Dr. Sergey Zagraevsky
The ship and its team (10
years after the Charter of
The following text was translated from the Russian original by the computer program
and has not yet been edited.
So it can be used only for general introduction.
2007 for the Russian Academy of arts (RAA), as it is known, the anniversary. 250 years ago, in 1757, the Empress Elizaveta Petrovna founded the St. Petersburg Academy of arts, which is the successor of the current Academy.
The decree on the establishment of the Academy was signed in November 1757 - hence, the 250-year anniversary falls on a late autumn. But the celebrations began very, very much in advance - in 2006. According to the report of the Vice-President of the Russian Academy of arts Dmitry Shvidkovski at the jubilee session of the Presidium of the ARTS in the hall of the Cathedral of Christ the Savior, in the framework of the anniversary celebrations were held just incredible number of exhibitions - 652 in the halls of the Russian Academy of ARTS, its museums and regions, another 912 exhibitions were exhibited works of the Academy members, were created 3 of the Museum and one ha%D
Of course, museums and galleries (among them the Moscow municipal Museum of modern art and the art Gallery Tsereteli) opened by themselves, and not for the anniversary of the Russian Academy of arts. Yes, and numerous monuments of the President of the Academy Zurab Tsereteli, full members of the Alexander Rukavishnikov, Alexander Burganov, other academicians and corresponding member of the sculpture section nothing to do with the anniversary of ARTS, probably not. Just once the anniversary, so why would the leadership of the Academy not to put a few extra "ticks"?
And the exhibition... of Course, if you put all the exhibitions 2006-2007, in which participated all the members of Academy (the latter is currently more than three hundred), it will probably even more than 912.
However, there were large-scale exhibition, directly held by the Russian Academy of arts for its anniversary. Moscow, Petersburg, Kolomna, Saratov... the Most grandiose of which was held in June 2007 in the Moscow Manege. More than three thousand works of art of members of the Imperial, Soviet and Russian academies of arts, huge crowds of academicians, corresponding members, honorary guests, their friends and relatives at the opening...
Unfortunately, in all the other days this superexpensive rooms were nearly empty, because there was no greater awareness of art lovers on the work of the exhibition, nor excursion service, no detailed explication in the halls and at the exhibits, and in General all this luxury corny hit the "dead season"... However, the Moscow Manege Vernissage Micah is%
Be that as it may, the 250th anniversary of the Russian Academy of arts is included in the list of UNESCO memorable dates of 2007 and is celebrated, as they say, from Paris to Nakhodka. The conference, dedicated to the jubilee, took place even in Silver Ponds (small urban-type settlement in the far corner of the Moscow region).
If poetic and sublime (anniversary still!) to compare the Academy of arts with the ship, it would seem that this freshly painted and newly renovated ocean liner (or an aircraft carrier, whatever you prefer) under the leadership of the brave captain Zurab Tsereteli is confidently sailing through the storms and eddies centuries.
But in 2007, is yet another anniversary associated with the Russian Academy of arts - but not the 250-year and 10-year-old. And we are not talking about completion in 1997 of work on the decoration of the Cathedral of Christ the Savior, and not about the election in the same year, Zurab Tsereteli, President of the Academy, and not even about installing svejesobranna President in the same amazingly rich in the events of the year of his main works of the monument to Peter I. On the event, about which speech will go, you know, and remember not all, and it concerns not external - very, very pompous - hand the life of the Academy, and its internal devices. So to speak, of the rules of the mechanisms of the ship and the order of forming his team.
on 18 November 1997, the Prime Minister of Russia Victor Chernomyrdin (naturally, with the filing of the newly elected President of ARTS Zurab Tsereteli) approved a new Charter of the Russian Academy of arts.
The previous Constitution was adopted in 1993 is still under Nicholas Ponomarev, the predecessor of Zurab Tsereteli on the post of the President of the Academy. This Statute only lasted 4 years, that, in General, no wonder - too much in it were provisions that prevented PAX effectively operate as a legal entity. Take unimaginable organizational form - "higher state of creative and scientific organization of the Russian Federation". In 1996 adopted a new Civil code, which clearly identify all possible types of legal entities, and nothing "high-creative science" which, of course, was not. Thus, the Charter had to be changed in any case.
