Prof. Dr. S.V. Zagraevsky
About the possibility of scientific introduction and possible contexts
of the term “Russian Gothic” in respect of Russian architecture
of the end of XIII – first third of XV c.
Published in Russian: Çàãðàåâñêèé Ñ.Â. Î âîçìîæíîñòè ââåäåíèÿ â íàó÷íûé îáîðîò è âîçìîæíûõ êîíòåêñòàõ óïîòðåáëåíèÿ òåðìèíà «ðóññêàÿ ãîòèêà» â îòíîøåíèè àðõèòåêòóðû Äðåâíåé Ðóñè êîíöà XIII – ïåðâîé òðåòè XV âåêà // Àðõèòåêòîð. Ãîðîä. Âðåìÿ. Ìàòåðèàëû åæåãîäíîé ìåæäóíàðîäíîé íàó÷íî-ïðàêòè÷åñêîé êîíôåðåíöèè (Âåëèêèé Íîâãîðîä – Ñàíêò-Ïåòåðáóðã). Âûï. X. ÑÏá, 2008. Ñ. 48–59.
Nowadays the term "Russian Gothic" is usually applied to the architectural stylization of the late XVIII century. Prof. S. V. Zagraevsky proves the possibility of its direct application to Ancient Russian architecture, contemporary to Western European Gothic architecture in the period of the XIII–XV centuries.
The following text was translated from the Russian original by the computer program
and has not yet been edited.
So it can be used only for general introduction.
The bright memory AI Komech,
hath translated us into the modern scientific revolution
the term "Russian romanik"
Nowadays, the term "Russian Gothic" is usually applied to one of the architectural styles of the late XVIII century. Sometimes (usually with the prefix "neo" and "pseudo") is a designation can be found in the history of architecture of the late XIX-early XX centuries.
But in this article we will talk about the old Russian architecture, modern Western European Gothic (in the future will be without reservations call it Gothic and understand the most common context - as the final stage of development of medieval culture of Western Europe; of all the many aspects of Gothic - cultural, architectural, theological and dogmatic, visual, musical and other - we will speak only about the architectural).
According to the most used modern periods, the timing of Gothic depending on the country fall within the range since the mid- XII century to the beginning-middle of the XVI century. For our study is sufficient consideration of the basic and most indubitable feature of Gothic architecture in the period of its stylistic maturity, i.e. in XIII-XV centuries.
Accordingly, the purpose of this study is to question the legality of using the term "Russian Gothic" in relation to the XIII-XV centuries. In other words, we must try to understand, came into the architecture of Ancient Russia, Gothic, and if Yes, to what extent and in what forms.
But as a starting point for our study, we consider more and more often use the term "Russian romanik.
This term was back in the 1920-ies suggested by F. Halle in relation to
the white stone of the pre-Mongolian churches of North-Eastern Russia1.
In Soviet time it practically was not used, because the similar terminology,
directly linking the architecture of Ancient Russia and
In the post-Soviet time this term was first used by A.I. Komech - in the name of his scientific work and without limitation, i.e. as a kind of absolute given2.
However, as shown in a special study, the author of this article3this term is actually quite conventional, and its scientific use requires a large number of reservations.
Perhaps the main attribute that determines the "Russian
romanik"is the construction of well-treated white stone. The vast majority
of the Romanesque cathedrals and castles in the heart of the Holy Roman Empire
The second most important feature of Romanesque architecture, embodied in the pre-Mongolian architecture of North-Eastern Russia - sculptural and ornamental zooantropomorfnogo types. Decide and with these terms: in zooantropomorfnogo type, unlike the ornamental decoration of type (arcature, curb, ornament), there are images of people and animals6.
Another important element of Romanesque perspective portals. We see them in the Galician and Suzdal land.
Note that in the pre-Mongolian architecture other ancient kingdoms there
were also many Romanesque elements: arcature decor (as in Sophia in
There is another reason why we are even with respect to Suzdal may use
the term "Russian romanik" only conditionally. In the North-Eastern
Russia nor in the pre-Mongol, nor in the post-Mongol7 time was not
built any Basilica of the Western European type. All the temples of
To end the call about the conventions of the term "Russian
romanik" can quote of i.e. Grabar: "Nowhere is it possible to meet a
single Church, Cathedral, Palace or a building that could be taken as a sample
The author of this article has repeatedly shown9 that "Russian romanik" in the North-Eastern Rus ' began with the construction of Yuri Dolgoruky in 1152 five white stone churches, of which until now remained Transfiguration Cathedral in Pereslavl and the Church of Boris and Gleb in Kideksha.
Yury first used in Suzdal European stone technology. Ornamental decor
"universal" Roman type, found in many churches of
Fig. 1. One of the many hundreds of European churches
with the "universal" Roman decor (d oberrerenbah,
Fig. 2. Universal Romanesque decoration on the
Fig. 3. Universal Romanesque decoration on the Holy Transfiguration Cathedral in Pereslavl-Zalessky.
Attention stretched up drums temples jury, which, in combination with a relatively small four gives the "towering" - very European - form of construction.
Small temples Dolgoruky (compared with Romanesque) were strictly due to
"maximum security" white stone building. The author of this article
showed10that almost all the temples, exceeding a limit of
reliability, some artists Yuri (internal space of the main volume - no more than
Repeatedly showing the failure of the version about the impact on the architecture of Yuri Dolgoruky architecture Galicia and Poland (as of the coming masters and indirect effects)11we were obliged to acknowledge the direct influence of the Romanesque architecture of Western Europe. Specifically, the most powerful, most centralized and geographically close to Russia, member of the "Holy Roman Empire".
According to the research of the author12, direct source architecture Yuri Dolgoruky was a key Romanesque Church - the Imperial Cathedral of Speyer (this is a traditional writing; more modern - Speyer). The Cathedral was built in 1029-1106 years (Fig. 4, 5).
