Prof. Dr. S.V. Zagraevsky
To the question of reconstruction and date of the Church of the Intersession of the Holy Virgin on the Nerl river
Published in Russian: Заграевский
С.В. К вопросу о реконструкции и
датировке церкви Покрова на Нерли. В кн.: Материалы
областной краеведческой конференции (20–21 апреля
The research by Professor, Dr. S.V. Zagraevsky is dedicated to the masterpiece of Ancient
Russian architecture – the
The following text was translated from the Russian original by the computer program
and has not yet been edited.
So it can be used only for general introduction.
The Church of the Intercession is located on flood plains near the confluence of the Nerl and the Klyazma river (the General appearance of the temple is shown in Fig. 1 and 2). In the XII century Klyazma was leaking a little to the North, and the Church was practically on the river Strelka, making the intersection of major water trade routes1.
Fig. 1. The Church of the Intercession on the Nerl. View from the water meadows.
Fig. 2. The Church of the Intercession on the Nerl. The Northern facade.
The intercession on the Nerl - four-column apses, single-domed Church, built of white stone of the highest quality (masonry very homogenous, it is virtually absent yellowish, porosity blocks is very low, - in a word, this quality of a laying there in none of the old white-stone temples). In the vaults for their relief applied tuff-like limestone2.
The temple stands on the unique Foundation consisting of eight ranks
high-quality well-treated white stone (a total of about
From the temple of XII century without significant distortions to have
survived the main volume is small, almost square in plan (10 x
The division of the Northern and southern walls of the temple are asymmetric, the Eastern parts are very narrow. However, the amount of the ledge lateral apses and the width of the Eastern parts of the walls is almost equal to the width of the middle parts of the walls, and through this composition of the temple looks balanced when viewed from any direction.
The ratio of the width of the Western facade of the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl to its height - about 0,85 (for comparison: in Vladimir's assumption Cathedral of Andrei Bogolyubsky and the Cathedral of St. Demetrius this ratio is close to unity). Column-type belt curb is slightly above the level of the choir, its top divides frontage on two almost equal parts. These proportions create a very slim silhouette of the temple.
The Church drum Cover is strongly elongated up - the ratio of the diameter to height equal to 0.79 (in the Cathedral of St. Demetrius - about 1).
Multi-profiled pilasters with semi-columns on the outside walls of the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl correspond to the blades. They are thicker than the walls about one and a half times, and this creates a very clear positive "image" of the temple.
Tapering up columns column-type belts are very close (closer to each other than the assumption Cathedral), and arcs strongly compressed and have a horseshoe shape. This architectural solution also emphasizes General tendency upwards"
Above the column-type belt, over the low tide, start new profiles - Gables and Windows. On the apses column-type belt curb located on top, some speakers belt replaced by semi-leading down to the basement, creating a coherent and vertically-oriented" pattern decoration apses.
Cross-like pillars are narrowing upward that the small size of the temple creates an additional sense of "elevation" of the interior.
In General, gives the impression not only of "high", but very "smart", despite the relatively modest (compared to, for example, Dmitrov Cathedral) zooantropomorfnogo type. The tympanum zakomaras are images of king David, lions, pigeons, griffins with lambs and female masks, in the bases of columns column-type belt masks and images of animals and monsters. Drum decorated column-type and crenate zones. The interior paired lions are placed in the heels of the arches.
Advanced portals of the temple are decorated with leafy capitals and carved semicircular archivolt. Attic profile cap similar to the profile of the basement of the Church of the Nativity of the virgin in the hierarchy.
Archaeological research conducted by N.N. Voronin in the 1950s years3showed that the temple had the gallery, which stood on the Foundation, as unique as at the temple, although somewhat less depth4 (Fig. 3). The availability of the galleries is proved by the discovery of their foundations, and, probably belonging to them, the white-stone profiled unit5 (Fig. 4).
Fig. 3. The incision and the plan of the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl with the foundations of the temple and hypothetical open galleries.
Fig. 4. The white-stone profiled unit, open excavations Voronin.
Later attempts to challenge this discovery Voronin does not look convincing. So, Pinacate6 and Cnephasia7 felt that additional Foundation walls were built in order to strengthen the artificial hill, poured around the temple.