In the Charter of 1997 has already been clearly stated that the Russian Academy of arts is a public institution of culture - the branch Academy of Sciences in the field of fine and decorative arts, architecture, design and art education. Accordingly, the founder of the Academy by the Government of the Russian Federation.
The new Charter has taken into account and all organizations and all institutions of the Academy - Institute of theory and history of fine arts, Moscow state academic art Institute named after Surikov, the Moscow academic art Lyceum named Tomsk, St. Petersburg state academic Institute of painting, sculpture and architecture named after Repin St. Petersburg secondary art school, scientific-research Museum of branches (the Museum-estate "Penaty", Museum-apartment Brodsky, division workshop Chistyakov, division workshop Kuindzhi, Museum-workshop Konenkov), scientific library and archives, creative workshops on various types of art in Moscow in Prechistenka, in St. Petersburg on Vasilievsky island, Krasnoyarsk, Kazan... do Not forget even the Directorate for buildings management and financial and economic welfare.
The list is impressive and adds confidence that all the mechanisms of the ocean liner called the Russian Academy of arts" are normal and will provide a safe, happy and long journey.
Note that all these organizations and institutions are the state ownership and assigned to the Academy on the basis of operational management. No commercial activity ARTS has no right to - at least, officially. In short, according to the Constitution of 1997, the Russian Academy of arts is a state institution with wide internal autonomy, the same branch Academy, the Academy of medical Sciences (RAMS), agricultural Sciences (EXPENSES), of architecture and construction Sciences (RAACS), education (RAE)... Securely, forward, solidly controlled by the state.
Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), of course, is more solid, but doctors because life is beautiful in their branch of the Academy - so what good artists? Moreover, who knows the President of the Russian Academy of medical Sciences, Mikhail Davydov, except fellow academics and colleagues oncologists? I guess the only cancer patients, and that God forbid anyone... And who knows Zurab Tsereteli?
A ship of the Russian Academy of arts... No, not liner - although they are big and beautiful, but usually belong there every billionaire oligarchs. And then the state - means an aircraft carrier! Well, at least missile cruiser. Great, freshly painted, all machines and mechanisms albeit with minor interruptions, but work...
"Floats. Where shall we sail?.." This is also more or less clear: the founder (owner, master - everyone calls as he wants) of the Academy of arts is the state, therefore, can only swim in the mainstream of public policy. Many (including this author) don't like it, many (including the author of this article) argue for at least formal independence Academy (art still!) from the state, but the Charter 1997 it excludes.
However, in this situation for the Russian Academy of arts there is one problem: the state policy in the field of art now available. No direct support and Frank public preferences "powers that be" none of the directions in art does not have. However, when looking at the exhibitions held in the State and the Moscow city Duma, it may seem that the deputies prefer exclusively "traditions of Russian realism" and landscapes in the spirit of the worst work Shishkin and Aivazovsky, but actually this is
Example - recently opened in the Central house of artists unimaginable scale exhibition of former shocking of performansista, and the now familiar conceptual Oleg Kulik. At its opening was attended by the head of the presidential Administration Vladislav Surkov - as, for example, an academic exhibition in Manezh welcomed a representative of the President in the Central Federal district,% D,
Apparently, now professed slogan of Mao TSE Tung "Let all flowers bloom". However, the more painful then pulled out the flowers (minus one, which eventually decides to choose a state), but let's hope that in our conditions this is still far away.
Accordingly, the declared objective of the state in the field of art - the preservation of what is. About the same policy - at least declaratively - adheres to the Russian Academy of arts.
Save means to support. In principle, the Academy is able to provide its members (first of all, of course, artists) three types of support fair, financial, and "status" (the latter - by assigning academic honors and awards).
Well, as for exhibition activities, in the absence of the culture of reference ("PR", lighting in print, directory, excursions, explications, etc.) no matter how much vistavnaya, still don't get anything other than "show". Now every little bit active artist such "exhibitions-ticks" tens, if not hundreds.