Fig. 4. Cathedral of Speyer. General view.
Fig. 5. Cathedral of Speyer. The plan.
Fig. 6. Cathedral of Speyer. Carved tree in the crypt.
All the arguments that can be cited as justification for similarities lesser Poland, Galician and Suzdal churches (masonry walls and foundations, the blind arcades in combination with curb and carved shafts), is fully applicable to the Imperial Cathedral:
- on the Cathedral in Speyer (as on many other Romanesque churches of Western Europe, and Suzdal), we see the arcature, borders (Fig. 2) and carved shafts (Fig. 6);
- the walls of the Speyer Cathedral and the walls of temples Dolgoruky, taper upward ledge;
the socle of the Imperial Cathedral in most of the perimeter is a non-profiled ebb (as in Pereslavl and Kideksha);
- rubble foundations of the Cathedral in Speyer keystone in the section and significantly wider walls, as in Galicia, and in Suzdal;
- a method of processing outer surfaces of stone blocks in Speyer identical Suzdal (and significantly different from Galician and lesser Poland);
- in the crypt of the Imperial Cathedral implemented cross-scheme with a groin pillars;
- in the crypt of the Cathedral in Speyer meets specific ornamental carving, similar thread on the Holy Transfiguration Cathedral in Pereslavl-Zalessky.
Excellent pan-European significance of the Imperial Cathedral of Speyer and its chronological primacy on the temples of Malopolska, Galich and Suzdal say that the similarity of architecture all these Slavic principalities has absolutely convincing rationale - General Romanesque origins.
The author of this article also showed13 that the master , who came to Andrew Bogoliubsky of Frederick Barbarossa were even invited by Yuri Dolgoruky during his reign in Kiev.
Examined in detail in a special study of the issues of the absence of the temple Yuri zooantropomorfnogo sculptural decoration and the appearance of such decoration of the Church of Andrew, the author has established that the jury in 1152 had no right to decorate their temples sculptures zooantropomorfnogo type14. All that he allowed the Church is a universal Romanesque ornamental decor "arcature - curb - carved shaft.
On the basis of the fact that the master of sculptural decoration were sent Barbarossa yet to Yuri Dolgoruky as the last great Prince of Kiev (1155-1157 years), the author was based on a fundamental fact: for the time of its great Prince Dolgoruky has achieved the blessing of the Church on the introduction of zooantropomorfnogo sculptural decoration15.
Thus, all the characteristic features of what we call the "Russian romanik", appeared in Suzdal solely due to Yuri Dolgoruky. And architecture Andrei Bogolyubsky was as natural, progressive development of truly innovative architecture Yuri, as the architecture of Vsevolod the Big Nest - architecture Andrew.
That was the beginning of the "Russian romanik. Its development it has received at Andrew Bogoliubsky, when Russia worked masters of Frederick Barbarossa, and when the architecture of Vladimir-Suzdal land appeared such typical Romanesque features16:
- zooantropomorfny decoration;
- pilasters with semi-columns;
- attic profile bases;
- database columns with corner "horns" ("vultures", "claws");
- developed advanced portals;
- a three-part open (as in the Bogolyubov the stairwell);
- column-type belt;
- Indigo capitals and other
Note that in the West in the middle-second half of the XII century Romanesque was already nearing its end and gradually (in different countries in different ways) goes into Gothic.
By the end of the "Russian romanik" can be considered the construction of the last major pre - Mongolian white stone Church of St. George's Cathedral in Yuryev-Polsky (1230-1234 years). In this case, the end of the Roman era "in the architecture of North-Eastern Russia roughly coincides with the total disappearance of Romanesque in the West. That Batu Khan sacked Russia at a time when Western Europe has been the full transition to the Gothic, of course, a coincidence, but this accident is useful for our study.
Let short interim results: in the pre-Mongolian architecture of North-Eastern Russia we see and Romanesque building materials, and Romanesque decoration, and a number of Romanesque architectural techniques, and chronological coincidence with romanik, and (perhaps most importantly) direct Romanesque origins.
Thus, the term "Russian romanik, despite its conventionality (as we said in paragraph (1)is reasonable and clearly characterizes an epoch in the history of architecture of North-Eastern Russia.
But I took the transition from the "Russian romanik" to the "Russian Gothic"?
Distinctions of Gothic architecture from the Romanesque examined in a large volume of literature and interpreted widely. As for us, in this study it is important to understand the main features of Gothic, not learning its Genesis17, only list the major and indisputable:
- the emergence of pointed arches, increasing the height of the arch and reduce the spread on the walls;
- appearance of the rib cage of the vaults;
- unloading walls, buttresses, and flying buttresses;
- the emergence of a specific frame construction, consisting of two diagonally intersecting arcs and four side;
the degeneration of the transept and the narthex of the temples;
almost universal presence of the developed choral part of the temples and the crown of chapels;
- wide use of beams of columns;
- a sense of wholeness interior of the temples;
- the lightness of the vaults;
- increase the area of the interior of temples;
- increasing the height of the vaults and the total height of the temples;
- increase the span of the arches;
- underlined the constructive clarity temples;
- significant improvement of the lighting of the temples by punching in the unloaded wide walls of Windows, including Windows-roses in the Western facade;
- the pinnacles, vimpeli, crabby and other specific details of architectural decoration;
- strengthening, compared with romanik, the overall impression "towering" (tall tower-bell, decorative turrets, spires);
- more extensive than in romanik, sculptures.
Osoite wrote: "Progress, marking the Gothic period, is expressed mainly in the final and consistent solution of the dual problem: calculations groin and achieve their sustainability. Gothic architecture overcomes difficulties calculations by using rib vaults, and the problem of sustainability will solve the introduction of the arc-boutants... History of Gothic architecture is the history of the ribs and were added"18.