PA Rappoport, criticizing the position of the PN arkatova and kN Afanasiev, cited numerous examples of galleries in the architecture of Suzdal land, and other ancient kingdoms8. However, the counterarguments of p.a. Rappoport cannot be called exhaustive, as all his examples were related to the private galleries, porches, and N.N. Voronin believed that the galleries were open9 (reconstruction Voronin see Fig. 3 and 5). We present additional arguments in favor of the existence of galleries:
- Pinacate and Cnephasia ignored the above archaeological discovery rightly identified by N.N. Voronin as a movie galleries;
- to strengthen the hill extremely powerful retaining walls of well-treated stone foundations, located so close to the temple, it would make no sense, as it still has eroded would be outside these walls. Then it would make sense to "move" these walls to the edges of the hill that would make them much lower and would have saved a lot of well-treated stone;
- artificial hill was strengthened more reliably than retaining walls, solid white vimetco10;
Fig. 5. The Church of the Intercession on the Nerl a hypothetical open galleries. Reconstruction Voronin.
Thus, we confirm the existence of a temple of the protection of the galleries. But the following questions remain open:
- the galleries erected simultaneously with the temple or later;
- if later, to what extent;
- were the galleries open or closed.
These are the questions we will explore in this article.
First, we note that, according to archaeological research Voronin11, rubble basis of the Foundation of the temple of the Intercession on the Nerl river was at the level of the surface of the mid - XII century, and rubble Foundation galleries - about half a meter above (Fig. 3). Then, as the construction of the walls of well-treated stone internal space of a building up to the walls of the galleries gradually (it gradually, and excavations it was convincingly shown) had to be ground. Outside is also increased the already mentioned artificial hill (without traces gradual sprinkling), closed the walls (walls of the galleries full, and to cap the temple hill, not reached by about two rows of masonry).
On the basis of the fact that the layers of debris inside the temple were the same as the layers of debris between the Foundation walls of the Church and galleries12we are obliged to follow NN Voronin put the simultaneous construction of these Foundation walls (but not the aerial parts of the temple and galleries, as we shall soon see).
The question as to why the rubble foundations of the galleries was founded half a meter above the rubble foundations of the temple, and the top well-treated of the Foundation walls of the galleries is located below the cap of the temple almost a meter, N.N. Voronin is not investigated.
Left open the question of unreasonable "wasteful" use for well-treated stone foundations. Voronin explained that the fact that thus better protect the stability of the upper parts of the building. This version looks a bit stretched, so as to ensure stability and normal rubble Foundation, and the Foundation stone, treated roughly.
We have already said that the archaeological excavations revealed the column, which, in all probability, belonged galleries13. Consequently, the gallery had above-ground parts, standing on the Foundation walls. But then there are two questions:
- why on walls of the temple, including the column-type belt, there are no traces of the vaults of galleries?
- why the gallery was closed completely finished (and very time-consuming in execution) column-type belt?
The first question Voronin gave is a comprehensive answer: overheads were wooden, and adhere to the walls of the temple for their entire duration was only a few cross-beams, nests which were later incorporated (in 1970-ies these nests found Smolakova-Buchman14).
Answering the second question, N.N. Voronin conducted a parallel with blocked the column-type belt of Northern extensions to the Church of the Nativity of the virgin in the hierarchy and wrote: "Every part of the ensemble were treated comprehensively, although it was known that this part of the facade will be covered by the Annex... that was - absolutely illogical, with our modern point of view, the system of Vladimir Masterov"15.
PA Rappoport was agree with the point of view Voronin: "it is Obvious that the ancient builders, to every single object that does all its external finishing, even knowing that now (or in the next construction season) they will close the finish adjacent part of the architectural complex. Apparently, there existed a kind, seemingly irrational to us, the logic on which even covered porches of the facades were to have a complete finishing16.
In other words, N.N. Voronin and PA Rappoport believed that the old Russian masters were known to "Sisyphean toil", not having any reason other than "kind of logic." As the main example of such "Sisyphean labor, researchers led covered by the arch transition column-type zone of the Northern wall of the Church of the Nativity in Bogolyubov17 (Fig. 6).
Fig. 6. Roofed porches column-type belt walls of the Church of the Nativity of the virgin in the hierarchy.
However, we have no "peculiar logic, and the more "Sisyphean labor", in Bogoliubov masters do not see. Their actions are seen absolutely logical and contemporary positions, and we can justify this position.
There is no doubt that in Bogolyubovo was initially built Church of the Nativity, and then to her was "attached" to the arch of the transition (the fact of "anchoring" prove the absence of ligation and mismatch porjadovki masonry). But why should we believe that the master, laying column-type belt, already knew that he would be permanently closed with stone outhouses?
