Prof. Dr. S.V. Zagraevsky
The beginning of “Russian Romanesque”: Jury Dolgoruky or Andrey Bogolyubsky?
Published in Russian: Çàãðàåâñêèé Ñ.Â. Íà÷àëî
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The definition of "Russian Romanesque" is given, its appearance in the times of Yuri Dolgoruky and development in the times of Andrew Bogolyubsky are shown. Special attention is paid to the comparison of the architecture of these princes.
The following text was translated from the Russian original by the computer program
and has not yet been edited.
So it can be used only for general introduction.
You must first define what we mean by "Russian romanik".
This term was back in the 1920-ies suggested by F. Halle1 but
in historical-architectural and art works was used quite rarely. First, for
such terminology, directly linking the architecture of Ancient Russia and
Perhaps the main attribute that determines the "Russian romanik"is the construction of well-treated white
stone. The vast majority of the Romanesque cathedrals and castles in the heart
of the Holy Roman Empire -
Specify: in our time of the Principality of Dolgoruky
usually referred to as the Rostov-Suzdal, and the
Principality of Bogolyubsky of Vladimir-Suzdal. In this article, for simplicity, we will use a
total of pre-Mongol name of North-Eastern Russia - "Suzdal"
or "Suzdal Principality" (land etc).
Speaking about the city of
Galich, white-stone construction began in the late 1110-x and 1120-ies2in Suzdal , a little later - in 11523.
The second most important feature of Romanesque architecture, embodied in the old Russian architecture is sculptural and ornamental zooantropomorfnogo types. Decide and with these terms: in zooantropomorfnogo type, unlike the ornamental decoration of type (arcature, curb, ornament), there are images of people and animals4.
Another important element of Romanesque
perspective portals. We see them in
Note that in the pre-Mongolian architecture other ancient kingdoms there were also many Romanesque elements: arcature decor (as in Sophia in Novgorod, the cathedrals of St. Anthony " s and Yuriev monastery in Novgorod and others in order), stair towers (as in Sophia, Sophia in Novgorod and others in order), a General "towering" (as in the churches of St Paraskeva on Trade in Novgorod and Michael the Archangel in Smolensk), multi-colored decoration of the facades (as in the Boris and Gleb Church in Grodno) and even the beginnings of bazilikalnogo (as in some churches the Principality of Polotsk). This underscores the arbitrariness of the term "Russian romanik.
There is another reason why we are even with respect to Suzdal may use the term "Russian romanik"
only conditionally. In the North-Eastern Russia nor in the pre-Mongol, nor in
the post-Mongol time any Basilica was built Western European type; all churches
(except for some pillarless churches and tent) were a
cross. Even the assumption Cathedral in
To finish our conversation about the conventions of the term
"Russian romanik" can quote of i.e. Grabar: "Nowhere is it possible to meet a single
Church, Cathedral, Palace or a building that could be taken as a sample
Now, having defined terminology, we can proceed to the evaluation of the role of Yuri Vladimirovich Dolgoruky (initial 1090 x-1157, reigned in Suzdal with 1113 (possibly with 10966), Grand Prince of Kiev, in 1155) and Andrei Yurievich Bogolyubsky (approx. 1111-1174, ruled in Suzdal in 1157) in the formation of the ancient Russian architecture and, in particular, "Russian romanik.
In the common history there is a strong stereotype detracting Dolgoruky activity compared with the activity Bogolyubsky. Perhaps a role here played a
very negative image of George, established the
So, V.N.Tatischev wrote that "this great
Prince was considerable growth, thick, white face, the eyes are not very great,
the nose long and curved, beard small, the great lover of women, sweet food and
drink; more about fun than about management and army belonged, but all it was
in power and Providence of his nobles, and Pets... they have done little, more
and more children and princes of the Union..."7. Met believed
that Yuri was nicknamed Dolgoruky like the Persian
king Ahasuerus - for the greed to acquire "8.
And even modern Russian encyclopedic dictionary more tactfully, but also not
quite flattering reports that the hands of Yuri stretched from Suzdal to
Grandiose statue of Yury Dolgoruky
(sculptor M. Orlov, AP Antropov,
nl strain, pedestal - vs Andreev), placed him on
Andrey Bogolyubsky, in XVIII century canonized, he looked at his court Chronicles much more attractive. Undoubtedly of great significance for the formation of stereotypes "Martyr" and "the gatherer of the Russian lands"10 had a masterpiece of ancient Russian literature "the Story of the death of Andrew11.