It is also important to note that Gothic and Romanesque in Western Europe have many similarities, which are:
- General Basilica composition of the temples;
- sculptures zooantropomorfnogo type;
- basic elements of architectural decor (advanced portals, arcature, ornament and other);
- the predominant construction of temples of stone (brick built only minor construction of a civil nature and small provincial Church). On the brick builders "landmark" cathedrals passed only in the late Gothic style, long time (not less than one century) existed in parallel with the Revival;
- General feeling of "elevation" architecture;
- presence at the cathedrals tower-bell-towers;
- desire to build temples maximum possible size, with the greatest possible spans codes (structural innovations Gothic allowed to realize this aspiration to a greater extent).
Now we can consider the main question of this article: how significant were Russian architecture "gothicism", and if their aggregate (as well as the totality of other factors) to speak about the "Russian Gothic".
We begin with the North-West Russia. The elements of Romanesque and Gothic architecture of Novgorod and Pskov is not the first century are in the focus of researchers (for example, those issues were addressed Was19, A.I. Nekrasov20, K. Romanov21, MK Karger22, PN Maksimov23, Vl.v.sedov24).
So, Vl.v.sedov noted25:
- Romano-Gothic elements on the facades of the Church of St. Nicholas in Lipno 1292 (arcature, cross-shaped Windows, ceramic crosses);
in Western Europe the shape and size of a brick Church of St. Nicholas in Lipno;
- density arches rib and cross-shaped window of the Church of St. Nicholas in Lipno;
- Gothic forms, in the future, greatly influenced the development of the Novgorod decor, in the monastery Church of Nikola White (1312-1312 years) - in particular, advanced portals with arched tie plates;
- a Gothic pointed Northern portal of the Church of Theodore Stratelates 1360-1361 years (hereinafter, without specifying the date I will be talking about this Church of Theodore Stratelates) with terraced frame without imposts, separating the archivolt of the vertical rods (this flamboyant Gothic item appears in the Novgorod architecture of the first half of the XIV century);
North ledged portal with Lancet completion of Novgorod Church of the Annunciation on Settlement (1342-1343 years);
- mortgage loans crosses used in the Novgorod architecture (in particular, in the churches of the Savior on Kovalev 1345 and Theodore Stratelates);
- circular niches between the edges of the Windows of the drum and in the upper part of the middle third of the Western facade of the Church of Theodore Stratelates;
- the close similarity of the decoration of the apse of the Church of Theodore Stratelates and apses many Romanesque churches of Western Europe (it was paid attention PN Maksimov26);
- presence in the Novgorod and Pskov lands several monuments, which reflected the transition Romano-Gothic style (in particular, Vl.v.sedov called the Church of the Nativity in Porkhov (about 1300), with a composition that is directly associated with the Church of St. Nicholas in Lipno);
- the presence in the Church of the Nativity in Porkhov narrow Windows in the average level of the Northern facade, placed in a pentahedral niche with a triangular top, and composition of two five-sided cells and one square put on an edge over the other, on the Western facade.
- shape of the transition, the Romano-Gothic style in the virgin Nativity Cathedral Snetogorsky monastery near Pskov (1310-1311 years), which plays a typology of the Cathedral Mirozhsky monastery of XII century and this continues arizonawww line present, Vlavidor, in the Church of Theodore Stratelates 1292-1294 years in Novgorod (on top of the drum goes blind arcades of arches with triangular completion shaped Nicki temple in Porkhov and niches temples Livonia XIII-XIV centuries). XIII century. In this arcature arcs on the consoles have very small streljaet, and the arcature like completes part is formed by narrow blades;
- arcature with semicircular arches on the drum Nicholas Cathedral in Izborsk;
- Gothic elements in the architecture of the Church of the Saviour on Kovalev - in particular, the pentahedral window of the altar, arched niche above the southern portal, type belfry;
- introduction to the Gothic facade decoration XIV century monuments of Novgorod and Pskov mid XIV century - in particular, the Trinity Cathedral 1365-1367 years.
Summing up the results of this research, Vl.v.sedov wrote:
"Romano-Gothic form does not constitute a style of architecture of North-Western Russia the end of the XIII-beginning of the XIV century: this is a separate decorative elements, only partially "substitute" a local Novgorod or of Smolensk and Novgorod. However, the appearance of Western European decorative forms is of great importance: the Romano-Gothic and later Gothic forms will be Novgorod (Pskov to a much lesser extent) factor in determining the direction of development of facade decorations towards filling the plane of the wall certain forms, organized in ornamental compositions. 27.
Thus, Vl.v.sedov (like all the other above-mentioned researchers architecture of North-West) did not permit so significant impact Gothic architecture of Novgorod and Pskov, in order at least to speak of the "Russian Gothic" in relation to the North-West Russia.
Given the fact that in Western Europe Gothic was a continuation and development of Romanesque, and the "Russian romanik" in respect of Novgorod and Pskov churches we can not go, we must fully agree with Vl.v.sedovym.
But, as we have shown in paragraph
For detailed consideration of this issue there are serious reasons.
First, in the end of XIII-the first third of the XV century the possibility of external influence on the architecture of North-Eastern Russia (lost state, but not spiritual independence) could consist of a very small number of options:
- absolutely undeveloped architecture of the Mongols, are only able to bring some echoes the architecture of Central Asia;
- architecture of the Arab East, far from Russia and geographically, and religious;
- architecture extremely weakened Byzantine Empire;
- the architecture of the Byzantine margins (e.g. the Balkans), are in an even more disastrous position than the Byzantium;
- a colossal architectural achievements of Gothic, behind which was the whole power of the States of Western Europe.