Much more likely that at the time of construction of the Church of the Nativity of the Theotokos from the masters still no clear view of what will be the entrance to the choir and how the Church will be connected with the Palace complex. It could not be bulky stone transition over the arch, and light wooden bridge or even a simple wooden stairs (as in the Holy Transfiguration Cathedral of Pereslavl-Zalessky, where preserved under a doorway in the upper part of the Western fence of the Northern wall archaeological research has not revealed any remains of the foundations of a stone stair tower18). Accordingly, the actions of craftsmen, fully tiled column-type belt of the Church of the Nativity of the virgin, seen quite logical.
The same we can say about the picture of the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl. Understanding that they could be added to the temple later (for example, a few years after construction) allows us to believe that the logic of old masters in this question is not different from today: cutting the belt, they did not know whether in General the temple galleries and stair tower. In favor of the version of the later construction of galleries and ornament on the excavated block with polycolonal (Fig. 4): any Parallels in the decoration of the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl this ornament has not.
However, as we saw above, the Foundation walls of the galleries were built simultaneously with the Foundation walls of the temple. Isn't that a contradiction?
It is not a contradiction, and we can show that by attempting to reconstruct the stages of construction of the Intercession Church and galleries with all the issues that we raised:
- why the rubble foundations of the galleries was founded half a meter above the rubble foundations of the temple;
- why the top well-treated of the Foundation walls of galleries is located below the base of the temple almost a meter;
- why was unduly "wasteful" use for well-treated stone foundations;
- why completed column-type belt was closed galleries.
Apparently, the matter was that, as it often happened with buildings, enjoyed the close attention of the rulers (and the Church of the Intercession is not only designed" especially important crossroads of trade routes, but certainly was visible from the Windows of the Palace of Prince Andrew in Bogolyubovo), the idea of construction changed several times over the course of realization. Most likely, there were approximately the following stages:
1. Initially conceived the temple the architect and craftsmen (we will collectively call them builders) without galleries, standing on a high gadatana the podium.
2. Laying rubble Foundation and taking well-treated walls of the podium by about a meter and a half (defined during the excavation of the first level of filling of white stone building crumbs19), the builders decided to surround the temple galleries, standing at this podium.
3. The builders laid the foundations of rubble galleries (half a meter above, as the level of the surface during the previous building had grow) and started in parallel to build the walls of the podium of the temple and galleries. Both walls were built of well-treated stone, including internal (a temple), as well as stone for it anyway already been prepared beforehand.
4. Having finished the construction of two walls almost to the top, the builders refused the construction of galleries. Perhaps they realized that the temple with galleries losing "tendency up, which, as we showed in the beginning of this article, was given great importance.
6. The construction of the walls catwalk galleries, respectively, was stopped, and the podium of the Church was raised to the height of two more blocks of stone20.
7. On this podium was built the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl in the form in which it survived until our days. In this regard, we have to admit that the modern appearance of the temple is quite adequately reflects unless the original concept of the architect (perhaps the temple was conceived standing on gadatana the podium), the basic stage of its construction and implementation.
8. During the construction of the temple of the status of the choir has not yet been decided (because of the galleries refused), so the column-type belt builders completed in full.
9. Then was attached to the Church staircase and (or) the stair tower to the entrance to the gallery. Perhaps, these additions were made of wood.
10. Later (perhaps in a few years, or even after the death of Andrei Bogoliubsky) on the previously constructed the Foundation walls were still elevated gallery, fragments of which were discovered by excavations21.
In connection with the foregoing, we may wonder, what were these galleries. N.N. Voronin believed that they were open, as "the best harmony with the forms of the Church"22 and had to emphasize the "ceremonial" status of the temple. But on this position there are serious doubts:
- first, all our statements about "the best harmony" concerning Ancient Russia inevitably subjective;
- secondly, a powerful Foundation walls open galleries would be ribbon Foundation, despite the fact that the Church itself does not have such foundations;
- thirdly, in the pre-Mongol Ancient Russia we do not know precedents open galleries23;
- fourth, attempts Voronin to identify found during excavations of white stone block with polycolonal and ornament (Fig. 4) as part of a pillar of open galleries forced the researcher to give reconstructed pillars hypothetical galleries extremely difficult and unprecedented in ancient Russian and world architecture of the form24 (Fig. 7). Much more likely that this block belonged either to the corner of the walls closed galleries, or to their portal.