In the end, death Bogolyubsky the hands of murderers turned out to be much more "honorable"than Dolgoruky's death by poison or excessive gluttony at the feast. And even the fact that the corpse of the murdered by conspirators Andrei Yurievich lay under the wall of the Palace (in that squad, and the townspeople knew about his death), and then the priests were not allowed to make his body the Church, and it is wrapped in a carpet, two days lay in the vestibule, the Soviet historiography interpreted rather positively than negatively: this was explained as a consequence of the rejection of the boyars and "backward" citizens of activity Bogolyubsky on "collecting Russian lands".
This article is not the place for discussions about the destructive or
constructive activity was Dolgoruky and how
significant its historical role in relation to the
role of his son. Whose victory over feudal lords, "free"
All these issues are to be investigated in the framework of General history, we are dealing with the history of architecture. And so, we first look at the overall scope of ecclesiastical, fortification and civil construction with Yuri and Andrew.
Let's start by listing known buildings of Yuri Vladimirovich:
1. Spaso-Preobrazhensky Cathedral in Pereslavl-Zalessky12;
5. Church of the Saviour in the city of
6. Great walled city of Pereslavl-Zalessky
(ramparts length about
7. Fortress in Yuriev-Polsky;
8. Probably the fortress in Kideksha14;
9. Fortress in
10. Probably, the fortress in Zvenigorod, Przemysl, Gorodets and Mikulin15;
11. Fortified yard
12. Perhaps the Palace in Kideksha17;
13. Probably two of the Palace in Kiev18;
14. The Kievo-Pechersk Paterikon called Dolgoruky and Builder of Nativity Cathedral in Suzdal19 (the beginning of the XII century). Even if the jury at this time was still too young and real Builder of the Cathedral was his father, Vladimir Monomakh20 still in construction Yuri could not participate (especially if the correct version A. Limonov that he reigned in Suzdal with 1096 year21).
Note also that Yuri Dolgoruky made exploration and primary (most problematic22) development of quarries in Suzdal.
Known construction Andrei Yurievich:
1. Assumption Cathedral in
2. The Dormition Cathedral in
3. The Church of our Saviour in
4. The Church of the Intercession on the Nerl;
5. The Church of the Nativity of the virgin in the hierarchy;
6. White stone Palace in Bogolyubovo;
7. White stone fortress in the hierarchy;
8. Great walled city of
10. Silver gate.
Thus, the overall scale of construction of Yuri Dolgoruky and Andrei Bogolyubsky quite comparable.
Yuri Dolgoruky first used in Suzdal European stone technology. Ornamental decor
"universal" Roman type, found in many churches of
One of the many hundreds of European churches with the "universal"
Roman decor (d oberrerenbah,
Fig. 2. Universal Romanesque decoration on the Cathedral in
Fig. 3. Universal Romanesque decoration on the Holy Transfiguration Cathedral in Pereslavl-Zalessky.
Fig. 4. Universal Romanesque decoration in the
Attention stretched up drums temples jury, which, in combination with a
relatively small four gives the "towering" - very European - form of
construction. H. Wagner wrote that the temples "towering" type have a
dynamic striving upward, and it is possible that if the development of
"high-rise" architecture was not interrupted by the Mongol invasion,
Small temples Dolgoruky were strictly due to
"maximum security" white stone building. The author of this article
showed24that almost all the temples, exceeding a limit of
reliability, some artists Yuri (internal space of the main volume - no more
"Maximum security" white-stone building, a certain masters Dolgoruky, in the history of ancient architecture was
successful (albeit only slightly) is exceeded only twice: in the Holy Trinity
Cathedral of the Trinity-Sergiev monastery
(1422-1427) and in the
Researchers of ancient architecture of the XIX-first half of the twentieth century (as N.p.kondakov26, Generikov27, A.S. Uvarov28, A.I. Nekrasov29, F. hull30) recognized the continuity of architecture Bogolyubsky architecture Dolgoruky. But this situation changed radically with the publication of the fundamental work Voronin, "Architecture of North-Eastern Russia XII-XV centuries"31.