But seriously promotion of artists of the Academy, of course, can not only full members and corresponding member in it more than three at each has neither the time nor the energy... What to say about "outsiders"? Even the first Vice-President of ARTS - Eduardo Drobitsky and Tahir Salahov - no "broad public relations" is not to fall. Is only enough for the President Zurab Tsereteli. And all the others (except those who are able to actively "self-promotion", as Alexander Shilov and Ilya Glazunov) and are "widely known in narrow circles".
With financial support, too, to put it mildly, it turns out yourself. The state budget we have, as you know, with all the oil profits very economical, and he does not clear up... is it Possible, for example, normally live in those fourteen or seven thousand a month, which according to the RF Government decree ¹ 712 of November 23, 2006 are respectively action is%BFor regions it is still decent money, and for Moscow and St. Petersburg - little, very little... Well, sometimes (very rarely) awards and grants, for some (mainly, "their") teaching positions in academic institutions... anyway, enough.
Of course, gradually and slowly the members of the Russian Academy of arts (of course, first of all members of its Bureau) is paid to something else. For example, in 2006, Russia's audit chamber has found that the Academy has spent inappropriately 2.1 million roubles, of which about half of these funds are spent on maintenance of the Presidium. In 2001, a similar test
But let them cast in the Academy for this stone he who is without sin. Today it is not the main problem of PAX. The main problem is with the awarding of academic titles. This is the same "status" support, which is closely linked to financial - who pay these fourteen or seven thousand...
Who are they - the present members of the Academy? What the team is now on the ship and how is it formed? After a bad team still can go only so long - established ship mechanisms will be broken, wrapped the ship is not there, to be put ashore, and if not reversed...
The formation of a team of Russian Academy of arts - the election of full members, corresponding members and honorary members - of course, also subject to the Charter.
Charter of 1993 establishes a procedure for electing members of the Academy: "the Message of ARTS Bureau for the election of full members and corresponding members is published in the press not later than three months before the elections... the List of registered candidates to full members and corresponding members of the Academy shall be published in the press not later than 15 days before the election... Elections of full members and corresponding members are held at the Academy sessions by secret ballot on the basis of the recommendations of the Presidium and branches... About election results reported in the press".
Clear, transparent and democratic. You must publish the lists of candidates and lists of elected officials. Voting by secret vote of the full members at the session. The Presidium and branches represent only, and will present not so - and-so and black balls disagree academics can throw, as it has often happened in history and the Imperial Academy of arts, and OH what
So it was, but the last 10 years is not so. What is written on the subject of elections in the Constitution of 1997?
We read: "the Presidium of the Academy shall be elected from among full members of the Academy on 5-year term by a simple majority of votes in an open vote of the active members present at the meeting of the academic meetings.
It turns out that for the election of the presidency't need no quorum, no secret ballot, usually provides a much more accurate results than the open (simply put, by secret ballot harder to prosecute dissidents). Moreover, under the Constitution, "in the period between meetings of the academic meeting of the Presidium of the Academy has the right to co-opt (my italics - SZ) in its membership on the existing vacancies of new members from among the full members of the Academy".
In short, no "democracy", no "open" elections for the presidency and does not smell. A co-opted into an elected body - the practice is so odious that I remember, it was forbidden even in the Communist party of the Soviet Union...
And what has the same rights as "democratic" formed by the Presidium of the Russian Academy of arts?
According to the Constitution of 1997, he has many rights, but one of the truly amazing: "hold the election of full members, corresponding members and honorary members of the Academy (my italics - SZ) in the period between meetings of the academic meetings with the subsequent approval of the election results at the next meeting of the academic meetings.
And further in the text of the Charter: "decisions of the Presidium are taken by simple majority of votes in an open vote present at the meeting of Presidium members; decisions of the Presidium of the election of full members, corresponding members and honorary members of the Academy shall be legally competent if quorum of at least two thirds of the members of the Presidium and vote for your FAV is%B
This Charter allows once formed a majority in the Presidium never let the power of his hands. After all, if the Bureau "all their"what can be problems with the election of new members of the Academy is to collect two - thirds of the participants and to ensure that the voting is open!) most of these same two-thirds? So, more and more members of the Academy are elected in this way, will also "own".
And can it last 5 years will not vote on the academic Assembly (open!) for election to the presidency for another term those to whom they owe their academic titles? And not approve (open vote!) the results of the Presidium of the election of the next""?
