Prof. Dr. S.V. Zagraevsky
About the possibility of scientific introduction and possible contexts
of the term “Russian Gothic” in respect of Russian architecture
of the end of XIII–first third of XV c.
The following text was translated from the Russian original by the computer program
and has not yet been edited.
So it can be used only for general introduction.
Blessed memory of AI Komech,
who introduced the modern scientific revolution
The term "Russian Romanik"
Nowadays, the term "Russian Gothic" is usually applied to one of the architectural styles of the XVIII century. Sometimes (usually with the prefix "neo" and "pseudo") is a designation can be found in the history of architecture in the late XIX-early XX centuries.
But in this article will talk about the old Russian architecture, modern Western Gothic (in the future will be without reservations call it Gothic and understood in the context of the most widely used - as the final stage in the development of medieval culture in Western Europe, of all the many aspects of Gothic - common cultural, architectural, theological dogmatic, art, music, etc. - we will only talk about architecture).
According to the most-used modern periods, the timing of Gothic depending on the country fall within the range since the mid-XII century until the early to mid-XVI century. For our study would be sufficient consideration of the basic and most indubitable feature of the Gothic style at the time of maturity, ie in XIII-XV centuries.
Accordingly, the purpose of this study is to question the legality of using the term "Russian Gothic" as applied to XIII-XV centuries. In other words, we must try to understand it came into the architecture of Ancient Rus Gothic, and if so, to what extent and in what forms.
But as a starting point for our investigation, we consider more and more frequently use the term "Russian Romanik.
This term was still in the 1920's, suggested by F. Halle for pre-Mongol white stone churches of the North-East Rusi1. In Soviet times, he almost was not used, because at similar terminology, directly linking the architecture of ancient Russia and Western Europe, there was an unofficial ban.
In the post-Soviet era, the term coined by AI Komech - in the name of his scientific work and without limitation, ie as a kind of unconditional dannost2.
However, as shown in a special study, the author of this stati3, the term is actually quite conventional, and its scientific use requires a large number of reservations.
Perhaps the main attribute that determines the "Russian Romanik", is the construction of gladkotesanogo white stone. The vast majority of Romanesque churches and castles in Western Europe were stone, brick built at that time only minor construction of civil nature and the small provincial temples. In Byzantium (except for some of its suburbs) were built of brick (plinfy) or in mixed media - «opus mixtum». The same - brick or mixed - there was construction equipment Kiev, Novgorod, Pskov, Polotsk, Smolensk, Chernigov, Pereyaslavl Southern, Vladimir Volhynia and all other ancient lands, except for the Galician and Suzdal. In Galicia white-stone building began in the late 1110's and 1120's godov4 in Suzdal later - in 1152 godu5.
The second most important feature of Romanesque architecture, embodied in the pre-Mongolian architecture of North-Eastern Russia - sculptures and ornamental zooantropomorfnogo types. Defined and with these terms: in the decoration zooantropomorfnogo type, in contrast to the ornamental decoration of type (arcature, curb, ornament), there are pictures of people and zhivotnyh6.
Another important element Romanik - advanced portals. These we see in the Galician and Suzdal land.
Note that in the pre-Mongol architecture of other ancient kingdoms and there have been many Romanesque elements: arkaturny decoration (as in Sophia Novgorod, cathedrals Anthony and St. George Monastery in Novgorod, and many others. Etc.), stair towers (as in St. Sophia, Sophia, Novgorod, and many . etc.) overall "towering" (as in churches Paraskeva at the Marketplace in Novgorod and the Archangel Michael in Smolensk), colorful decoration of facades (as in Borisoglebskaya Church in Grodno) and even the beginnings of basilica (as in some churches the Principality of Polotsk). This again emphasizes the arbitrariness of the term "Russian Romanik.
There is another reason why we are even with respect to Suzdal entitled to use the term "Russian Romanik" only conditionally. In North-Eastern Russia nor in pre-Mongol, nor poslemongolskoe7 time was not built any of the basilica. All the temples of Rostov, Vladimir, Tver, Moscow and (except for some besstolpnyh, stolpoobraznyh churches and tent) - A cross. Apparently,'s cross was granted a canonical tradition of the Russian Orthodox Church, but the fact remains: even the Assumption Cathedral in Moscow (1475-1479), the inner space of which is solved in the spirit of Gothic "hall church", and devoid of Altar apse Trinity Church in Chashnikove ( XVI century) from the architectural type are classic's cross temples.
Quit talking about the conventions of the term "Russian Romanik" You can quote from Igor Grabar: "Nowhere else can not meet a single church, the cathedral, a palace or a building that could be taken as a model of Vladimir churches. You can only find particular, but can not find anything in the whole of the identity "8.
The author of this article has repeatedly pokazyval9 that "Russian Romanik" in North-Eastern Russia started the construction of Yuri Dolgoruky in 1152, five white-stone churches, of which survived Transfiguration Cathedral in Pereslavl and Church of Boris and Gleb Kideksha.
Yuri first started using in Suzdal European stone technology. Ornamental decor of the "universal" Roman type, found in many temples in Western Europe (arcature and the curb - Fig. 1, 2), was already in Pereslavl (Fig. 3) and Kideksha. In the church of Boris and Gleb in Kideksha we see a promising portal.
Fig. 1. One of the many hundreds of European churches with the "universal" Roman decor (d Oberrerenbah , Bavaria, XIII century).
Fig. 2. "Universal" Romanesque decoration on the cathedral in Speyer.
Fig. 3. "Universal" Romanesque decoration on the Holy Transfiguration Cathedral in Pereslavl-Zalessky.
Emphasis is placed on and stretched up drums temples Jury, which, combined with a relatively small four, gives the "towering" - very European - the form of construction.
The small size of the temples Dolgoruky (compared with Romanesque) were strictly due to "the limit of reliability" white-stone building. The author of this article pokazyval10 that almost all the temples that exceeded "the bounds of reliability, some artists Yuri (the inner space of the main volume - less than 200 square meters. M, the dome side of the square - no more than 6 m) were negligibly short" lifetime ".
Repeatedly demonstrated failure of versions of the effect on the architecture of Yuri Dolgoruky architecture Galich and Malopolska (like the arrival of the masters, as well as the indirect effects) 11, we were obliged to recognize the direct impact of Romanesque architecture of Western Europe. More precisely, its most powerful, most centralized and geographically close to Russia, the state - "Holy Roman Empire.
According to research avtora12, direct source architecture Yuri Dolgoruky was a key Romanesque church - Imperial Cathedral of Speyer (1029-1106 years, Fig. 4, 5).
Fig. 4. Cathedral in Speyer. General view.
Fig. 5. Cathedral in Speyer. Plan.
Fig. 6. Cathedral in Speyer. Carved tree in a crypt.