N.N. Voronin believed that Yuri Dolgoruky, "convinced Grecotel,
he married a Byzantine Princess, a friend of Novgorod Archbishop Nifont and his like-minded in matters of Church
policy"32, used in its architecture, some features of
Romanesque only by accident. According to Voronin,
"if you imagine the churches George built of brick, they will differ
little from the modern buildings of the ancient Rus '
in the sense of lack of "romance" features"33. The
researcher noted that arcature yet met in
As for the fact of white stone building (the defining characteristic of the "Russian romanik), N.N. Voronin had the version Neprodela and Generikov that Yuri was not their masters, and as Dolgoruky was at odds with the overwhelming majority of Russian princedoms, then he had to invite a team of Galich35. Therefore, N.N. Voronin, and white-stone building in Suzdal not Dolgoruky.
Thus, in the fundamental work Voronin Yuri Dolgoruky appears the provincial Governor, did not have
their masters and had to use an artel from distant
This view is fully shared by O.M. ioannisian, who specified that the team that came in the late 1140-1150-ies in Suzdal from Galich, formerly (until 1110-ies) worked in another Western outlying province - lesser Poland36.
And the only architecture of Andrei Bogolyubsky, to which came the master and from Frederick Barbarossa37and of all lands"38, was, according to Voronin39 (joined M. ioannisyan40, and A.I. Komech41), Grand Prince (or Imperial). This is now a stereotyped view of architecture Bogolyubsky, not less stable than the stereotypical view of Andrei Yurievich himself as a "Martyr" and "the gatherer of the Russian lands".
We in any case not going to belittle the importance of architecture of
Andrei Bogolyubsky. Large (though not) the Assumption
We are going to show that the architecture of Yuri Dolgoruky in no case was not "provincial"that it marked the real beginning of the "Russian romanik"and that the architecture Bogolyubsky in any case cannot be considered outside the context of the architecture of his father.
The scale of construction Dolgoruky and what his master for many centuries forward has defined a "maximum security" white-stone building, we have already mentioned in paragraph 2. We now consider "the Galician version of" about a hypothetical architectural influence of Galich in Suzdal and about the alleged coming to Yuri masters of the Galician land.
Detailed critique of the Galician version was shown by the author of this article in the book "Yuri Dolgoruky and the old white-stone architecture"42here it makes sense to mention only a few key points.
First, the construction of white stone was about ten times more
expensive brick43). Deposits of white stone (middle Carboniferous
deposits), are available for extraction depth44 (Fig. 5), semicircle
cover of Moscow from the South-West, never going to Vladimir closer than 200-
And even if we assume the influence of Halych Yuri, then to distribute "Galician influence" on numerous descendants Dolgoruky (until Ivan III) is impossible. A white-stone building in the North-Eastern Russia was decisive for over three hundred years.
Fig. 5. Map of the middle sediments in the suburbs.
Secondly, Galich was far Western outskirts, Prince vladimirka Volodarevich - representative branches "princes rogue", besides a generation younger than Dolgoruky. Consequently, the probability of a hypothetical "Galician influence" on Yuri (a legitimate candidate for the Kyiv table), and even more for the next Suzdal, Tver and Moscow princes, who continued to build in white stone for several hundred years, is negligible.
Third, plans and sizes of Galician churches of the first half of XII
century are absolutely different47 (Fig. 6). The methods of surface
treatment units in
Fig. 6. Plans Galician and Suzdal churches (Omiani):
1 - the
2 - the Church in Zvenigorod Galitsky;
3 - the Church of our Saviour in Galich;
4 - the Church on the "Winterised";
5 - Transfiguration Cathedral in Pereslavl;
6 - the
7 - the
8 - the Church of deposition of the robe on the Golden gate in
Fourth, even if we assume that in lesser Poland, Galicia and Suzdal one and the same hypothetical team, then do a half-century (1110-e-1150-e) it has not appeared any competitors? And is it not strange that the work of such "superarteli" was not reflected in the Chronicles? The invitation of skilled craftsmen was an extraordinary event (remember masters of all lands and from Frederick Barbarossa" Andrei Bogolyubsky, as well as an important reservation Vsevolodova chronicler of that Big Nest was not looking for "painters from the German"48).
Fifth, the construction team consisted of no less than 80 people (with
their wives and children - more than 200 people)49and transfer of so
many people (Gypsies or merchants, and most valuable of construction personnel)
of Galich in Suzdal on
Sixth, in the book "Yuri Dolgoruky and the old white-stone architecture"50 the author of this article has established a philosophy: where the requirements for the timing and quality of construction allowed to use the local people, the princes, as a rule, preferred this option. Naturally, we are talking primarily about the "ordinary" builders (i.e. the vast majority artel). Architects, painters, jewelers and other unique and highly specialized professionals to go from Prince to Prince and from town to town as often as you wish.