And what are the formal criteria under which a citizen may be elected as a member of the Russian Academy of arts? In the RAS and RAMS, for example, scientists are unlikely to accept, if he is not a doctor and not a Professor. It is clear that with artists all slightly different, but maybe at least the minimum age is?
Nothing of the kind. Criteria extremely vague: according to the same Constitution of 1997, "full members and member-correspondents of the Academy can be elected citizens of the Russian Federation, artists, architects, designers and art historians, who have enriched contemporary fine arts, architecture, design and art history outstanding works, scientific works. Honorary members of Academy can be elected outstanding figures of foreign culture and art, as well as persons who, through their active charitable and sponsorship activities make a significant contribution to the development of the Academy and Russian culture in General."
Let's remember that language is "enriched contemporary fine arts, architecture, design and art history outstanding works, scientific works" - and try to understand which of the members of the Russian Academy of arts what and how "enriched".
For example, I can understand why many in the Academy of the pillars of a variety officially recognized the%8
I can understand why Russian regions, as in the days of the USSR, stable supply in RAK let not enough stars in the sky, but a good artists, often purely realistic sense - as Gennady Vasilyev (Buryatia), Boris Bychkov (Irkutsk), Yuri Grishko (Lipetsk), Herman Pestov (Kabardino-Balkaria)... at least, their regions are "enriched".
I can understand why the Academy is still a lot of "real" realism (as the old man said Panikovsky, "with the earlier time") - Anatoliy Alekseev, Yuri Ishkhanov, Anatoly Levitin, Marat Samsonov... of Course, if they arts and "enriched"it is only by the standards of "cultural and educational policy of the Communist party and the Soviet government". But membership in the Russian Academy of arts for life.
I can understand why many in the Academy "honored veterans of the former Soviet republics - as Rakhim Akhmedov, Tatiana Golembievskaya, Gunnar Krollis... something they must also be "enriched", only us here, from Moscow, is not very clear...
I can understand why in 1999, a full member of ARTS were adopted such as "polar opposites", as Ilya Glazunov and Tatyana Nazarenko, Alexander Shilov and Natalia Nesterova. These artists together the most important thing with "academic" point of view - in their own way of painting they had reached considerable heights, in fact, were the first. And that someone (for example, the%
I can even understand why the conceptualist Boris Belsky (born in 1960) was a few years ago adopted a corresponding member, and in 2007 - in the Academy of ARTS. Just lucky man - hit the "quota" on the so-called contemporary art, which, despite all the "new trends" in recent years, the Academy is still very small. However, you can see the title of Boris Belsky, then
I can even understand why a full member in 2007 was "elected" the very young (of course, on the academic standards) artist Vasily Nesterenko, 1967. Despite the breadth of views of the state, ARTS and personally Zurab Tsereteli, the "traditions" of Ilya Glazunov and Alexander Shilov live and win. So to say, "art belongs to people", that is to be him, to the people, it is clear (this joke is a joke). But now "enriched" Nesterenko became an academician and one of the greatest masters of modernity Vladimir Gorislavtsev (born in 1939) and one of the greatest masters lithographs the Wilner (born in 1925) and remained corresponding member...
I can even understand why, in 2007, a full member (and a few years before - a corresponding member) were adopted by Vasily Bubnov, Victor Gluhov and John Kazan, more than fifteen years of unchallenged ruling in the Moscow Union of artists and put this once glorious organization to the brink of death (about their activities, in particular, wrote the newspaper "Moscow artist" - see number 2 in 2003). Be that as it may, these gentlemen - artists respectable age (all three for sixty), with a great creative experience, a very well known and respected in their field (although, in this case the word "authority" is a specific character). We assume that they "enriched" (evil tongues certainly would have added to the word ending "camping").
I can even understand why the Department of architecture of ARTS, despite his full parallel with RAASN, not overgrown trail large and small architectural chiefs - as Yury Gnedovsky, Alexander Kuzmin, Mikhail Posokhin, Yury Platonov, Leonid Vavakin, Victor Bakers, Vitaly Nuts... they are Unlikely to involve academic salaries, why not just add to his many titles another? And monumental art, which in many PAX, friendship with architects are always on hand - together of state orders bring much more than fourteen thousand rubles a month. But let's not here too harsh: in an urban environment monumentalists and architects are inseparable from each other, so where is first, and second there, let it and the Academy of fine arts and architecture is not...