This article is hardly a place obscuribracteum thoughts about how the level of development of Western Europe in the XIII-XV centuries exceeded the levels of development of other countries (as well as General philosophical arguments about whether it is possible at all to talk about the levels of development). See the largest Gothic cathedrals in France, Germany and England (for example, at Notre Dame, Cologne Cathedral or Westminster Abbey), contrast it with contemporary architecture other parts of the world (Russia, the Volga Bulgaria, the Balkans and Arab East etc), and any arguments from other fields of knowledge, we do not need.
Once after the invasion of Batu "ulus" Horde, Russia ceased to be considered European courts as an equal partner28that could not arrange the great princes - direct descendants of these monarchs world scale, as Jaroslav Mudry Vsevolod Yaroslavich and Vladimir Monomakh.
Byzantium after the defeat in 1204 not constitute any meaningful power in the political arena (for example, in 1371 Emperor John Paleologos, was arrested in France for non-payment of personal debts Venetian merchants29). So, all hope of returning Russia to the "civilized world community" have been associated only with Western Europe.
Let's not forget about the rapprochement of the Orthodox and Catholic churches in preparation for the Union of Florence in 1439. How close was this convergence is moot and beyond the scope of this study, but at least discussion about unification was carried out very intensively, and the related contacts of representatives of various churches facilitate the interaction of elements of religious architecture.
However, we note that we neither a direct nor indirect (for example, through the Balkans30) playing in Russia can not go Gothic - architecture of the post-Mongol North-East of Russia is totally organic continuation of the pre-Mongolian architecture of Vladimir-Suzdal land.
But if to consider any architectural influence (which is the purpose of this study), the first, of course, Gothic.
Secondly, the hypothetical "Russian Gothic identified a very clear time frame:
- Batu invasion and the ensuing half-century break in the stone temple construction of North-Eastern Russia practically coincided with widespread and final transition from Romanesque to the Gothic in the West;
- feudal war times Vasily the Dark and the associated forty-year break in the stone temple construction of North-Eastern Russia practically coincided with the widespread transition from Gothic to the Renaissance in Italy, where later when Ivan III and Vasily III - were invited masters belonging to the culture of the Renaissance.
Thus, the hypothetical "Russian Gothic" fit in the period from the end of the XIII century to the first third of the XV century.
The Appendix contains the temples built in the North-Eastern Russia at this time (for our further research it is important to note that all of these Church buildings were built of white stone). We see that the churches that survived to our time (or those, about the architectural appearance of which we can have at least an approximate judgment) typologically, stylistically and chronologically can be divided into two groups:
- the end of the XIII-the first third of the XIV century - the so-called "age of ambitious economy31 characterized by a rough white stone masonry, presence in a number of columns of the temples corner wall supports, conical transitions from the arches to the drums. This is the Church of the Nativity of the virgin in Gorodnya, the Church of the Conception of John the Baptist on the Settlement in Kolomna, St. Nicholas Church in Kamenskoye. Our understanding of this era also complement the lower part of the Church of Boris and Gleb in Rostov, the first assumption Cathedral and Church-belfry of St John Climacus in Moscow, the basement and the drawing Staro-Nikolsky (now Peter and Paul) Cathedral in Mozhaisk32.
- the end of the XIV-the first third of the XV century - return to the pre-Mongol construction equipment (although at a qualitatively new level). Temples are characterized by gladkokrashenoy white stone technique and General "pyramidal", achieved with slanted walls or low angle compartments. This is the assumption Cathedral in the Town and the Cathedral of the Savvino-Storozhevsky monastery in Zvenigorod, the Trinity Cathedral in the Trinity-Sergius Lavra, the Cathedral of our Saviour Andronikov monastery.
We see two periods, in which case the term "Russian Gothic" can be called its formation and its heyday.
About the end of the hypothetical "Russian Gothic we have already said, this coming to Russia (after prolonged cessation of stone buildings in the middle of the XV century Italian masters belonging to the culture of the Renaissance (Aristotle Fioravanti, Aleviz Fryazin the "Old", Aleviz New Bon Fryazin and others). "Inertia" Gothic in their Moscow building was still significant. In particular:
- were used, many Dating back even to the ancient Romanesque architectural techniques (external form, arcature, advanced portals, semicircular arches, etc)33;
- in the assumption Cathedral Fioravanti was marked SS pod'yapol'skii, "gothicism" - "zolnosti" interior34;
- Gothic elements were present in much more recent buildings - in particular, in the Church of the ascension in Kolomenskoye, and the Cathedral of the Intercession on the Moat35.
But all the same in construction of the Italian masters in Russia it could only go about "hotelsmag", but not about the Gothic style - as is known, the term "Gothic" Italians XV-XVI centuries, has the original negative context means "the art of the willing", i.e. the "barbarians".
Therefore, the last temple that we can at least be referred to as "Russian Gothic", were built not later than the first third of the XV century.
Thus, the hypothetical "Russian Gothic" has a certain political and economic motivation, unambiguous chronological framework and clear periodization.
But are we entitled to accept this term? What are the architectural arguments "for" and "against"?
We will start with the architectural arguments "against", as they are more clearly expressed and less controversial, otherwise, the term "Russian Gothic architecture of Ancient Russia has long been proposed by researchers.
First, as we mentioned in paragraph 1 when considering the term "Russian romanik, in Ancient Russia was not built any of the Basilica.
Secondly, at the beginning of the XIV century with ancient temples disappeared sculptures zooantropomorfnogo type. The reasons for this extinction lay outside architecture (author in special studies have shown that was a direct prohibition of the Church on this type of decor36), but the fact remains that one of the main features of Gothic - rich sculptural decor in the temples of North-Eastern Russia was represented by only ornamental belts and leafy capitals.