But when orders for the construction was not, local craftsmen were engaged in any handicraft (first of all carpenters), and even peasant labour. Moreover, the construction could not be their primary qualification. They were and remain urban artisans or peasants, and work on the construction gave them the opportunity to earn money and (or) to receive an allotment.
With regard to the qualification of "ordinary" construction, any Russian peasant and nowadays is able to perform construction work on a very wide profile, especially under the guidance of highly skilled craftsmen. And about the most difficult part of construction - erection of arches and drums - known that this work was carried out on the wooden wheel and formwork51. Consequently, the main work was provided carpenter, and the experience of such work in the ubiquitous wooden building in the XII century was enormous.
And let's not forget that in every city, in addition to temples and fortifications were built a lot of wooden and often brick constructions of a civil nature52so a necessity even for the professional Builder to move from city to city, and especially of the Principality in the Principality, has arisen not as a rule, and as an exception.
What their masters from George were still with Monomach times, the author of this article showed in the book "Yuri Dolgoruky and the old white-stone architecture"53.
Seventh, the stocks of white stone in Suzdal was impossible to explore within a year or two.
Naturally, Yuri Dolgoruky was not interested
in transporting stone for hundreds of kilometers, and where available are deep
deposits of the Carboniferous period, Suzdal in the
XII century could not know. You can imagine how many hundreds of test
excavation was made. Stone certainly looking and near Pereslavl-Zalessky,
Consequently, the "spontaneity" stone building, which
allegedly forced George to invite
If Dolgorukiy "spontaneously"
decided to build something, he could only lead brick (less time consuming, but
"undesirable") construction. For example, it could invite the masters
from its ally Svyatoslav Olgovich
Chernihiv (standing, unlike vladimirka
Galician, on the top "of the Prince's ladder"), and to build instead
of five white stone churches fifty brick (i.e. lead the Church building, at
least, in the
Eighth, Galich, deposits of limestone various
types, suitable for construction, are almost everywhere and come to the surface
in many places (for example, along the
Ninth, "at the same time (in 1152 - SZ) George Duke in Suzdal be, and wtvyrz him God razumniy eyes on the Church building, and many of the Church of postavila on Suzdalskoe the country and placed the Church of stone on the Nerl, the Holy Martyr Boris and Gleb, and the Holy Saviour in Suzdal, and of the Holy St George in Volodimira stone, and Pereaslavl hail transferred from Klemania, and founded a large hail, and the stone Church in it there the Holy Saviour, and do Yu books and mommy wondrous saints, and Gergev founded the castle and in the Church there the stone Holy Martyr St George"54.
This message Printing record under 1152 (M.D. priselkov
has shown that the chronicler lived in
N.N. Voronin suggested that the chronicler
only "summarized" built Yuri Dolgoruky
built at 1152 by 115756. The proof of the accuracy of reports
Tenth, the origin of the Galician version" refers to the end of the XIX century, when in accordance with the tenet of "Orthodoxy, nationality, autocracy," it was possible to recognize the influence of anyone, but not in Western Europe. A "version of the Transcaucasian influence", is also acceptable from the point of view of this dogma, even less justified than "Galician" (this is convincingly demonstrated V.N. Lazarev58).
Eleventh, we cannot accept the version V.N. Lazarev
on "mediating role of architecture
But Suzdal land had common borders
Showing the failure of the Galician version of"we must recognize the direct impact on the
architecture Dolgoruky Western Europe. Specifically,
the most powerful, most centralized and geographically close to
And as a direct source architecture Yuri Dolgoruky
we can not call
Fig. 7. Cathedral of
All the arguments that can be cited as justification for similarities lesser Poland, Galician and Suzdal churches (masonry walls and foundations, the blind arcades in combination with curb and carved shafts - see Fig. 3 and 4)is fully applicable to the Imperial Cathedral:
- on the Cathedral in
- the walls of the Speyer Cathedral and the walls of temples Dolgoruky, taper upward ledge;
the socle of the Imperial Cathedral in most of the perimeter is a non-profiled ebb (as in Pereslavl and Kideksha);
- rubble foundations of the Cathedral in
- a method of processing outer surfaces of
stone blocks in
- in the crypt of the Imperial Cathedral implemented cross-scheme with a groin pillars (Fig. 8);
- in the crypt of the Cathedral in Speyer this author managed to find
specific ornamental carving (Fig. 9), which O.M. ioannisian
wrote60 that it is not found anywhere except the Transfiguration
Cathedral in Pereslavl-Zalessky (Fig. 3) and lesser
temples (Fig. 10). Note that the style of carving in Pereslavl
much closer to
Excellent pan-European significance of the Imperial Cathedral of Speyer and its chronological primacy on the temples of Malopolska, Galich and Suzdal say that the similarity of architecture all these Slavic principalities has absolutely convincing rationale - shared origins.