All the arguments that may be cited as justification for similarities Lesser Poland, Galician and Suzdal churches (masonry walls and foundations, arkaturnye belt in conjunction with the curb and carved trees), are fully applicable to the Imperial Cathedral:
- At the cathedral in Speyer (as in many other Roman churches of Western Europe, and the Suzdal churches), we see arcature, curb (Figure 2) and carved shafts (Fig. 6);
- The walls of the cathedral at Speyer, as the walls of temples Dolgoruky, narrowed upwards ustupoobrazno;
- Cap the imperial cathedral in most of the perimeter is neprofilirovanny reflux (as in Pereslavl and Kideksha);
- Rubble foundations of the temple in Speyer-shaped in section and much wider walls, as in Galich, and Suzdal;
- Method of treatment of facial surfaces of stone blocks in Speyer identical Suzdal (and significantly different from the Galician and Lesser);
- In sredokrestii Imperial Cathedral realized A cross scheme krestchatymi pillars;
- In the crypt of the church in Speyer meets specific ornamental carving, carving similar to the Holy Transfiguration Cathedral in Pereslavl-Zalessky.
Excellent pan-European significance of the imperial cathedral at Speyer and his chronological primacy on the temples of Małopolska, Galich and Suzdal suggests that the similarity of architecture of all these Slavic principalities has absolutely convincing rationale - General Romance origins.
The author of this article also pokazyval13 that the master, who came to Andrew Bogoliubsky of Frederick Barbarossa, has invited Yuri Dolgoruky during his reign in Kiev.
Discussed in detail in a special study on the issue of lack of temples Yuri zooantropomorfnogo sculptural decoration and appearance of the decoration on the temples Andrew, the author has established that the Jury in 1152 still had no right to decorate their temples of sculptural decoration zooantropomorfnogo tipa14. All he had at that time allowed the church - a "universal" Romanesque ornamental decor "arcature - curb - carved shaft.
Based on the fact that the master of sculptural decoration were sent back to the Barbarossa Yuri Dolgoruky when he was the last Grand Prince of Kiev (1155-1157 years), the author considers a fundamental fact: in a short time his great reign Dolgoruky managed to get the blessing of the church to impose zooantropomorfnogo sculptural dekora15 .
Thus, all the characteristic features of what we call the "Russian Romanik", appeared in Suzdal exclusively due to Yuri Dolgoruky. And architecture Andrew Bogolyubski was equally natural, progressive development of truly innovative architecture Yuri, as the architecture of Vsevolod the Big Nest - Architecture Andrew.
That was the beginning of the "Russian Romanik. Its development she received when Andrew Bogoliubsky, when Russia worked Wizard of Frederick Barbarossa, and when in the architecture of Vladimir-Suzdal land appeared such a typical Roman cherty16 as:
- Zooantropomorfny decor;
- Pilasters with semi-columns;
- Attic Profile plinths;
- Base with corner "horns" ("vultures", "claws");
- Development of promising portals;
- Three-part window (as in the Bogoliubov stairwell);
- Arkaturno-columnar zone;
- Cube-roofed capitals, etc.
Note that in the West in the mid-second half of the XII century Romanik already nearing completion, and gradually (in different countries in different ways) goes into Gothic.
The end of the "Russian Romanik" can be considered the construction of the last major pre-Mongolian white-stone church - St. George's Cathedral in St. George's, Polish (1230-1234 years). In this case, an end to the Roman era "in the architecture of the North-Eastern Russia roughly coincides with the total disappearance Romanik in the West. The fact that Batu Khan devastated Russia at a time when Western Europe, there was a complete transition to the Gothic - of course, a coincidence, but this accident is useful for our investigation.
Let us briefly interim results: In the pre-Mongolian architecture of North-Eastern Russia we see the Romanesque building materials, and Roman decor, and a number of Romanesque architectural techniques, and the chronological coincidence with Romanik, and (what is perhaps the main), direct Roman origins.
Thus, the term "Russian Romanik", despite its conventionality (as discussed in Section 1) is reasonable and clearly characterizes an epoch in the history of architecture of the North-Eastern Russia.
But I took the transition from the "Russian Romanik" to "Russian Gothic"?
Features of the differences of Gothic architecture from Romanesque examined in a large volume of literature and interpreted widely enough. As for us in this study it is important to understand the basic features of the Gothic, rather than studying its genezisa17, only list the basic and undeniable:
- The appearance of arches, increasing the height of the arches and reduces raspor on the wall;
- The appearance of a skeleton rib vaults;
- Unloading the walls and buttresses arkbutanami;
- The emergence of a specific frame structure consisting of two diagonally intersecting arches and four sides;
- Degeneration of the transept and the narthex of the temples;
- Almost universal availability of advanced choral parts of temples and wedding chapels;
- Widespread use of beams columns;
- A sense of wholeness of the inner space of temples;
- Feeling of lightness codes;
- Increase the area of the interior of temples;
- Increasing the height of arches and the total height of the temples;
- Increase flight codes;
- Emphasize the constructive clarity temples;
- Significant improvement in the coverage of temples by punching in walls unloaded large windows, including windows and roses in the west facade;
- Pinnacle, vimpergi, Crabbe and other specific details of architectural decoration;
- Gain, compared with Romanik, the general impression of "towering" (high bell tower, decorative towers, steeples);
- More extensive than in Romanik, sculptural decoration.
O. Choisy wrote: "The progress that the era of Gothic, is expressed mainly in the final and consistent resolution of the dual problem: computations groin and achieve their sustainability. Gothic architecture overcomes difficulties calculations using rib vaults, and solve the problem of stability by introducing arkbutanov ... The history of Gothic architecture - is the story of the ribs and arkbutana '18.
It is also important to note that the Gothic and Romanik in Western Europe have a number of similarities, of which include:
- The total composition basilica churches;
- Sculptures zooantropomorfnogo type;
- The basic elements of architectural decoration (advanced portals arcature, ornament, etc.);
- Mainly the construction of temples in stone (brick buildings were built only minor civil nature and the small provincial church). On the brick builders 'iconic' councils passed only during the late Gothic, long time (not less than one century) existed in parallel with the Renaissance;
- General feeling of "elevation" architecture;
- Presence of the cathedral bell towers;
- The desire to build temples maximum possible size, with the maximum possible span vaults (structural innovations of Gothic allowed to realize this aspiration to a greater extent).
Now we can consider the fundamental question of this article: how significant were Russian architecture "gotitsizmy", and whether their combination (as well as the totality of other factors) speak about "Russian Gothic.
We begin with the North-West Russia. Elements Romanik and Gothic architecture in Novgorod and Pskov is not the first century are the focus of attention of researchers (eg, those issues were addressed V.V.Suslov19, A.I.Nekrasov20, K.K.Romanov21, M.K.Karger22, P. N.Maksimov23, Vl.V.Sedov24).