Third, in the assumption Cathedral "on the Town" in Zvenigorod, the Trinity Cathedral of the Trinity-Sergius monastery and the Church of Joachim and Anna in Mozhaisk external blades do not meet the pillars; inner blades in all four pillars of the churches of the end of XIII-the first third of the XV centuries, with the exception of the Cathedral of the Andronikov monastery, are absent. This contradicts the "Gothic" constructive clarity and emphasizes the fact that the walls of temples of North-Eastern Russia this time, unlike the walls of the Gothic cathedrals, remained the main bearing element.
Fourth, in the architecture of North-Eastern Russia are no arches. It has an explanation (in the Church's cross on Lancet arch is impossible to put a heavy drum), but we are obliged, regardless of the reasons to state that: "Gothic" Lancet arches in Russia was not.
Fifth, window of modern European Gothic ancient temples are very narrow. Perhaps this is because all known temples that time was in the fortresses and, if necessary, would play the role of "chief towers" (respectively, with Windows-loopholes)37 but regardless of the possible reasons for the lack of Windows does not conform to the principles of Gothic.
Sixth, in the architecture of North-Eastern Russia of the end of XIII-the first third of the XV century tendency to disappear from the temples good For Gothic choir remain the same feature (moreover, the choir of the Gothic cathedrals in comparison with Romanesque usually more developed).
Seventh, the most important distinguishing feature of ancient temples is a seamless appearance of the main volume38. This is more or less characteristic of Romanesque (and not for the whole - for example, the "sign" of the Romanesque Cathedral in the Italian city of Modena such experience does not), but not for Gothic, the main volume of the temples literally "sinks" among the buttresses and flying buttresses.
Eighth, with the temples of North-Eastern Russia the end of the XIII-the first third of the XV century, virtually disappeared typical "Russian romanik beam pilasters (they only have to Zvenigorod Cathedral of the assumption "on the Town"). In the Gothic style as "beam" of the columns and pilasters, compared with romanik, on the contrary, is constantly evolving.
Ninth, as we saw in paragraph 1, "Russian romanik" has direct roots in Western Europe. In the hypothetical "Russian Gothic" direct Western origins, we can not call.
These were the architectural arguments "against the Russian Gothic". What for?
First, all the temples of North-Eastern Russia of the end of XIII-the first third of the XV century built of European material is white stone. In the end of XIII-the first third of the XIV century, the country, having barely recovered after the invasion of Batu, in conditions exacerbated by Tartar interventions princely strife experienced serious economic problems. But a white stone, is several times more expensive than plinfa39that was the only building material (of course, not counting the tree).
Secondly, in the end of XIII-the first third of the XV century it has been a constant aspiration of old masters to the "elevation" and "towering" temples. Evidence for this are several:
- temples of North-Eastern Russia this time has become more "high-rise" proportions compared to the "Russian romanik"40;
- beveled ("pyramid") walls and drums in the temples of Zvenigorod and the Holy Trinity Cathedral of the Trinity-Sergius Lavra, the lower corner compartments in the Cathedral of the Andronikov monastery has created a sense of reducing the mass of the building with height, i.e. promising said "altitude";
- in the temples appeared higher arches, emphasizing "altitude" of interiors of temples.
Thus, in respect to the trend of constant increase in the "towering" temples in the XII-beginning of XIII century (from the Spaso-Euphrosyne of the Church in Polotsk to St. George's Cathedral in Yuriev-Polsky) H. Wagner wrote: "it is possible that if the development of "high-rise" architecture was not interrupted by the Horde invasion, then Russia would have known something akin to Gothic. At least Gothic elements in temples "towering" type are41.
Thirdly, typical of the Gothic commitment to increase and zalnosti" the interior of the temples was reflected in the number of features of the architecture of North-Eastern Russia of the end of XIII-the first third of the XV century:
- pillars with rare exceptions (the assumption Cathedral "on the Town") were thinner than during the "Russian romanik, and lost crossed himself;
temples (except for the Cathedral of the Andronikov monastery) disappeared inside shoulder. The absence of the latter increases the interior space (although, as we have shown in paragraph 5, reduces the "Gothic" constructive clarity and does not allow to unload the walls);
- in the period of formation of a hypothetical "Russian Gothic appeared pillarless temples " pylon design solution that allowed within the framework of cross-system to increase the space beneath the dome and reinforce the walls ("Gorodische" the Church in Kolomna, St. Nicholas Church in Kamensk - Fig. 7);
Fig. 7. The Nikolskaya Church in Kamenskoye. The plan.
- in order to expand the dome space between supporting arches and reel in some churches the end of the XIII-beginning of the XIV century (the Church of the Nativity of the virgin in Gorodnya, St. Nicholas Church in Kamenskoye, Staro-Nikolsky Cathedral in Mozhaisk) were arranged tapered transition, which allowed to make a drum thin and light, and also increased the dome box (Fig. 8);
Fig. 8. The Nikolskaya Church in Kamenskoye. The incision.
- a Nativity Cathedral of the Savvino-Storozhevsky monastery and the Holy Trinity Cathedral of the Trinity-Sergius Lavra walls inclined inside, creating a very stable pyramidal silhouette of buildings and are actually buttresses for themselves (Fig. 9). It also significantly expand dome box;
Fig. 9. Trinity Cathedral in the Trinity-Sergius Lavra. Drawing Wealden.
- at the Cathedral of the Andronikov monastery play the role of buttresses lower corner compartments (Fig. 10). The design was so reliable that further strengthening of walls of wooden ties are not needed (and such ties were in Zvenigorod temples, and in the Holy Trinity Cathedral).
Fig. 10. The Cathedral of the Andronikov monastery. Reconstruction of the author.
Fourth, in the interior of the Trinity Cathedral of the Trinity-Sergius
Lavra implemented unique technique, which allowed to make
the space more "air": to sloping walls and pillars not be
"pressured" to being in the temple of the people, to the height of about
Fifth, to North-Eastern Russian architecture of the end of XIII-the first third of the XV century characterized by a number of "Gothic" architectural techniques (many of them date back to the Romanesque):
- advanced portals keeled form with "wynikami";
- attic profile bases;
- database with corner "claws" etc.