Fig. 8. Cathedral of
Fig. 9. Cathedral of
Fig. 10. Carved cornice of the nave on the collegiate Church of
Of course, there is a temptation to assume that the Dolgoruky
in 1152 came the construction team (or "construction squad" - the
architect multiple masters61) from the "
If the jury came to the European masters, then one would expect the
construction of temples, at least, the scale of buildings of the crusaders in
It was built in a poor and unsettled
Russian soils and construction materials were not very different from the European66 and we may assume that the leading Western masters, if they worked in Suzdal, views of professional ethics would not be allowed to build in their invited Prince temples, comparable in size with the churches in the European small villages.
Therefore, the arrival of Western European masters to Yuri unlikely, and there is only one option that caring Prince of reflection in Suzdal architecture of state power and ideology (this concern is confirmed by the fact of transition to expensive, but the "Imperial" white-stone construction): in 1152 temples Dolgoruky was built by local craftsmen under the supervision of the local architects, who have undergone training (internship) in Western Europe67.
In paragraph 6, we see that the jury in 1155-1157 addressed the Empire of the masters and got them, but died before they came to Suzdal.
With the approval of Voronin that Yuri was "convinced Grecotel, he married a Byzantine Princess, a friend of Novgorod Archbishop Nifont and his like-minded in matters of Church policy"68we can not agree also.
First, Yuri's marriage to Byzantine Princess is a very dubious legend69but even if it is true, that about any "philhellenism" does not show. It is known that Dolgoruky in 1110 year he married the daughter of the Polovtsian Khan70 and even led to Izyaslav Mstislavich Polovtsian71but no one believes that George was "the love of Polotsk".
Secondly, N.N. Voronin's
words about "friendship and
Niphon was Bishop
The Bishop of Novgorod was actually a professional diplomat and periodically settled princely strife (for example, in 1135 and 1141). In 1148 Nifont came to Yuri - with a mission to make peace with Izyaslav, but achieved nothing. "Come Niphon the Suzdal dividing the world to Gurgevo, and made with love Gurgi, and the Church St. St. Virgin velikim sacred, and Newthrea all wyprawy, and guest everyone a whole, and the Ambassador with the Cestius Novogorod, N. world not give"73.
Mentioned in this chronicle fragment sanctification Nifont of the Suzdal Nativity of the virgin not indicate any special relationship between the Bishop and the Prince (by the way, and not about any new buildings or capital repair of" Monomakh's Cathedral). Churches were blessed (or rather, to pereosviashchena, although the Church, this does not accept the term) as often and for many reasons. For example, the great sacred" supposed to do after the Church of spilled blood, and after pagan violence (in particular, after the robbery or Bulgarians Polovtsy)74.
In 1149 Kyiv Metropolitan Clement (Klim Smolyatich), a protege of Izyaslav Mstislavich, locked Nifont in the Kiev-Pechersk
monastery of the sharp remarks in his address. Dolgoruky,
capturing the end of the same year,
From all has been said about Nifont we can
make a conclusion: of course, and Niphon, and Yuri
were enemies of Izyaslav and Clement. But it is
hardly possible to speak even about allied relations,
and especially about "friendship and
As regards initiatives invitations to Kiev Greek Metropolitan Constantine in 115677 then effort Dolgoruky offset Metropolitan Kliment could lead to success only in case of arrival of the "indigenous" Byzantine, blessed by the Patriarch, and about any "philhellenism" here it is impossible to speak - this was a purely political move.