Thus, Vl.V.Sedov otmechal25:
- Romano-Gothic elements on the facades of the church of St. Nicholas in Lipno 1292 (arcature, cruciform windows, ceramic crosses);
- Western shape and size of the brick church of St. Nicholas in Lipno;
- Closed to the ribs and arches of the cruciform windows of the church of St. Nicholas in Lipno;
- Gothic forms in the future is largely shaped the development of Novgorod decor, in the monastery church of St. Nicholas White (1312-1312 years) - in particular, perspective portals with pointed ridges;
- Gothic arched north portal of the church Theodore Stratilatus years 1360-1361 (hereafter, without specifying the date it will go to the church, Theodore Stratilatus) with terraced frame without imposts separating archivolt of vertical rods (this brilliant Gothic detail appears even in the Novgorod architecture of the first half of the XIV century);
- Northern ledged portal with pointed end of the Novgorod Church of the Annunciation at Settlement (1342-1343 years);
- Bonds of crosses that were used in the Novgorod architecture (in particular, in the Church of Kovalev in 1345 and Theodore Stratilatus);
- Round window niche between the eyebrows on the drum and the top of the middle third of the western facade of the church Theodore Stratilatus;
- A close resemblance to the decoration of the church apse Theodore Stratilatus and apsidal many Romanesque churches of Western Europe (to pay attention more P.N.Maksimov26);
- Presence in the Novgorod and Pskov lands several monuments, which reflected the transition from the Romano-Gothic style (in particular, Vl.V.Sedov called the Church of the Nativity in Porkhov (around 1300) which has a track directly related to the church of St. Nicholas in Lipno);
- Presence in the church of the Nativity in Porkhov slit windows in the average level of the northern facade, placed in pentahedral niche with a triangular top, and the composition of the two pentahedral niches and a square, set on edge over the other, on the west facade. These pentahedral niche with a triangular riding on Vl.V.Sedovu, borrowed from architecture Livonia XIII century, these niches are on the west facade of the Church in Reid, in the interior of the building of the XIII century in Riga and in the Church of Catherine the first half of the XIV century on the island of Muhu ( MUN), the same shape are the window of the church of the Archangel Michael in 1339 in Pskov and St. Nicholas Cathedral (about 1341-1349 years) in Izborsk that are in line with the Novgorod architecture of the first half of the XIV century;
- Forms of the transition, the Romano-Gothic, a style in the Cathedral of the Nativity of the Virgin Snetogorsky Monastery near Pskov (1310-1311 years), which reproduces the typology of the cathedral monastery Mirozhsky XII century and it continues arhaiziruyuschuyu line is present, for Vl.V.Sedovu in the church Fedor Stratelates 1292-1294 years in Novgorod (on top of the drum is arkaturny belt of arochek with a triangular end, shaped like a temple in nishki Porkhov and niches of temples Livonia XIII-XIV centuries). This frieze has a Romano-Gothic origin, such as the source of the frieze, except pentahedral niches Vl.V.Sedov called lancet arcature that runs along the top side facades of middle-nave church of Simeon in Valmiera (Wolmar) end of the XIII century. In this arcature arcs on consoles have very little gothic, but she arcature as it completes the fence, formed by narrow blades;
- Arcature with semicircular arcs on the drum of St. Nicholas Cathedral in Izborsk;
- Gothic elements in the architecture of the Church of Kovalev - in particular, the pentagon window altar lancet niche above the south portal, type the Belfry;
- Acquaintance with the Gothic facade decoration of the XIV century monuments of Novgorod and Pskov mid XIV century - in particular, the Trinity Cathedral 1365-1367 period.
Summarizing these studies, Vl.V.Sedov wrote the following:
"Romano-Gothic forms do not constitute a style of architecture of the North-West Russia late XIII-XIV beginning in.: It is separate decorative elements, only partially" substitute "a proper Novgorod and Smolensk, Novgorod. However, the appearance of Western decorative forms is of great importance: the Romano-Gothic and, later, the Gothic forms will be for Novgorod (Pskov to a much lesser extent) the factor that determines the direction of the facade decoration in the direction of filling the plane of the wall of individual forms, organized in ornamental compositions. This principle, which came to Novgorod from a rather provincial architecture of Livonia, in the church of St. Nicholas in Lipno occurred first. Almost the same relation to the facade plane and an array of undifferentiated wall in the pre-Mongolian architecture in Novgorod and Novgorod architecture Livonia allowed free use of some form, without changing tectonics of the facade. In this constructive influence of Western European architecture, we almost did not see: the vaults of the church in Lipno camping are the exception, taken in a single monument, and immediately left masters. The basic structure of the same temple, the type remained Novgorod and further developed in line with the architecture of the Byzantine world 27.
Thus, Vl.V.Sedov (like all the others mentioned above, researchers architecture of North-West) did not allow such a significant influence on the Gothic architecture of Novgorod and Pskov, to be at least tentatively talking about the "Russian Gothic" in relation to the North-West Russia .
Considering that in Western Europe, Gothic architecture is a continuation and development Romanik, but the "Russian Romanik" in respect of Novgorod and Pskov churches we can not go, we must all agree with Vl.V.Sedovym.
But, as we showed in Section 1 with respect to the pre-Mongolian architecture in the North-Eastern Russia, we may speak of "Russian Romanik. Can we use the term "Russian Gothic" for at least a conditional general architecture denote Rostov, Tver and Moscow at the end of the first third of the XIII-XV century?
For a detailed consideration of this issue there are serious reasons.
First, at the end of the first third of the XIII-XV centuries possibility of external influences on the architecture of the North-Eastern Russia (lost a statesman, but not spiritual independence) would consist of a very small number of options:
- Completely undeveloped architecture of the Mongols, can only bring some echoes of the architecture of Central Asia;
- Architecture of the Arab East, very far from Russia, and geographically, and religiously;
- Byzantine architecture is extremely weak;
- Byzantine architecture margins (eg, the Balkans), are even more disastrous situation than myself Byzantium;
- The enormous achievements of Gothic architecture, for which there was the whole power of Western Europe.
This article is hardly the place obschekulturologicheskim arguments about how the level of development in Western Europe in the XIII-XV centuries, exceeding the levels of other countries (as well as general philosophical arguments about how to talk about at all possible levels of development). Let's look at the largest Gothic cathedrals in France, Germany and England (for example, at Notre Dame, Cologne Cathedral or Westminster Abbey), comparing them with the modern architecture of other parts of the world (Russia, Volga Bulgaria, the Balkans, the Middle East, etc.) and no arguments from other fields of knowledge we do not need.
Once after Batu's invasion "ulus" Horde, Russia is no longer regarded the European courts as equitable partner28 that could not possibly hold the Grand Dukes - direct descendants of these monarchs of the world scale, as Yaroslav the Wise, Vsevolod, and Vladimir Monomakh.
Byzantine Empire after the defeat in 1204 do not constitute any meaningful power in the political arena (for example, in 1371, Emperor John Palaeologus, was arrested in France for non-payment of personal debts Venetian kuptsam29). So, all hope of returning Russia to the "civilized world community" have been associated only with western Europe.
Let's not forget about the convergence of the Orthodox and Catholic churches in the preparation of the Union of Florence in 1439. How close was this convergence - a debatable question, and beyond the present study, but at least the debate about the merger at that time were quite intense, and their associated contacts between representatives of different churches facilitated the interpenetration of the elements of religious architecture.
Nevertheless, once we note that we neither a direct nor mediate (eg, through Balkany30) playing in Russia can not go Gothic - architecture poslemongolskoy North-Eastern Russia is a totally organic continuation of the pre-Mongolian architecture in the Vladimir-Suzdal land.
But if you consider any architectural influence (which is the purpose of this study), the first thing, of course, gothic.