Fig. 7. The pillar of hypothetical open galleries. Reconstruction Voronin.
Thus, we may assume that the galleries were closed, that is, had the character of porches25. This is understandable goals to expand and insulation of the building, increasing its area, the device chapels and ancillary facilities (such have existed in many ancient temples). Therefore, we can not accept the reconstruction Voronin (Fig. 3 and 5) for any of the intermediate stages of formation of the image of the Church of the Intercession.
The disappearance of the galleries of the Church of the Intercession N.N. Voronin reasonably linked with the construction of a new porch at the end of the XVII century26.
Where were bulky sculptures of lions, open excavations Noortlaan27we can only guess. They could be on a hypothetical stairs to the temple from the Wharf, as suggested BA Ognev28and directly in front of the temple, like many Romanesque Cathedral (Fig. 8).
Fig. 8. Lions at the portal of the Romanesque Cathedral in Modena.
Based on the foregoing, we believe that the modern look of the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl generally corresponds to the original. Closed gallery (porch) were added to the temple in a few years (even decades) after its construction.
Turn to the question of Dating the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl.
Many researchers (including VI Dobrokhotov29, N.N. Voronin30 and PA Rappoport31) dated the temple on the basis of the life of Andrei Bogolyubsky, written in connection with the canonization of the Prince in 1702. Here is the message of " Life:
"That year (1165), his first son Izjaslav A. was gone to the Lord, and was laid in the Cathedral of the Dormition of the Holy mother of God Church. 32.
VI Dobrokhotov, based on this message Lives, dated the Church of the Intercession of the year 1166, as Izyaslav died in autumn 116533.
PA Rappoport believed that the construction of the temple began immediately after the death of Izyaslav (already in 1165) and ended in 116734. But in the position of the researcher was an internal contradiction, since the temple, accepted by p.a. Rappaport message of the life of Andrei Bogolyubsky, was built "one year".
Not quite clear position regarding the Dating of the Church took Voronin. In his opinion, the Church of the Intercession was "the most perfect monument of the number of buildings of Prince Andrew, as if completing a galaxy of"35but he is in the relevant section of his fundamental work "the Architecture of North-Eastern Russia XII-XV centuries" generally offered no Dating temple36. Only through many pages37 for the first time found no reasonable date - 1165. Later research has repeatedly mentioned this year as the time of the end of the stone building Bogolyubsky38.
But Izyaslav Andreevich has died in autumn 1165, and during the winter Church of the Intercession could not be built. Why Voronin, recognizing the loyalty of the message of the Life that the Church was built in memory of Izyaslav39, adopted as Dating in 1165, is unknown to us. Perhaps the researchers believed that the Church of the Intercession was built after the Church of the Saviour in Vladimir, which, in his opinion (although expressed very indirectly40), was completed in 1164. However, this motivation is questionable, as Voronin left unspecified date the Church of the Nativity of the virgin in Bogolyubovo41.
Thus, we have to state that the Dating of the Church of the protection of the year 1165 is arbitrary and unsatisfactory (unfortunately, it 1165 entrenched in the most part of scientific, educational and popular literature and date as the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl, and as the end time of temple construction of Andrei Bogolyubsky42). If based on the Life of Andrei Bogolyubsky, the most satisfactory seen Dating VI Dobrokhotova - 1166.
However, there are a number of reasons why we can't be based on the Dating of the Church of the protection of Life message.
First, it is very late (the beginning of XVIII century), and even if it was not apparent contradictions, to receive him in the Dating could only unless otherwise Dating information (which, as we shall soon see, we have).
Secondly, in the message of " Life has a number of insoluble internal contradictions:
- it is not clear when Andrew had time to begin to "collect" and remove the stones from the Volga Bulgaria for the construction of the assumption Cathedral, if his campaign against the Bulgarians took place in 1164, and the construction of the Vladimir Cathedral began in 1158;
- even if we assume that the Prince began to "collect" stones in Bulgaria for the assumption Cathedral before his campaign, he was not able to do it in 1156 - but according to the Life he collected and exported stones "dualities";
- it is unclear how it was possible stones "to collect" - it was not lying on the ground, their extraction and processing was very difficult43;
- stone, which built the Church of the Intercession, is extremely white (it considerably more white stone of any of the old white-stone temples). Volzhsky same limestone has grey-brown colour44;
- if the temple was built in memory of Izyaslav, it is more likely that he would focus namesake of Bogolyubsky's son. But the Church is dedicated to the feast of the protection;
- Life suggests that the stones were "stored" at the construction site of the future Church of the Intercession during the construction of the assumption Cathedral. It turns out that Andrew in 1158 already knew that in the year 1165 by his son will die and he will build the temple in his memory.