Of course, there are "punctures", as the former chief architect of St. Petersburg Oleg Kharchenko, nothing special, nothing is "enriched" (except belated remorse about the participation in the organization of the competition on the Okhta Gazprom skyscraper), but adopted a corresponding member of the Academy and - here's the problem - soon removed from his loud St. Petersburg office. But this is the fate of %DHowever, in the nomenclature of the former does not exist, somewhere, Mr. Kharchenko will "pop up" - at least as rector of academic Repin Institute (the former official even had a short time to visit this position in 2004, but something was "not grown together").
I can understand why a full member of PAX are Irina Antonova (Director of the Pushkin Museum of fine arts) and Vladimir Gusev (Director of the Russian Museum). They are, whatever you say, highly professional art. But how scientific work "enriched" art studies, two corresponding member - Director of the State Tretyakov gallery, Valentin Rodionov, a former postfunctional, educated as an architect and Director of the Museum of the East Vladimir Nabatchikov (doctor of philosophy)? Probably, memos, and introduction to the catalog...
In principle, for such artists as Rodionov, and Nabatchikov, there is an honorary member of the Russian Academy of arts. The confusion with this title in ARTS indeed great, as such members in the Academy of two types - conditionally speaking, "internal" (artists that do not have enough academic rates - as Guram Dolendzhashvili, Vladimir-Vladimir Kibalchich, Elena Flerov) and "external" as President Vladimir Putin, mayor Yuri Luzhkov, Patriarch Alexy, choreographer Yuri Grigorovich, Directors Yuri Lyubimov and Vadim Abdrashitov, writer Chingiz Aitmatov, cosmonaut Alexei Leonov, and many others (a total of one hundred and fifty).
And in the "jubilee" in 2007 an honorary member of ARTS was "elected" by Nikita Mikhalkov. In the hall of the Cathedral of Christ the Savior at the ceremony, "regalia" (gowns, caps, diplomas, badges, etc) he said something like: "If my great-grandparents Surikov and Konchalovsky saw me at this stage, they would have me whipped right here... I understand this gesture as a good attitude Zurab constant is%Nikita Sergeevich also promised artists gathered in the hall, never to write on his business card that he is a member of the Russian Academy of ARTS, "as long as there is in your mind and sober memory"... the Applause was loud and long, and the main thing - the sincere.
But back to the who, what and how "enriched". I, for example, can not understand why it is not honorable, as a full member of the Russian Academy of ARTS (and indeed as a member of the Presidium) is the Director of the St. Petersburg workshop "casthouse Gennady Stepanov. More precisely, to understand something of its membership in the Presidium I can (sculptors of monumental art in the Academy more than enough, and all need casting), but what it is "enriched" fine arts, also casts Tsereteli, Burganova and Rukavishnikova - sorry, don't understand.
But it would be so bad. There is a real disaster, can lay the bomb under a huge and apparently quite well off the ship, whose name - Russian Academy of arts. The essence of this trouble can be expressed briefly: the children.
And it's not in the art education of young people and adolescents (although there is enough problems). The case in the admission of children living and living full members and members of the Presidium of the ARTS as an active member and corresponding member.
In principle, this happened before - for example, the full member of the ARTS several years ago has become a realist painter Mikhail Yurievich Kugach. But he was born in 1939 - at least the age solid. And to the corresponding member Alexander Vladimirovich the Tsigal (born in 1948) and academician Mikhail Vladimirovich the Perejaslavets (1949) long-familiar - they are in the Academy is not %D
Corresponding member of the Russian Academy of arts in the early 2000-ies became a painter Vera Andreevna Mylnikov (born in 1950), Sergey Alekseevich Shmarinov and Sergey Petrovich Ossovsky (both born in 1958). The last in 2006 was "elected" and an active member...
Of course, the child-child discord. It is unlikely, for example, it was possible to argue against clancarty Aidan Tairovny Salakhova, which actively organizes modern art processes (gallery "Aidan" in recent years, hardly less well known than the Guelman gallery), and she is very "advanced" a conceptual artist, with great sense%
However, as we shall soon see, the notions of modern Russian Academy of arts is not only not too much, and even more modest...