Secondly, a hypothetical "Russian Gothic" revealed a very clear timeline:
- Batu's invasion and the subsequent half-century break in the stone temple construction of the North-Eastern Russia practically coincided with the widespread and final transition from Romanik to the Gothic in the West;
- Feudal war era Vasily the Blind and the associated forty break in the stone temple construction of the North-Eastern Russia practically coincided with the widespread adoption of the Gothic to the Renaissance in Italy, where it later - when Ivan III and Vasily III - were invited to the master owned the culture of the Renaissance.
Thus, the hypothetical "Russian Gothic" fit between the end of the XIII century to the first third of the XV century.
In the Appendix are temples built in the North-East of Russia at this time (for our further research is important to note that all these church buildings were built of white stone). We see that the temples which have survived to our time (or those of the designs which we can have at least a tentative opinion) typologically, stylistically and chronologically, can be divided into two groups:
- End of the first third of the XIII-XIV century - the so-called "era of ambitious Economy 31, characterized by coarse white stone masonry, the presence of a number of temples besstolpnyh corner of wall supports, tapered transitions from the arches of drums. This Church of the Nativity of the Virgin in Gorodnya, Conception of John the Baptist Church at The Settlement in Kolomna, St. Nicholas Church in Kamenskoye. Our understanding of this era also complement the preserved lower parts of the Church of Boris and Gleb, in Rostov, the first of the Assumption Cathedral and the church-bell tower of St John Climacus in Moscow, the basement and the drawing of Old St. Nicholas (now the Peter and Paul) Cathedral Mozhayske32.
- End of the first third of the XIV-XV century - a return to the pre-Mongol construction equipment (although in a qualitatively new level). Temples are characterized by white-gladkotesanoy technique and general "pyramidal", achieved by tapering the walls or low angle kompartimentam. This is the Assumption Cathedral "on the town and the cathedral Savvino-Storozhevsky monastery in Zvenigorod, Trinity Cathedral in the Trinity-Sergius Lavra, the Savior Cathedral Andromkov monastery. Presentation about the architecture of that era also give surviving basement of the Cathedral of the Annunciation, the first tier of the Church of the Nativity of the Virgin in Moscow, the wall of the church, Joachim and Anna at Mozhaisk, foundations and the lower ranks of masonry Archangel Cathedral Church of St. Nicholas in Staritsa, Epiphany Cathedral for "mart" in Moscow.
We see the two periods, which, if adopted, the term "Russian Gothic" will be called its formation and its heyday.
On the end of a hypothetical "Russian Gothic" We have already spoken: it is the arrival to Russia (after a long cessation of stone building in the middle of the XV century) Italian masters belonging to the culture of the Renaissance (Aristotle Fioravanti, Aleviz Fryazin "Old" Aleviz New Bon Fryazin etc. ). "Inertia" Gothic in their Moscow building was still significant. In particular:
- Were used, many dating back even to the ancient Russian architectural techniques Romanik (external form, arcature, advanced portals, semicircular arches, etc.) 33;
- In the Assumption Cathedral Fioravanti took place marked SS Pod'yapol'skii "gotitsizm" - "zalnost" interera34;
- Gothic elements present in a much more recent buildings - in particular, in the Church of the Assumption Cathedral in Kolomna and Protection on Rvu35.
Yet in the construction of the Italian masters in Russia it could only go on "gotitsizmah, but not on the Gothic - as we know, the term" Gothic "belongs to the Italians XV-XVI centuries, the original has a negative context, and means" the art is ready, t . f. "Barbarians".
Consequently, the last temple that we can at least tentatively attributed to the "Russian Gothic", were built not later than the first third of the XV century.
Thus, the hypothetical "Russian Gothic" has a certain political and economic motivation, unambiguous chronological framework and a clear periodization.
But are we entitled to take all that phrase? What are the architectural arguments for and against?
We begin with the architectural arguments "against", as they are more clearly pronounced and less controversial, otherwise, the term "Russian Gothic architecture in respect of Old Russia has long been proposed by researchers.
First, as we said in Section 1 when considering the term "Russian Romanik", in ancient Russia was not built any of the basilica.
Secondly, in the beginning of XIV century with ancient temples disappeared sculptures zooantropomorfnogo type. The reasons for this disappearance lay outside the architecture (by special research showed that there was an outright ban on this type of church dekora36), but the fact remains: One of the main features of Gothic - rich sculptural decoration - in temples of North-Eastern Russia was represented by only ornamental belts and leafy capitals.
Third, the Assumption Cathedral "on the town" in Zvenigorod, Holy Trinity Cathedral Holy Trinity-St and Church, Joachim and Anna in Mozhaisk external blades do not meet the pillars, the internal vanes in all churches of the late chetyrehstolpnyh XIII-XV centuries, the first third, with the exception of the cathedral Andromkov monastery, non-existent. This contradicts the "Gothic" constructive clarity and emphasizes the fact that the walls of temples of the North-Eastern Russia this time, unlike the walls of Gothic cathedrals, remained the main bearing element.
Fourth, in the architecture of the North-Eastern Russia are no arches. It has an explanation (in the church's cross on the lancet arch is impossible to put a heavy drum), but we are obliged, regardless of the reasons state the fact: "Gothic" lancet arches in Russia was not.
Fifthly, the windows of modern European Gothic ancient temples are very narrow. This may be explained by the fact that all the known temples of this time were in the fortresses, and if necessary were to play the role of the main towers "(respectively, with windows, loopholes) 37, but regardless of the possible reasons for the narrowness of the windows did not conform to the principles of Gothic.
Sixth, in the architecture of the North-Eastern Russia the end of the first third of the XIII-XV century tendency to disappear from the temples of the chorus. For the Gothic choir remain the same feature (in fact, a choir of the gothic cathedrals, as compared with Romanesque usually more developed).
Seventh, the most important hallmark of ancient temples is a seamless appearance of the main obema38. This is more or less typical for Romanik (and not for all - for instance, "sign" the Romanesque cathedral in the Italian city of Modena, this impression does not), but not for the Gothic, where the bulk of the temple literally drowning among the buttresses and arkbutanov .
Eighth, with the temples of the North-Eastern Russia XIII-end of the first third of the XV century, virtually disappeared typical "Russian Romanik" Beam pilasters (they only have to Zvenigorod Cathedral of the Assumption "on the town"). In the Gothic as "beam" of columns and pilasters, compared with Romanik, by contrast, is constantly evolving.
Ninth, as we saw in Section 1, "Russian Romanik has direct roots in Western Europe. In the hypothetical "Russian Gothic" direct Western origins, we can not call.
These were the architectural arguments "against the Russian Gothic. What can I say "over"?
First, all the temples of the North-Eastern Russia XIII-end of the first third of the XV century built of "European" material - the white stone. At the end of the first third of the XIII-XIV century, the country, having barely recovered after Batu's invasion, in conditions exacerbated by Tartar interventions princely strife experienced serious economic problems. But the white stone, is several times more expensive than plinfa39, was the only building material (of course, not counting the tree).