All these insoluble contradictions do not allow us to establish the date
of the Church of the Intercession on the message late in the Life of Andrei Bogolyubsky (note that Noortlaan,
Generikov and N.p.kondakov
also did not trust to "Life", Dating temple in a wide time span
We have the opportunity confident enough to determine the date of the temple on the basis of consistent messages pre-Mongol Chronicles previously for unknown reasons, the researchers ignored.
First of all, remember the message Brief Vladimir chronicle": "And then come from Kiev Andrey and cytori Loving castle and debris, and set, and placed two churches kameny46. That in this message, we are talking about the Church of the Nativity of the virgin in the hierarchy and of the Intercession on the Nerl, no doubt because of the Novgorod I chronicle says, "And placed her (mother of God SZ) temple in Rotz Klyazma, two stone Church in the name of the Holy mother of God"47.
As we see, both chronicle reports clearly link the basis of the hierarchy of the city and the construction of churches of the Nativity of the virgin and protection. And Novgorod IV chronicle gives an unambiguous date basis of Bogolyubov - 115848.
Therefore, we must take this year as the date and the Church of the Nativity of the virgin and the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl.
This position is confirmed by the message Vladimir chronicle (XVI century)49 under 1158: "These same Prince Andrei Bogolubskii hail debris, and set, built the stone Church of the Christmas we sweatey of the Holy virgin on Klyazma the river, and another Cover sweatey of the Holy virgin on the Nerl, and called monastery"50.
It remains to consider the question, could the Church of the Intercession be built within 1158.
We believe that the message of the life of Andrei Bogolyubsky that the temple was built in one year", in this case you can trust.
First, in all the above mentioned Chronicles say that the Church of the Intercession in 1158 was "delivered", and in old Russian annals the word "delivered" in respect of temples has been synonymous with the words "built" and in Chronicles most often meant exactly what the construction of this year was begun and completed.
For example, "the Vladimir chronicle reports under 1401 year that in Novgorod ", postavila (hereinafter emphasis added - SZ) stone Church of Emperor Constantine, his and his mother Helena on the Yanev street, and Archbishop Ivan founded the city Detinets Kamen from Novagoroda"51; in 1432 "postavila two churches kameny the Holy George Borkova street and Nikola over the lake Burago", and in 1433 "stone stone Church of St. Holy Ivan Chrysostom Bishop Gate"52; in 1514 "sacred was the Church of Sveta Varvara against Panska yard Metropolitan Varlamov, and put thuja Church Iurii urvihvostov Yes Theodore boar... In the city of Moscow Grand Prince Church placed the Holy Saviour, the Holy honest cross of the Lord, and the Holy Martyr Macovei flesh, and their teachers Eleazar and their mother Solomonia, from the river put in a pit. That same summer, the Moskva river in Ust Neglinny broach delatite dam stone. That same summer, the great Prince Vasily Ivanovich laid the stone Church of the Holy Annunciation in Vorontsovo. That same summer, the great Prince Vasily another stone Church was laid The Annunciation of the Holy virgin at Neglinnaya in Old Khlynov"53.
In Novgorod I Chronicles younger (under 1442 says, "That same
summer , placed Bogolubova Archbishop novgorodskii Vladyka Eufemia St. Saviour
Transfiguration in Rousse, on Staro
basis, and things were made, osobnich the people went
and rushani; and hosted byst
of sentyabrya months in 13 day"
Typographical chronicle under the year 1017 reports: "And founded
Yaroslav grad "
Such examples that show that Chronicles the weather is generally shared by the terms "deliver", "complete", "to sanctify", "to begin" and "lay"can be cited.
Secondly, in Ancient Russia one year was the usual term for the construction of temples scale of the Intercession on the Nerl. Thus, during one year were erected in Novgorod - the Church of Boris and Gleb (1167), of the Savior on Nereditsa (1198), of the Saviour in Staraya Russa (1198), Paraskeva on Trade (1207 year), of St. Nicholas in Lipno (1292), Spasa on Kovalev (1345 year), assumption on Volotovo field (1352 year).