Sixth, although in the architecture of North-Eastern Russia of the end of XIII-the first third of the XV century and was absent pointed arches, but there is a characteristic "Lancet" silhouettes:
drums were handled keel corbel arches, which create the "Gothic" silhouettes of temples (based on the analysis of ancient images and results of archaeological research the author of this article has shown that such innovative features originally had St. George's Cathedral in Yuryev-Polish42the Church of the Nativity of the virgin in Gorodnya Tver region43, Staro-Nikolsky Cathedral in Mozhaisk44the first assumption Cathedral in Moscow45).
as was shown by the author of this article in a special study46at the end of the XIII century, when the possibilities of "elevation" in a cross stone construction have been exhausted, on the cupolas began to build high wooden frames and make the onion domes. These chapters have created a General impression of "Lancet" (in particular, the Cathedral of the Andronikov monastery we reconstruct it with the bulbous head - see Fig. 10);
Seventh, in the interior of the assumption Cathedral "on the Town, Church of the Nativity of the virgin in Gorodnya and Moscow have a number of typical Gothic niches (Fig. 11 and 12); N.N. Voronin even assumed that they were characteristic of Catholicism sculptural composition47. The shape of these niches echoes the shape of window apertures (Fig. 13, 14)
Fig. 11. Gothic niches in the medieval building in Dingolfing, Germany.
Fig. 12. The Church of the Nativity of the virgin in Gorodnya. Completion of a niche in the wall of the altar.
Fig. 13. The Church of the Nativity of the virgin in Gorodnya. The window in the apse.
Fig. 14. The Church of the Nativity of the virgin in Gorodnya. The window in the Eastern part of the southern wall.
Eighth, on the Western facade of the Church of the Nativity of the Theotokos in Moscow and the assumption Cathedral in Zvenigorod present on the two round Windows with multi-blade frame - miniature copies of the Gothic rose (Fig. 15, 16).
Fig. 15. The Church of the Nativity of the Theotokos in the Moscow Kremlin. Miniature rose window in the West facade.
Fig. 16. Assumption Cathedral "on the Town" in Zvenigorod. In the upper Central part of the Western facade - miniature rose window.
Ninth, although the architecture of North-Eastern Russia the end of the XIII-the first third of the XV century and there are no direct Western European origins, but it was a direct development of the "Russian romanik, as well as the Gothic quarter was the development of Romanesque in the West.
So, in paras. 5 and 6, we consider the objective architectural arguments for and against the use of the term "Russian Gothic". What conclusions can follow from them?
Here it is necessary to make significant methodological caveat related to the purpose of introducing into the scientific circulation of the terms "Russian romanik" and "Russian Gothic".
If this goal is defined as a General characteristic of one or another architectural direction, regardless of the context, we are using such terms expect significant coarsening methodology48. But if this goal is the allocation of a number of well-defined architectural style features and mapping in accordance with them, such terminology is quite applicable49.
A useful introduction into the scientific circulation and define the context of the terms "Russian romanik" and "Russian Gothic confirmed by the following provisions.
First, there is a serious problem with the positioning of the ancient architecture in the history of world architecture.
The fact that the architecture of Byzantium stereotypical perceived as self-sufficient, "indigenous" phenomenon, and architecture of Ancient Russia, starting with the tithe Church - like "spin-off" from his direction. The inevitable consequence of this approach was the perception of ancient architecture in the world context as the "border" and "provincial". Anyway, among the foreign experts on the history of architecture is dominated by this point of view.
But actually the Byzantine influence on the architecture of Ancient Russia was determined only up to the early-mid XII century, and then, as we have shown in paragraph 1, to Russia came romanik. The further Genesis of ancient architecture was defined by a unique blend of the Byzantine canonical traditions (especially christofoletti), on the one hand, and the Romanesque and later Gothic, on the other hand (see item 4). GK Wagner even wrote (although in respect of old Russian architecture later time - XVI century), the Roman-Gothic reminiscences were used as a kind of antimitoticescoe tool"50.
And the presence of not one but two basic sources of ancient architecture allows to speak of it not as a "late Byzantine provincial, and as an independent phenomenon of global importance.
The significance of the first source - Byzantine - the comments are unlikely to need this issue in the history of architecture detail51. And the second source of value - Western - for ideological and political reasons, deliberately humiliated and ignored as before the revolution (in accordance with the tenet of "Orthodoxy, autocracy, and nationality"), and under the Soviet power.
Accordingly, our current task is to focus on the second source, including through the appropriate historical and architectural terminology.
Secondly, in accordance with having a place in the last decades of the "globalization" of architectural history, the terms "Russian romanik" and "Russian Gothic" in any case, will be used more and more frequently, possibly even without the quotes. Therefore, to identify the permissible scope of their use - our scientific debt.
The "Russian romanik" we discussed in detail in paragraph 1. As for the "Russian Gothic, then, as we mentioned in paragraph 4, we neither a direct nor indirect (for example, through the Balkans) playing in Russia can not go Gothic, Gothic - complete architectural and artistic style, limited to the framework of Western civilization, and the architecture of North-Eastern Russia of the end of XIII-the first third of the XV century, in no case does not belong to the Gothic style and is totally organic continuation of the pre-Mongolian architecture of Vladimir-Suzdal land.
But if we are talking about the legend of a number of specific features (see item 6) architecture of North-Eastern Russia the end of the XIII-the first third of the XV century, is closely associated with the previous "Russian Romanesque," then the term "Russian Gothic looks quite legitimate.
Of course, using the term, we must not forget that it is very conventional (more conventional than "Russian romanik"). The enormous economic difficulties facing the country and the people in times of aggravated by the Prince strife, depending on the Horde, could not affect the architecture - "the mirror of the epoch". Save accounted for all, including for stone construction, and wait for the development of Gothic forms in the ancient masters of the time, of course, impossible.
