeology. So
39. Voronin N.N. The decree. back
40. PSRL 2:591.
41. Voronin N.N. The decree. back
42. E.E. Golubinsky Decree. cit. So
1, 2 hours. C. 69.
43. Ilovaisky DI memories of Galich
44. Voronin N.N. The decree. back
45. Balloon Delaunay S.A. Decree.
back With. 131.
46. PSRL 2:591.
47. Chronicle on Lavrentyevskaya the
48. PSRL 2:591.
49. PSRL 2:582-583.
50. For more information, see:
Zagraevsky SV Form of domes of ancient Russian temples. M., 2008.
51. Reproduced from the book:
Voronin N.N. The decree. back With. 241.
53. Ibid. C. 235, 252.
54. Nekrasov A.I essays on the
history of old Russian architecture of XI-XVII centuries M,
55. Voronin N.N. The decree. back
56. Wagner G.K. Sculpture of ancient
57. Ibid. C. 88-93.
58. Dobrokhotov V.I. Decree. back
With. 30; ostrovzorov N. Historical description of Bogolyubovo monastery.
59. According to local legend,
reported ETC. Timofeeva, in the XIX century believers "grizzly" this
stone block in order to cure a toothache.
60. PSRL 2:582-583.
61. PSRL 2:581-582.
62. Voronin N.N. The decree. back
63. Rappoport P.A. Construction
production of Ancient Rus (X-XIII centuries). St.Petersburg,
© Sergey Zagraevsky