Until recently, the most egregious case of "vigil native man" was the "election" in the corresponding member ARTS painter Ivan Ilyich Glazunov, who was born in 1969. But after the "elections" in 2006-2007 strip down even lower.
For example, in the opinion of the Presidium of the Russian Academy of arts, something "enriched" the art of sculptor Igor Aleksandrovich Burganov, become a member-correspondent. It is unclear, however, when the time "enrich" - he was born in 1973...
And when and what time to "enrich" Philip Aleksandrovich Rukavishnikov? It's really became a corresponding member, despite the still younger age (born in 1974). And not just a corresponding member, and at the same time - and a member of the Presidium of that corresponding member - a rare honour.
And now corresponding member Igor Burganov will be spent at the Academy near the corresponding member Natalia Egorshina and Boris Nemensky, and member of the Presidium of Philip Rukavishnikov is close to the members of the Presidium of Valentin Sidorov and Albina Akritas...
Yes, there are Alexander Burganov and Alexander Rukavishnikov, whose children are just corresponding member! Zurab Tsereteli and there was not equal to his daughter Elena , Zurabova (in the art world better known as the Face, 1959) and grandson, he's adopted son Vasily zurabovich (born in 1978) were... full members and members of the Presidium.
Let us consider: in 2007 the academician and member of the Presidium of the Russian Academy of arts was born in 1978 designer and author of several installations - Vasili Tsereteli. This is not a joke and not a typo. Thousand nine hundred and seventy-eighth year of birth. Full member and member of the Presidium.
How much of your time, for example, had negative feelings among the members of the Russian Academy of natural Sciences (RANS), when it academician became notorious "who raises the dead" Grigory Grabovoi! But Russian Academy of natural Sciences, in contrast to ARTS, non-governmental organization; "Saviour" though not that old, but still 1963, not born in 1978; and the main thing - Grabovoy, despite its mistici%
And to protect the two doctoral (and even if candidate) thesis is not an installation titled "Meaningful action" to put an academic at the June exhibition in Manezh among Losenko and Shishkin... the Essence of "enriched" Russian art installation Vasily Tsereteli was that the audience had to throw in a coin box, with the lit up%
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Acceptance into the Academy, especially in its Bureau - quite different than in the old days was the adoption of the Guild or Association, where such "nepotism" was in order. Russian Academy of arts - no shop and not the Guild. If you wish, the Areopagus, Council of elders, a collection of the best of the best... And there is such a monstrous devaluation of academic titles...
Let's not forget that the system of the Academy of arts is the number of educational institutions. And it is not necessary to consider students for fools - they are well aware of what is going on inside the walls of the parent organization. And what they learn by looking at the current composition of ARTS and its Bureau?
But this is our future. It is those who have to fill command of the ship under the name "Academy of arts" in the coming decades. And if now the authority of the Russian Academy of arts largely rests on personal relationships, reputation and organizational abilities of Zurab Tsereteli, then what will happen later, after the "autumn of the Patriarch comes winter? Who will lead the ship, who will lead it through the storm and the hurricanes? Generation "devalued academicians" - Vasily and Elena Tsereteli, Igor Burganov, Philip Rukavishnikova? And where they will lead, on what will be based academic credibility? At installations twenty-nine full members?..
To be a prophet - a thankless job. Prophesy about the troubles and misfortunes - a thankless job twice. So constructively, without any prophecies: not yet left the older generation, preserved from the times of the USSR Academy of some academic tradition, it is necessary to adopt a new Charter of the Academy and to register normal electoral system is at least one that was
Rather, the Constitution still would soon have to change: the Federal law ¹ 202-FZ of December 4, 2006 announced the Russian Academy of Sciences and branch academies (respectively, and PAX) national Academy of Sciences - for-profit organizations. This is quite different form of ownership than the threshold for PAX Charter 1997 state institution of culture".
So in the near future is%
I will use this opportunity to those who are now at the helm of the Academy? Hardly. But hope, as they say, the last to die.
© Sergey Zagraevsky