The same political move was the formal adoption
of the jury side of
We see that our facts are not enough to take George "grekofilom". And the fact that Dolgoruky
began to build in Suzdal white stone temples in
European technology without considering the cost, many times higher compared
with the technique of
In order to finally understand the key role of Yuri Dolgoruky in the formation of the "Russian romanik, it is necessary to consider its relation to the principal innovations in architecture that took place under his son Andrei. It is the work of masters, sent by Frederick Barbarossa, and the introduction of Suzdal zooantropomorfnogo sculptural decoration.
And we start with the question of the masters.
I noticed immediately that the well-known stereotype associated with coming to Andrew "masters of all lands", refers only to the decoration of the assumption Cathedral 1158-1160: "That summer was given the established Church Holy mother of God in Volodimira noble and Bogolubsky Prince Andrew, and decorate W marvellous manifold icons, and dragon stone be-Wisla and Church vessels and the top of her poslati by the faith of him, and on its efforts to sweatey mother of God, given to him by the God of all lands, all the masters and decorate W pace of INAH tserkvei"79. Therefore, in this case we are talking not about the builders, but of highly specialized master (icon painters, jewelers and other), which, as we saw in paragraph 3, to move from the Governor to the Governor as often as you wish.
However, we in any case will not argue with the fact that the architecture Bogolyubsky state power and Imperial ideology pronounced than in the architecture Dolgoruky. It is shown by:
- huge excess height (
- increased compared with temples Dolgoruky
the size of Assumption Cathedral in
- construction of "from scratch" Church of the Intercession on the Nerl, who played the role of Grand design bifurcation major waterways Klyazma and the Nerl. This role is confirmed by the impossibility of finding water meadows any Posad or monastery, and use for the construction of the Church of the selected white stone, and the laying of the unique foundations, and possibly device "Grand" open galleries82;
- the Palace and the strengthening of Bogolyubovo, not built from wood and white stone;
- presence of the
All of the above makes a very plausible Tatischev: "on making Bo him (Andrew - SZ) Dadi him God masters for the construction thereof, of the smart lands"; "stavshemu in Vladimir structure, and above the gate of the city, it is seen that the Architect was sufficient... the Masters were sent from the Emperor Frederick the First, with which Andrew was in friendship as below will be"83.
In this article we won't discuss that, from what area of the "Holy
Roman Empire" -
Some "hook" here may provide a method of historical and
motivational model, in his time suggested by the author of this article86:
Tsentralnosibirsky architecture had pronounced
Imperial character, and trading North Italian cities are built with a certain
"merchant" bias. In this regard, we can assume that for the Imperial
ambitions of Suzdal princes still more likely the
invitation of artists from
And given the obvious continuity of architecture Bogolyubsky
relatively architecture Dolgoruky, which, as we
showed in paragraph 4, was directly connected with the Imperial Cathedral of
Speyer, version about coming to Andrey artists from
But no matter what area of the Empire came to either the master "of
Frederick Barbarossa, from the message Tatischev that
they built, at least, the assumption Cathedral and the Golden gate in
Hence, the architect of operation Barbarossa, in time to get acquainted
with local experience white-stone building, and then define plans and the size
of their future buildings, was to arrive in
The Tatischev stereotypical perceived as
follows: "Andrew's first friendship with
The fact that Yuri Dolgoruky died on 15 may 1157. Even if we assume that Andrei, became Grand Duke, immediately sent an Embassy to the Barbarossa for the masters, but he didn't manage to get them in the autumn-winter 1157.
For example, at the end of the XV century, Aristotle Fioravanti
was traveling to
Path Embassy in the Empire could take several months. A few weeks (or even months) ambassadors could expect masters of operation Barbarossa (or with the permission of the Emperor's own conduct searches free construction personnel). A few months took the way back to Suzdal. Therefore, for the masters, built Uspensky Cathedral and the Golden gate, the Embassy was sent during the life of Yuri Dolgoruky.
Barbarossa was the Emperor of
- any relationship (and even more friendly) candidate for Kyiv table Yuri as a candidate for the Imperial throne Friedrich up to 1152;
- any relationship (and even more friendly) candidate for Kyiv table Yury Emperor Frederick in 1152-1155 years;
- any relationship (and even more friendly) Andrei, the son of a candidate for Kyiv table, with the candidate for the Imperial throne, and then Emperor Frederick in 1152-1155 years;
- any independent relationship (and even more friendly) Andrew, son of Grand Prince Yuri, with Emperor Frederick in 1155-1157.