Undoubtedly, there were cases when the chroniclers "summarized" buildings, and confused the terms, and simply wrong. But a priori critical attitude to the priceless ancient documentary information is incorrect, and in the absence of any extremely reliable and significant counter-arguments that information should unconditionally accept.
Therefore, as the Dating of the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl we accept 1158. The galleries, as we saw above, could be built a few years (if not decades).
N.N. Voronin called the Church of the Intercession of the "best building Vladimir architects"57, "the most perfect monument of the number of buildings of Prince Andrew, as if finishing a galaxy"58. But we see that after the Church of the Intercession were built with the chronicle dates Dormition Cathedral in Rostov (1161-1162 years60) and the Church of our Saviour in Vladimir (about the year 116459). It looked like these churches, we do not know.
Therefore, without prejudice of exceptional architectural and artistic merits of the Church of the Intercession, we'll give it a slightly different feature: this is the most important building of the architects of pre-Mongol North-Eastern Russia (perhaps even more famous than the assumption Cathedral in Vladimir), and many of the problems faced by the researchers of this monument, connected with its world-famous, generating a lot of stereotypes.
1. Voronin. The architecture of North-Eastern Russia XII-XV centuries. M., 1961-1962. So 1, S. 561.
2. Voronin. The decree. cit., S. 533.
3. Ibid., C. 276-284.
4. Ibid., C. 282.
5. Ibid., C. 290.
6. Information on
the report b.p. Arkatova see in the book: Brief reports of the Institute of
7. Cnephasia. There were galleries or not? About
the past of the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl.
In the book: The architecture of the
8. PA Rappoport. Once again about the galleries
of the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl.
In the book: The architecture of the
9. Voronin. The decree. cit., S. 287.
10. Ibid., C. 284.
11. Ibid., C. 266.
12. Ibid., C. 280.
13. Ibid., C. 290.
14. S.M. Novakovskiy To the question of galleries white stone
15. Voronin. The decree. cit., S. 286.
16. PA Rappoport. The decree. cit., 106 S..
17. Voronin. The decree. cit., S. 286; PA Rappoport. The decree. cit., 106 S..
19. Voronin. The decree. cit., S. 279.
20. Ibid., C. 266.
21. Ibid., C. 290.
22. Ibid., C. 287.
23. Rybakov has advanced the hypothesis that public gallery had
the temple in Vshchizh (Rybakov.
The capital city of Chernihiv and
specific city Vshchizh. In the book:
"Traces of ancient cultures. Ancient Rus".
24. Voronin. The decree. cit., S. 290.
25. According to
the information Voronin, so thought BP dedushenko (Voronin. The decree. cit., S. 534). Unfortunately, the author of this
article has previously taken the position Voronin on
26. Voronin. The decree. cit., S. 300.
27. Ibid., C. 296.
28. Ibid., C. 297.
29. Ibid., C. 261-262.
30. Ibid., C. 279, 298.
31. PA Rappoport. Old Russian architecture.
32. VI Dobrokhotov. The ancient city of Bogolyubov and monastery with its surroundings. M.,
33. Ibid., C. 71.
34. PA Rappoport. Old Russian architecture.
35. Voronin. The decree. cit., S. 264.
37. Ibid., C. 279.
38. Ibid., C. 322, 335, 342.
39. Ibid., C. 298.
40. Ibid., C. 197.
41. Ibid., C. 202.
the author of this article had previously Dating of
the Church of the protection of the year 1165 without critical evaluation (see
SV zagraevsky. Yuri Dolgoruky and old white-stone architecture. M.,
43. On the extraction and processing of white stone, see: SV zagraevsky. Organization of production and processing of white stone in Ancient Russia. M., 2006. The article is on the web-site www.zagraevsky.com.
44. Voronin. The decree. cit., S. 341.
45. About Dating, offered by the researchers, see ibid., C. 262.
47. The first
48. PSRL 4:10.
49. For the first
time on this message
50. PSRL. So
51. SHM. The Synodal SOBR. No.
52. Ibid, l 218, 219.
53. Ibid, L. 232 about.
54. The first
55. Ibid., C. 427.
56. PSRL 24:35.
57. Voronin. The decree. cit., S. 261.
58. Ibid., C. 264.
59. PSRL 9:230, 231; 15:233-235; 20:122; 21:115.
60. Rationale the date of the
© Sergey Zagraevsky