But the architecture as art, live by their own laws, and certain of its achievements are not linked to any size and architectural style of the statue, with the amount of investment and the time spent on their creation.
Let's not forget the fact that Russian masters of the end of XIII-the beginning of XV century were shackled prescribed cross-domed type Church (see item 1) and the prohibition of Gothic sculptures zooantropomorfnogo type (see item 5). They could not relieve the wall because of the presence of top big and heavy drums.
And perhaps "Russian Gothic" was one of the factors that allowed Tver, and then and Moscow in the most difficult times of political depending on the Horde not to lose the spiritual independence, not to fall out of the "mainstream" of world architectural and artistic thought and do not change their cultural orientation on the most civilized countries of the world.
Temples of North-Eastern Russia of the end of XIII-the first third of the XV century
- Boris and Gleb Church in Rostov the Great. 1287. Small four-column odnoapsidny temple. Was built in the rubble technique (using form) with the subsequent lining thin slabs of white stone1. Remained approximately 2/3 the height of a brick Church in 1761.
- the Church, preceded the assumption Cathedral in Kolomna (up to 1300 belonged to the Ryazan Principality). The end of XIII century2. About the type and the plan of the temple no information;
Assumption (now Nativity) Cathedral in Pereslavl-Ryazansky (modern Ryazan). The end of the XIV century. Four pillars apses of the temple. Completely rebuilt brick in 1598-1606 years;
The Grand Duchy of Tver:
- The Savior Cathedral in Tver. 1285-1290 years. Supposedly four pillars apses of the temple3. In the SEVENTEENTH century in its place built a brick Cathedral;
- the Church of the Nativity of the virgin in the village of Gorodnya Tver region. The end of XIII-beginning of the XIV century4. Four pillars apses of the temple on the basement. Preserved;
- the Church, preceded temples abroad XIV-XV centuries in Staritsa. The XIV century. About the type and the plan of the temple no information;
- the Cathedral of Fyodor Stratilat Fedorovsky monastery in Tver. 1323-1325 years. About the type and the plan of the temple no information. Not preserved;
Arkhangelsk Cathedral in Staritsa. The end of XIV-beginning of XV century. Four pillars apses of the temple. Destroyed in the time of Troubles;
- the Church of St. Nicholas in Staritsa. Beginning of the XV century. Small odnoapsidny temple without columns. Destroyed in the time of Troubles;
Moscow great Principality:
- the Church of the Conception of John the Baptist on Settlement ("Gorodische" Church in Kolomna. The beginning of XIV century5. Church without columns with the corner pillars. Top rebuilt brick in the XVI century;
- St. Nicholas Church in the village of Kamianske Naro-Fominsk district of the Moscow region. Start XIV century6. Church without columns with the corner pillars. Preserved;
- Staro-Nikolsky) Church in Mozhaisk. The beginning of XIV century7. Four pillars apses of the temple on the basement. Rebuilt brick in the XIX century with the copying of old forms;
- The assumption Cathedral in
Church-belfry of St John Climacus in
- Petroverigsky chapel of the
assumption Cathedral in
- cleader of the Saviour on the Bor
- Archangel Cathedral in
- chapel-the porch of the Cathedral
of our Saviour on the Bor in
- the Church of Michael the
- the Cathedral of the Miracle of
the Archangel Michael in the Chudov monastery in
- The Dormition Cathedral of the
Simonov monastery in
- The Dormition Cathedral in Kolomna. From 1379-1382 years. Three-headed six pillars apses of the temple on the basement. Collapsed during construction, was soon rebuilt and stood till 1672, when his place was built brick Cathedral;
- the Church of the Nativity of the
Theotokos in the
- The Annunciation Cathedral in
The Epiphany Cathedral of the
Epiphany monastery in
- Mozhaisk, the
- Zvenigorod. Assumption Cathedral "on the Town". Around 1400. Four pillars apses of the temple. Preserved;
- Zvenigorod. The virgin Nativity Cathedral of the Savvino-Storozhevsky monastery. Beginning of the XV century. Four pillars apses of the temple. Preserved;
- The Trinity-Sergius Lavra. Trinity Cathedral. 1422-1427 years. Four pillars apses of the temple. Preserved;
3. SV zagraevsky. The beginning of the "Russian romanik: Yuri Dolgoruky or Andrey Bogolyubsky? M., 2005 (hereinafter - Zagraevsky, 2005). The article is on the web-site www.zagraevsky.com.
5. Detailed justification for the beginning of the white-stone building in Suzdal see in the book: Zagraevsky SV Yuri Dolgoruky and old white-stone architecture. M., 2001 (hereinafter - Zagraevsky, 2001).
6. Details about
division and ornamental decoration on zooantropomorfnogo see the book. Zagraevsky,
7. Under the post-Mongolian time, we will understand "possibities" - after the winter 1237-1238 years.
8. CIT. in book.:
Voronin. The architecture of North-Eastern Russia XI-XV centuries. So
9. For more information, see: Zagraevsky, 2005; Zagraevsky, 2001.
11. For more
information, see: Zagraevsky, 2005; Zagraevsky, 2001; SV zagraevsky. Apology
Rostov chronicler (to the question about the Dating temples Yuri Dolgoruky). In
the book: Materials of the regional conference dedicated to the centenary of
the birth of N.N. Voronin (19 April
12. For more information, see: Zagraevsky, 2005; Zagraevsky, 2001.
13. Construction of
the assumption Cathedral and the Golden gate in
14. The appearance zooantropomorfnogo decor has gone beyond a simple decoration of the walls of temples and collided with one of the age-old "stumbling blocks" Church dogma - with the Second Sacred commandment: "do Not make yourself any graven image that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth. Do not worship them and do not serve them..." (ex. 20:4).