Secondly, at the end of the first third of the XIII-XV century there has been a constant aspiration of Old Masters to the "elevation" and "towering" temples. Confirmation of this a few:
- Temples of North-Eastern Russia this time become more "tall" proportions compared with the "Russian Romanik" 40;
- Toed ("pyramidal") Wall and drums in the temples of Zvenigorod and Holy Trinity Cathedral of the Trinity-Sergius Lavra, lower corner kompartimenty in the cathedral Andromkov monastery, a sense of reducing the mass of the building with height, ie perspective stressed the "high altitude";
- In 1329 in Moscow was built stolpoobraznaya Church of St. John Climacus "under the bells" (see Appendix);
- In the churches appeared elevated arches that emphasize the "high altitude" interiors of churches.
Thus, the tendency of constant increase "towering" churches in the XII-early XIII century (from the Saviour Church Euphrosyne of Polotsk St. George to St. George's Cathedral in Polish) GK Wagner wrote: "It is possible that if the development of altitude "Architecture is not interrupted Horde invasion, then Russia would have known something akin to Gothic. At least, gothic elements in the temples "towering" type are 41.
The third characteristic of the Gothic tendency to increase and "zalnosti" inner space of temples reflected in a number of architectural features of the North-Eastern Russia the end of the first third of the XIII-XV century:
- Pillars of the rare exceptions (Assumption Cathedral "on the town") became thinner than it was during the Russian Romanik, and crossed himself lost;
- From the temples (except for the cathedral Andromkov monastery) disappeared inside shoulder. The absence of the latter increases the interior space (although, as we showed in Section 5, reduces the "gothic" constructive clarity and does not allow to unload the wall);
- During the formation of a hypothetical "Russian Gothic" appeared besstolpnye temples with angular wall supports - a constructive solution, allows a system to increase the dome's cross space and strengthen the walls ("Gorodyshchens'ka" Church in Kolomna, St. Nicholas Church in Kamenskoye - Fig. 7);
Fig. 7. Nicholas Church in Kamenskoye. Plan.
- To increase the space between the dome and arches podpruzhnymi drum in a number of churches began late XIII-XIV century (the Church of Nativity in Gorodnya, St. Nicholas Church in Kamenski, Staro-Nikolsky Cathedral in Mozhaisk) Provided conical transition that make the drum more subtle and light and also increases the Dome square (Fig. 8);
Fig. 8. Nicholas Church in Kamenskoye. Incision.
- A Nativity Cathedral Savvino-Storozhevsky Monastery and the Holy Trinity Cathedral Holy Trinity-St wall tilted inward, creating a very stable "pyramidal" silhouette of buildings and are actually buttresses for themselves (Fig. 9). It is also possible to considerably expand the dome square;
Fig. 9. Trinity Cathedral in the Trinity-Sergius Lavra. Drawing VI Baldin.
- At the cathedral of the monastery Andromkov role play lower corner buttresses kompartimenty (Fig. 10). The design was so robust that further strengthening of the walls of wooden ties are not needed (and such ties were in Zvenigorodskys temples, and the Holy Trinity Cathedral).
Fig. 10. Cathedral Andromkov monastery. Reconstruction of the author.
Fourth, in the interior of the Holy Trinity Cathedral Holy Trinity-St implemented a unique method that allowed the space to do more "air": to sloping walls and pillars are not "oppressed" by being in the church people, up to a height of about 5 m, they are vertical, and then sharply "bend".
Fifth, for the architecture of the North-Eastern Russia XIII-end of the first third of the XV century is characterized by a number of "Gothic" architectural techniques (many of them date back to the Romanik):
- Perspective portals keeled forms with "Dynko";
- Attic Profile plinths;
- Base with corner "claws" and so
Sixth, although the architecture of the North-Eastern Russia XIII-end of the first third of the XV century, and there were no arches, but appeared typical "lancet" silhouettes:
- Steel drums processed pigeon innovative features that create a "Gothic" silhouettes of temples (based on the analysis of ancient images, and the results of archaeological research, the author of this article shows that such kokoshniki originally had St. George's Cathedral in St. George's, Polskom42, Church of the Nativity of the Virgin in Gorodnya Tver oblasti43, Staro- St. Nicholas Cathedral in Mozhayske44, the first Cathedral of the Assumption in Moskve45).
- As demonstrated by this article in a special issledovanii46 at the end of the XIII century, when the possibility of altitude's cross in the stone building have been exhausted over the domes began erecting tall wooden frames and arrange bulbous head. These chapters have created a general impression of "lancet" (in particular, the cathedral monastery Andromkov we reconstruct it with the bulbous head - see Fig. 10);
Seventh, in the interior of the Assumption Cathedral "on the town, Church of the Nativity of the Virgin in Gorodnya and Moscow have a number of typical Gothic niches (Fig. 11 and 12); NN Voronin even imagined that they were specific to Catholicism sculptural kompozitsii47 . The shape of these niches echoes the shape of window openings (Fig. 13, 14)
Fig. 11. Gothic niches in the medieval building in Dingolfinge (Germany).
Fig. 12. Church of the Nativity of the Virgin in Gorodnya. Completion of a niche in the wall of the altar.
Fig. 13. Church of the Nativity of the Virgin in Gorodnya. The windows in the apse.
Fig. 14. Church of the Nativity of the Virgin in Gorodnya. Window in the eastern fence of the southern wall.
Eighth, on the western facade of the church of the Nativity of the Virgin in Moscow and the Assumption Cathedral in Zvenigorod is present on the two round windows framing multibladed - miniature copies of the Gothic Rose (Fig. 15, 16).
Fig. 15. Church of the Nativity of the Virgin in the Moscow Kremlin. Miniature rose-window in the west facade.
Fig. 16. Cathedral of the Assumption "on the town" in Zvenigorod. In the upper part of the central western fence facade - a miniature window-rose.
Ninth, although the architecture of the North-Eastern Russia the end of the first third of the XIII-XV century, and there is no direct Western origins, but it was a direct development of the "Russian Romanik" - as was the development of Gothic Romanik in the West.
So, in paras. 5 and 6, we consider the objective architectural arguments for and against the use of the term "Russian Gothic. What conclusions can follow from them?
Here we must make significant methodological reservation relating to the introduction into scientific terms "Russian Romanik" and "Russian Gothic.
If this goal is defined as a general characteristic of a particular architectural direction, regardless of the context, we are using such terms is waiting for a substantial coarsening metodologii48. But if this goal is the allocation of a number of well-defined architectural style features and a comparison in accordance with them, then that term is quite primenima49.
A useful introduction to the scientific revolution, and determination context, the term "Russian Romanik" and "Russian Gothic confirmed by the following provisions.
First, there is a serious problem with the positioning of the ancient architecture in the history of world architecture.
The fact that the architecture of Byzantium stereotypically perceived as self-sufficient, "indigenous" phenomenon, and architecture of ancient Russia, beginning with the Tithe Church - as "spin-off" from his direction. The inevitable consequence of this approach was the perception of ancient architecture in the world context as "the border" and "provincial". Anyway, among the foreign experts on the history of architecture is dominated by this view.
But in fact the Byzantine influence on the architecture of ancient Russia was determined only by the early-mid-XII century, and then, as we showed in Section 1, to Russia came Romanik. The further the genesis of ancient architecture has been defined a unique blend of Byzantine canonical tradition (primarily's cross), on the one hand and Romanik and then Gothic, with other hand (see Section 4). GK Wagner, even writing (albeit in respect of old Russian architecture of later times - XVI century) that the Romano-Gothic reminiscences were used as "a kind of antivizantiyskoe means' 50.