The last option may not seem so unlikely: Andrey was the eldest son of Grand Duke of Kiev and, therefore, theoretically, he could have direct contacts with the German Emperor.
But let's not forget that Bogolyubsky in
1155-1157 was not in
Note that Andrei hardly count as an official heir even Suzdal table - otherwise there would be after death Dolgoruky the need Veche, in
As for the very popular speculation91 that he could have any
personal contacts with
Thus, we can assert that the Embassy to Barbarossa for the masters sent
Yuri Dolgoruky in 1155-1157, being the great Prince
of Kiev. Did he want to use these artists in
Consequently, we can speak about the direction of Barbarossa masters not to Andrew and to Yuri. Fate did not accept them Dolgoruky, and Bogolyubsky, but this in no way detract from the merits of Yuri in obtaining the Imperial masters.
We also show that, despite the arrival of artists from
As we mentioned in paragraph 6, of the message Tatischev that the master of Barbarossa built, at least,
- dome side of the square in the assumption
- the height of the arches of the assumption Cathedral
But it's still not comparable with what we see in
It is also important that identical marks princely masters we see the Church in Pereslavl and Kideksha, and the Golden gate, and in Bogolyubovo92.
From the above we can conclude the following: from Barbarossa came to the master of sculptural decoration and perhaps the architect. But if the arrival of the latter took place, before it was delivered fairly narrow objectives:
- development of iconography of the decoration and management by the craftsmen;
- increasing the size and quality of buildings.
The first task of the architect, of course, fulfilled. On the buildings we see Andrew sculptures quite the European level.
But did the architect to perform the second task?
As we have just shown, during its execution, he was forced to start from
the capacity of the local construction personnel, so in the end, the architect
Barbarossa failed to achieve any radically new design, no substantial increase
in size nor sufficient reliability of
N.N. Voronin believed that in the fire of 1185 burned down wooden Church connection, and therefore Vsevolod had to strengthen its high galleries, played the role of buttresses93. The author of this article adhered to and adheres to the same opinion94, citing its primarily because Cathedral exceeded a limit of reliability"is defined for the white-stone temple's cross, even in times Dolgoruky (see item 2).
But the position and Voronin, and the author
of this article has not been confirmed in situ data that suggest that the
assumption Cathedral 1158-
The thing is that we managed to find the slope of the Central chapters of the assumption Cathedral at 2.5 degrees to the East. In itself this does not prove anything (in theory, this tilt head could get and later XII century), but look:
- in galleries Vsevolod no corner compartments from the North-East and South-East, although they would have significantly increased the altar part of the Cathedral;
- small Eastern heads that could stand on the corner compartments, to form a centrally symmetric composition and contribute to the coverage of the altar, moved to the West;
- small Eastern heads are smaller (and lighter) than the Western.
All this could not be a mere coincidence or a whim of Vsevolod the Big Nest.
The situation is seen as follows: the Cathedral of Andrey Bogolyubsky in 1180-ies (perhaps even before the fire of 1185) came to the emergency state, and its bringing together the heads and arches "moved" to the Eastern side (West strengthen choruses). Emergency situation was exacerbated by the fact that, according to research TP Timofeeva95 and the author of this article96the Cathedral Bogolyubsky was a five-domed and, accordingly, its arches carrying the extra load.
In connection with this master Vsevolod obstraivaya temple galleries, were forced to abandon the Eastern corner of the compartments, move four small heads and extinguish raspor Central drum in the North-East and South-East exceptionally rugged construction, each of which consisted of two perpendicular walls. In the East raspor further extinguished semicircular apses, in the West - choirs, North and South - arched bridge (and partly also the choir), and because such a substantial strengthening of the Cathedral has survived to our days.
All the above testifies to the fact that the Cathedral Bogolyubsky in 1185-1189 years was built galleries just because of the arrival in emergency state (shift codes and the slope of the Central chapters to the East).
About the catastrophe of the Golden gate, immediately following the completion of construction, we have already mentioned in paragraph 6.
Perhaps the architect of operation Barbarossa erected and other
buildings Andrew, but they can not be called achievements of construction
engineering. Rostov Cathedral (dome side of the square -
Careful selection for the Church of the intercession of the white stone and its unique Foundation was hardly a "style" of the architect, otherwise we would have seen something similar in his other buildings. Much more likely that a "front" Church of the Intercession on the Nerl river was built in accordance with a special order of the Prince, that is, the authorship of its unique image belongs personally Bogolyubsky or someone from his entourage (at the level of our knowledge of the XII century almost the same). Technically, the same building was completely available and architects of the time of Yuri Dolgoruky.