Yuri Dolgoruky, having spent many years of exploration quarries, began to build their temples in an extremely tense relationship with the Metropolitan of Kiev and Rostov Bishop, in the early 1150-ies was Nestor, delivered to the Department, as argued by the author of this study, the enemy Dolgoruky - Metropolitan Kliment at the end 1140-ies (see: Zagraevsky, 2005).
In this regard, the
complete absence of the
More info about the decor of the Church Dolgoruky see: Zagraevsky, 2005.
16. Voronin. The decree. cit., so 1, S. 332.
Theological-scholastic framework of Gothic, in particular, considered in the
work: E. Panofsky. Gothic architecture and scholasticism. In the book: Theology
in the culture of the middle ages.
18. Osoite. The history of architecture. M., 1937, so 2, S. 239.
19. Was. Materials for
the history of ancient Novgorod and Pskov architecture. SPb.,
21. K. Romanov. Pskov, Novgorod, and Moscow in their cultural and artistic relations. In the book: Izv. Russian Academy of history of material culture. Leningrad, 1925. So 4.
23. PN Maksimov.
The Church of St. Nicholas in Lipno near Novgorod. In the book: Architectural
heritage. 1952. Vol. 2; PN Maksimov. Foreign relations in the architecture of
Novgorod and Pskov XI-beginning of the XVI centuries. In the book:
Architectural heritage. 1960. Vol.
24. Vl.v.sedov. The
Church of St. Nicholas in Lipno and Novgorod architecture of XIII century in
connection with the Romano-Gothic tradition. In the book: Old Russian art. Rus.
Byzantium. The Balkans. XIII century. SPb.,
26. PN Maksimov.
Foreign relations in the architecture of Novgorod and Pskov XI-beginning of the
XVI centuries. In the book: Architectural heritage. 1960. Vol.
27. Sedov, 1997, S. 412.
28. NSeries. Ivan III. M.,
29. Piosenki. History of the Byzantine Empire. M., 1997. So 1, S. 603.
30. The absence of any significant "Balkan influences on the architecture of North-Eastern Russia the end of the XIII-the first third of the XIV century showed the author of this study (Zagraevsky SV Architecture of North-Eastern Russia the end of the XIII-the first third of the XIV century. M., 2003 (Hereinafter - Zagraevsky, 2003). C. 94), on the architecture of North-Eastern Russia the end of the XIV-the first third of the XV century - N.N. Voronin (Voronin. The decree. cit., so 2, S. 367-370).
pod'yapol'skii. To the question about the peculiarity of architecture of the Moscow
Uspenie Cathedral. In the book: Assumption Cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin.
Materials and research. M.,
36. For more
information, see: SV zagraevsky. Yuri Dolgoruky and old white-stone
architecture. M., 2001 (hereinafter - Zagraevsky, 2001). C. 134-136; Zagraevsky,
37. For more information, see: Zagraevsky, 2002, S. 93-96; Zagraevsky, 2003, S. 51-53.
38. BA Ognev. Some
problems of the early Moscow architecture. In the book: Architectural heritage.
39. For more information, see: Zagraevsky, 2003, S. 115-118.
40. For more information, see: SV zagraevsky. Questions of architectural history and reconstruction of St. George's Cathedral in Yuryev-Polsky. M., 2007 (hereinafter - Zagraevsky, 2007). Table 1. The article is on the web-site www.zagraevsky.com.
44. Ibid., C. 87.
45. Ibid, 107 S..
46. For more
information, see: SV zagraevsky. On the forms of the domes of ancient Russian
temples. Abstracts of articles published in the book: Materials of the regional
conference (April 14
47. Voronin. The decree. cit., so 2, S. 259.
48. Svjaznoi on the forum web site www.sobory.EN was offered the following analogy: imagine the map of the distribution of Gothic and to select Gothic architecture in green, France will be filled with thick vegetation, Germany - green color with a slightly different shade, Italy, for example, turquoise, England - brown-green, etc. and on the supposed "map of Russia" without special spectral analysis of green will be hardly visible. Accordingly, the General and context free use of the term "Russian Gothic" (as the term "Russian romanik") will be similar to painting a "map of Russia" in bright green color, which, of course, illegal.
Even better ready methodological coarsening are the terms of Dmitry
Likhachev, claiming to be a General characteristic of the architecture of such
distinct from other regions as the North-Western and North-Eastern Russia: for
the XII-beginning of XIII century - "monumental historicism" (Likhachev.
The man in the literature of Ancient Russia. M.,
49. An analogue of this approach - known sculpture V.i.demuta-Malinovsky "Russian Scaevola. Russian guy with axe chop off his arm, comparable to a Roman prototype only one basis (and not quite the same) - feat.
Notes to Annex
2. SV zagraevsky. The architecture of North-Eastern Russia the end of the XIII-the first third of the XIV century. M., 2003 (hereinafter - Zagraevsky, 2003). C. 47.
4. Ibid., C. 76.
5. Ibid., C. 50.
6. Ibid., C. 56-62.
7. Ibid., C. 87.
8. Ibid, 106 S..
9. Kavelmaher, T.
Panova. The remnants of the white-stone Church of the XIV century in the Cathedral
square of the Moscow Kremlin. In the book: Culture of medieval Moscow XIV-XVII
11. Voronin. The decree. cit., so 2, S. 158.
13. AA Sukhanov. The
basement of the Annunciation Cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin according to the
architectural and archaeological studies of the twentieth century (article
written under the guidance Kavelmahera). In the book: Art monuments of the
Moscow Kremlin. Materials and research. Vol.
16. SV zagraevsky. To the question of reconstruction of the Saviour Cathedral Andronikov monastery. M., 2004. The article is on the web-site www.zagraevsky.com.
© Sergey Zagraevsky