And the presence of not one but two basic sources of ancient architecture allows us to speak about her not as a "late Byzantine provincial, and as an independent phenomenon of global importance.
The significance of the first source - the Byzantine - the comments are unlikely to need this issue in the history of architecture in detail prorabotan51. A second source of value - Western - for ideological and political reasons, deliberately humiliated and ignored as before the revolution (in accordance with the tenet of "Orthodoxy, Autocracy, Nationality"), as well as in Soviet times.
Accordingly, our current challenge - the maximum focus on the second source, including using the appropriate historical and architectural terminology.
Secondly, in line with having a place in the last decade, "globalization" of architectural history, the terms "Russian Romanik" and "Russian Gothic" in any case be used more and more frequently, possibly even without the quotes. Therefore, to identify the permissible scope of their use - our scientific duty.
About Russian Romanik "we discussed in detail in Section 1. As for the "Russian Gothic, then, as we noted in Section 4, we are neither a direct nor mediate (eg, through the Balkans), playing in Russia can not go Gothic: Gothic - integral architectural and artistic style, limited scope Western civilization and architecture of North-Eastern Russia the end of the first third of the XIII-XV century, in any case does not belong to the Gothic, and is totally organic continuation of the pre-Mongolian architecture of Vladimir-Suzdal land.
But if it is a symbol of a number of specific features (see Section 6) architecture in North-Eastern Russia the end of the first third of the XIII-XV century, is closely related to the previous "Russian Romanik" - then the term "Russian Gothic" is seen quite legitimate.
Naturally, using the term, we should not forget that he is very conventional (even more conventional than "Russian Romanik"). The enormous economic difficulties facing the country and the people in times of strife, aggravated by the prince, depending on the Horde, could not affect the architecture - "the mirror of the age." Save accounted for everyone, including the stone construction, and await the development of Gothic forms in the ancient masters of the time, of course, impossible.
But the architecture, like art, live by their own laws, and certain of its achievements are not linked to any size and architectural style of the statue, with the amount of investment and time spent on creating them.
Let's not forget that the Russian masters of the late XIII-XV Century began were shackled prescribed to them the church's cross-type (see Section 1) and a ban on Gothic sculptures zooantropomorfnogo type (see Section 5). They could not even unload the wall - because of the top big and heavy drums. But, as we showed in Section 6, still expressed their relationship with Western architectural thinking of ways available to them - possibly by increasing the inner space of temples, using a series of "European" methods of architectural decoration, arranging Gothic niches, punching let tiny, but rose and building the temple of the "European" material - a white stone.
And perhaps, "Russian Gothic" has become one of the factors that allowed the Tver, Moscow and then in the darkest days of political dependence on the Horde did not lose the spiritual self, do not fall out of the "mainstream" of world architectural and artistic ideas and change their cultural orientation the most civilized countries of the world.
Temples of North-Eastern Russia the end of the first third of the XIII-XV century
- Boris and Gleb Church in Rostov Veliky. 1287. Small chetyrehstolpny odnoapsidny temple. It was built in the rubble technique (using form), followed by lining thin slabs of white kamnya1. Maintained at approximately 2 / 3 the height of a brick church in 1761.
- The church that preceded the Assumption Cathedral in Kolomna (before 1300 belonged to the Ryazan principality). End XIII veka2. On the type and terms of the temple no information;
- Assumption (now Christ) Cathedral in Pereslavl-Ryazan (modern Ryazan). End of XIV century. Chetyrehstolpny trehapsidny temple. Completely rebuilt of brick in 1598-1606, respectively;
Tver Grand Duchy:
- Savior Cathedral in Tver. 1285-1290 the years. Presumably chetyrehstolpny trehapsidny hram3. In the seventeenth century in its place built a brick church;
- Church of the Nativity of the Virgin in the village of Gorodnya Tver region. End of XIII-XIV beginning veka4. Chetyrehstolpny trehapsidny temple on the basement. Preserved;
- The Church, which preceded temples abroad XIV-XV centuries in Staritsa. XIV century. On the type and terms of the temple no information;
- Cathedral Theodore Stratilatus Fedorovsk monastery in Tver. 1323-1325 years. On the type and terms of the temple no information. Not preserved;
- Archangel Cathedral in Staritsa. End of XIV-beginning of the XV century. Chetyrehstolpny trehapsidny temple. Demolished in the Time of Troubles;
- The Church of St. Nicholas in Staritsa. The beginning of the XV century. Small besstolpny odnoapsidny temple. Destroyed in the Time of Troubles;
Grand Duchy of Moscow:
- Conception of St. John the Baptist Church at Settlement ("Gorodyshchens'ka" church) in Kolomna. Start XIV veka5. Besstolpny temple with corner pillars. Top rebuilt of brick in the XVI century;
- Nicholas Church in the village Kamenskoye Naro-Fominsk Moscow region. Start XIV veka6. Besstolpny temple with corner pillars. Preserved;
- Staro-Nikolsky (now St. Peter and Paul) Cathedral in Mozhaisk. Start XIV veka7. Chetyrehstolpny trehapsidny temple on the basement. Rebuilt of brick in the XIX century with the copying of old forms;
- Assumption Cathedral in Moscow. 1326-1327 years. Chetyrehstolpny trehapsidny temple with three pritvorami8. Dismantled in the early 1470 s in connection with the construction of a new cathedral;
- Church bell tower of St John Climacus in Moscow. 1329. Octagonal odnoapsidny temple stolpoobraznoy formy9. Top dismantled in 1505, the lower part - in the XVII veke10;
- Petroverigsky chapel of the Assumption Cathedral in Moscow. 1329. On the type and plan to report. Dismantled along with the cathedral in the early 1470 s;
- Cathedral of Our Saviour on the Bor in Moscow. 1330. Chetyrehstolpny trehapsidny temple. Rebuilt (possibly white kamnya11) in 1527, then in the XVIII century, partly of white stone, partly of brick;
- Archangel Cathedral in Moscow. 1333. Probably chetyrehstolpny trehapsidny temple. In 1505 dismantled its place Aleviz New have built a new brick church;
- Chapel, narthex of the Cathedral of Our Saviour on the Bor in Moscow. 1350. On the type and plan to report. Dismantled along with the cathedral in the XVI century.
- The Church of Archangel Michael in Nizhny Novgorod. 1359. Built on the site of the temple 1227-1229 period. Chetyrehstolpny trehapsidny temple with three porches. In the XVII century in its place was built a brick house;
- Miracle of the Archangel Michael Cathedral Chudova Monastery in Moscow. 1365. Probably chetyrehstolpny trehapsidny temple. Rebuilt of brick in 1501, dismantled in the twentieth century;
- Assumption Cathedral Simonov Monastery in Moscow. 1379-1405 years. Probably chetyrehstolpny trehapsidny temple. Rebuilt brick in the 1540's, blown up in the twentieth century;
- Assumption Cathedral in Kolomna. 1379-1382 years. Tricipital shestistolpny trehapsidny temple on the basement. Collapsed during construction, was soon rebuilt and stood until 1672, when his place was built brick cathedral;
- Church of the Nativity of the Virgin in the Moscow Kremlin. 1393. Chetyrehstolpny trehapsidny temple. The top hit in 1479. At the beginning of XVI century church above the choir was rebuilt of brick;
- Annunciation Cathedral in Moscow,. Mid-1390 x godov12. Besstolpny odnoapsidny temple on podklete13. Rebuilt from the white stone (trehapsidnym with angular pilonami14) in 1416, of brick in 1484-1489, respectively. From the first basement of the temple is preserved;
- Cathedral of the Epiphany Monastery in Moscow for "mart". The turn of XIV and XV vekov15. Chetyrehstolpny trehapsidny temple. Destroyed after a fire in 1684, in its place built a new brick house;
- Mozhaisk, church, Joachim and Anna. The beginning of the XV century. Chetyrehstolpny trehapsidny temple. Rebuilt brick in the XIX century, from the first church survived the northern wall;
- Zvenigorod. Assumption Cathedral "on the town. Around 1400. Chetyrehstolpny trehapsidny temple. Continue;
- Zvenigorod. Church of the Nativity of the Virgin Savvino-Storozhevsky monastery. The beginning of the XV century. Chetyrehstolpny trehapsidny temple. Continue;
- Moscow. Ascension Cathedral Ascension Monastery in the Kremlin. 1407-1467 years. Chetyrehstolpny trehapsidny temple. Dismantled in 1516. In its place was built a brick temple that was destroyed in the twentieth century;
- Trinity-Sergius Lavra. Trinity Cathedral. 1422-1427 years. Chetyrehstolpny trehapsidny temple. Continue;
- Moscow. Andronicus Monastery. Cathedral of Saviour. Until 1427. Chetyrehstolpny trehapsidny temple. The top of a fire struck in 1812, the temple was restored in 1960-1961, with a number iskazheniy16.
1. F. Halle. Russische Romanik. Die Bauplastik von Wladimir - Souzdal. Berlin - Wien - Zurich, 1929.
2. AI Komech. Architecture of Vladimir 1150-1180's. Artistic nature and genesis of the "Russian Romanik. Proc. Ancient art. Russia and the countries of the Byzantine world. XII century. St. Petersburg, 2002.
3. SV ZAGRAEVSKY. Start the "Russian Romanik: Yuri Dolgoruky or Andrew Bogoliubsky? Moscow, 2005 (hereinafter - ZAGRAEVSKY, 2005). The article is on the website www.zagraevsky.com.
4. M. Ioannisyan. Milestones Galitskogo architecture. Proc.: Ancient Art. Artistic Culture of X-XIII in the first half. M. 1988. (Next - Ioannisyan, 1988). C. 42.
5. Detailed justification for the beginning of the white-stone building in Suzdal, see the book.: Yuri Dolgoruky and Old white-stone architecture. Moscow, 2002 (hereinafter - ZAGRAEVSKY, 2002).
6. Details about division and ornamental decoration on zooantropomorfny see the book. ZAGRAEVSKY, 2002. C. 6.
7. Under poslemongolskim time we will understand "poslebatyevskoe" - after the winter 1237-1238 period.
8. Cit. of the book.: NN Voronin. Architecture of the North-Eastern Russia XI-XV centuries. T. 1. M., 1961. S. 332.
9. For more information see: ZAGRAEVSKY, 2005; ZAGRAEVSKY, 2002.
10. ZAGRAEVSKY, 2002. C. 82.
11. For more information see: ZAGRAEVSKY, 2005; ZAGRAEVSKY, 2002; SV ZAGRAEVSKY. Apology Rostov chronicler (to the question about the dating of temples Yuri Dolgoruky). Proc.: Proceedings of the Regional Studies Conference on the centennial of the birth of NN Voronin (19 April 2004). Vladimir, 2004. S. 15-26.
12. For more information see: ZAGRAEVSKY, 2005; ZAGRAEVSKY, 2002.
13. Construction of the Assumption Cathedral and the Golden Gate in Vladimir began in 1158 (about the Cathedral of the Assumption, we can say more precisely - it was founded on April 8). Hence, the architect of Operation Barbarossa, in time to get acquainted with local experience white-stone building, and then determine the size of their plans and future buildings, was due to arrive in Vladimir, no later than the autumn-winter 1157. And Yuri Dolgoruky died May 15, 1157. Even if we assume that Andrew and became grand duke, immediately dispatched an embassy to Barbarossa for the masters, all the same he did not manage to get them in the autumn and winter of 1157. For more information see: ZAGRAEVSKY, 2005.
14. The emergence of zooantropomorfnogo decor has gone beyond a simple wall decoration of temples and collided with a centuries-old "stumbling blocks" of church dogma - with the Second Commandment of the Holy: "Do not get yourselves an idol, and any image that is in heaven above or on the earth beneath, or in the water under the earth. Do not worship them or serve them ... "(Exodus 20:4).
Yuri Dolgoruky, having spent many years of exploration quarries began to build their temples in an extremely tense relationship with the Metropolitan of Kiev and Rostov bishops, who in early 1150-ies was Nestor, delivered to the department, as substantiated by this study, the enemy Dolgoruky - Metropolitan Clement in late 1140-ies (for details see: ZAGRAEVSKY, 2005).
In this regard, the complete absence of the Temple Yuri any attempts to create zooantropomorfnogo decor has the following explanation: This is a compromise between the prince and the Church (for details see: ZAGRAEVSKY, 2005). And we may say that this compromise - the consent of the Metropolitan (respectively, and the blessing of the bishop) for the construction of Suzdal in 1152, white-stone churches with the "universal" Roman ornamental decor - was a major victory Dolgoruky. Even despite the fact that the prince had to make concessions in the area of decor.
More information about the issues decoration on the temples Dolgorukogo see: ZAGRAEVSKY, 2005.
16. NN Voronin. Ordinance. cit., v. 1, pp. 332.
17. Theological-scholastic framework of Gothic, in particular, considered in their work: E. Panofsky. Gothic architecture and scholasticism. Proc.: Theology in the culture of the Middle Ages. Kiev, 1992.
18. O. Choisy. The history of architecture. M., 1937, v. 2, pp. 239.
19. VV Suslov. Materials for the History of Ancient Novgorod and Pskov architecture. SPb., 1888. S. 12-14.
20. AI Nekrasov. Novgorod the Great and his artistic life. M., 1924. S. 47-50; AI Nekrasov. Byzantine and Russian art. M., 1924. S. 86-89; AI Nekrasov. Essays on the history of Old Russian architecture XI-XVII century. M., 1936. S. 142-144, 150-152.
21. Konstantin Romanov. Pskov, Novgorod and Moscow in their cultural and artistic relations. Proc.: Math. Russian Academy of History of Material Culture. L., 1925. T. 4.
22. MK Karger. Novgorod the Great. M., 1946. C. 51-55; MK Carger. Novgorod architecture. Proc.: History of Russian art. M., 1954. T. 2. 46-50.
23. PN Maksimov. Church of St Nicholas at Lipno near Novgorod. Proc.: Architectural heritage. 1952. Vol. 2; PN Maksimov. Foreign connection in the architecture of Novgorod and Pskov, XI-XVI centuries beginning. Proc.: Architectural heritage. 1960. Vol. 12. S. 34-36.
24. Vl.V.Sedov. Church of St. Nicholas in Lipno and Novgorod architecture of the XIII century. in connection with the Romano-Gothic tradition. Proc.: Ancient Art. Russ. Byzantium. Balkans. XIII century. SPb., 1997. S. 393-412 (hereinafter - Sedov, 1997); Vl.V.Sedov. Church Theodore Stratilatus in Novgorod. Proc.: Society of architectural historians. Archive architecture. Vol. IX. M., 1997. S. 3-32; Vl.V.Sedov. Church of the Transfiguration on Kovalev. Proc.: Society of architectural historians. Archive architecture XI. Novgorod antiquity. Issue 5. M., 2000. S. 54-56.
26. PN Maksimov. Foreign connection in the architecture of Novgorod and Pskov, XI-XVI centuries beginning. Proc.: Architectural heritage. 1960. Vol. 12. S. 36-37.
27. Sedov, 1997, pp. 412.
28. N. Borisov. Ivan III. M., 2000. C. 20.
29. FI Uspensky. History of the Byzantine Empire. M., 1997. T. 1, pp. 603.
30. The absence of any significant "Balkan influences on the architecture of the North-Eastern Russia XIII-end of the first third of the XIV century showed by this study (SV ZAGRAEVSKY. Architecture of the North-Eastern Russia XIII-end of the first third of the XIV century. M., 2003 . S. 94), on the architecture of the North-Eastern Russia the end of the first third of the XIV-XV century - NN Voronin (NN Voronin. Ordinance. Op., v. 2, pp. 367-370).
31. ZAGRAEVSKY, 2003. S. 81-111.
33. SS Pod'yapol'skii. On the question of originality of architecture of Moscow Cathedral of the Assumption. Proc.: Assumption Cathedral. Materials and Research. M., 1985. C. 42.
35. AL Batalov. Destiny Renaissance tradition in medieval culture. Italian form of Russian architecture of the XVI century. Proc.: The Art of the Christian world. Vol. 5. M., 2001. S. 135-142.
36. Details, see: SV ZAGRAEVSKY. Yuri Dolgoruky and Old white-stone architecture. Moscow, 2002 (hereinafter - ZAGRAEVSKY, 2002). S. 134-136; ZAGRAEVSKY, 2003. S. 99-105.
37. For more information see: ZAGRAEVSKY, 2002, pp. 93-96; ZAGRAEVSKY, 2003, pp. 51-53.
38. BA Ognev. Some problems rannemoskovskogo architecture. Proc.: Architectural heritage. T. 12. M., 1960. S. 46; SS Pod'yapol'skii. Ordinance. cit., pp. 43.
39. For more information see: ZAGRAEVSKY, 2003, pp. 115-118.
40. Details, see: SV ZAGRAEVSKY. Questions of architectural history and reconstruction of St. George's Cathedral in St. George's in Polish. Moscow, 2007 (hereinafter - ZAGRAEVSKY, 2007). Table 1. The article is on the website www.zagraevsky.com.
41. GK Wagner. Style formation of the peculiarity of the architecture of Ancient Rus (return to the problem). Proc.: Architectural heritage. Vol. 38. M., 1995. C. 23.
43. ZAGRAEVSKY, 2003. C. 80.
44. Ibid. 87.
45. Ibid. 107.
46. Details, see: SV ZAGRAEVSKY. On the forms of titles (dome coating) of ancient temples. Abstracts of articles published in the book.: Proceedings of the Regional Studies Conference (April 14, 2006). T. 2. Vladimir, 2007. S. 9-12.
47. NN Voronin. Ordinance. cit., v. 2, pp. 259.
48. SV Kuznetsov on the forum website www.sobory.ru suggested the following analogy: if we imagine the map of distribution of the Gothic and to provide for her gothic architecture green, then France will be drawn in thick greenery, Germany - green slightly different shade, Italy will, for example, turquoise, England - brown-green, etc., and on the alleged "map of Russia" without special spectral analysis of the green color is hardly visible. Accordingly, the general and beskontekstnoe use of the term "Russian Gothic" (as the term "Russian Romanik") will be similar to painting a "map of Russia" in bright green color, which, of course, legitimate.
Even better ready methodological coarsening are the terms of DS Likhachev, claiming to be a general characterization of architecture such distinct regions as the North-West and North-Eastern Russia: for the beginning of XII-XIII century - "a monumental historicism" (D. Likhachev. The Man in the literature of ancient Russia. M., 1970. S. 25), for the first half of the XIV-XV century - "Predvozrozhdenie" (Likhachev. Culture of Russia Andrei Rublev time and Epiphanius the Wise. M. - L., 1962. S. 12). The latter term was adopted and GK Wagner (GK Wagner. Ordinance. Cit., Pp. 26).
49. An analogue of this approach - known sculpture V.I.Demuta-Malinowski "Russian Scaevola. Russian guy with an ax chop off his arm, is comparable to a Roman prototype, only one basis (and not quite the same way) - feat.
50. GK Wagner. Ordinance. cit., pp. 28.
51. In particular, see: AI Komech. Ancient Architecture of the end of the X-XII in the beginning. M., 1987.
NOTES TO THE ANNEX
1. M. Ioannisyan, EN Torshin, PL Zykov. Church of Boris and Gleb in Rostov Veliky. Proc.: Ancient Art. Russ. Byzantium. Balkans. XIII century. St. Petersburg, 1997. S. 232.
2. SV ZAGRAEVSKY. Architecture of the North-Eastern Russia the end of the first third of the XIII-XIV century. Moscow, 2003 (hereinafter - ZAGRAEVSKY, 2003). C. 47.
3. ZAGRAEVSKY, 2003, pp. 105.
4. Ibid. 76.
5. Ibid. 50.
6. Ibid. 56-62.
7. Ibid. 87.
8. Ibid. 106.
9. V. Kavelmaher, TD Panova. The remains of the white-stone church in the XIV. on the Cathedral Square of the Moscow Kremlin. Proc.: Culture medieval Moscow XIV-XVII centuries. M., 1995. C. 66.
10. ZAGRAEVSKY, 2003. C. 46.
11. NN Voronin. Ordinance. cit., v. 2, pp. 158.
12. ZAGRAEVSKY, 2003. C. 22.
13. AA Sukhanov. Podklet Cathedral of the Annunciation according to the architectural and archaeological studies of the twentieth century (the article was written under the direction of VV Kavelmahera). Proc.: Artistic Monuments of the Moscow Kremlin. Materials and Research. Vol. 16. M., 2003. S. 171.
15. LA Belyaev. The ancient monasteries of Moscow (late XIII-early. XV cc.) According to archeology. M., 1994. S. 47-72.
16. SV ZAGRAEVSKY. On the reconstruction of the Saviour Cathedral Andromkov monastery. M., 2004. The article is on the website www.zagraevsky.com.
© Sergey Zagraevsky