In General, we have to state: the architect Friedrich Barbarossa, was sent to Yuri and adopted by Andrei fulfilled its tasks only in the decoration of churches. The decisive role in the construction of Bogolyubsky played Suzdal construction personnel, formed his father.
We have to consider the absence of the
No, not means. If Dolgoruky worked
non-professional masters, unable to create decor at the level of the temples Bogolyubsky, we still would have seen the
Fig. 11. Cathedral of
The other: the jury in 1152 had no right to decorate their temples sculptures zooantropomorfnogo type. All that he allowed the Church is a universal Romanesque ornamental decor "arcature-curb-carved shaft.
In order to justify this position, you must show that the appearance zooantropomorfnogo decor has gone beyond a simple decoration of the walls of temples and collided with one of the age-old "stumbling blocks" Church dogma - with the Second Sacred commandment: "do Not make yourself any graven image that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth. Do not worship them and do not serve them..." (ex. 20:4).
The history of iconoclasm was more than adequate coverage in the literature, including in theological studies of the author97. Here we only note that after the victory of the veneration of icons, "legalized" the Seventh Ecumenical Council in 787, the resolution of the Council98 remaining "gap" - sculptural images. No wonder in the Byzantine VIII century movement called "iconoclastic" - all his pathos was directed against icons, and stable tradition of the sculptural decoration of temples on the East never had. Consequently, the General anathematisation "iconoclastic" cathedrals, based on the Second Holy commandments, for sculptures were never revoked. In any case, the "universal".
This has created a sculpture dogmatic ambivalent situation, and gave (and still gives) the Orthodox Church and the opportunity to resolve, and prevent zooantropomorfny sculptures at its discretion.
The history of the Russian Orthodox Church knows the times and the
heyday of the temple sculptures, and the prohibition of "idols". For
example, the Big Moscow Cathedral 1666 decided that the temples carved can only
be crucified102. In 1722 the Synod forbade "to have icons in
the churches carved and izdolblennye,
sculptured" and ordered "weights to the images and any smithy not
append". In 1832 was a complete ban of the Synod of the
All of the above determined the complexity and uniqueness of the situation with the sculptural decoration in Suzdal region in the XII century.
Since the Soviet era in art history and history of architecture entrenched tradition of interpreting images of Church art and architecture in accordance with stylistic Genesis, artistic taste, economy, politics and many other factors, except for one: a direct and immediate influence of the Church in the person of local priests, bishops and senior hierarchs.
But in the XII century the Church was already engaged in reading the second thousand years of its existence. If to count from V century, when it became a closed hierarchical system with an established base of dogmatic and regimented rituals, there are about seven hundred years is too short period. And if in III-IV centuries service could happen in any buildings (including the catacombs), in the XII century architectural and stylistic features of the temples were already and the Orthodox and the Catholic Church is no less important part of the ritual and canonical truths"104 than , for example, the shape and color of the priestly vestments.
The indecisiveness of the Russian Metropolia in pre-Mongol times dictated particularly strict approach to the subtleties of Church architectural style, as any more or less serious innovations had to agree with the Patriarch of Constantinople. But the latter could not understand that brick construction machinery (at least, "opus mixtum"), a cross shape and minimum ornamental decoration of churches was carried out by "visual communication" of Russian Orthodoxy from Byzantium, and the assignment to any of these questions meant another step of the Russian Church to the Autocephalous undesirable for ambitions (and economic interests) of the Patriarch.
Yuri Dolgoruky, having spent many years of exploration quarries, began to build their temples in an extremely tense relationship with the Metropolitan of Kiev and Rostov Bishop. In order to fully characterize this relationship, formed in the middle of the XII century, we must remember the hierarchical structure of the Church organization in Suzdal.
At the time, and George, and Andrew, and Vsevolod
of Vladimir and Suzdal (meaning no edge, and the
city) dioceses were not, and the Church leadership in Suzdal
was made Bishop of Rostov105. The diocese of
In the cities, which were not centers of the dioceses were "Bishop's deputies"subordinate to the Bishop107. At the opening of the new temple was required Episcopal blessing108it was required and the approval of the priest, even though the candidate may nominate churchwarden - in this case, Prince109. The churchwarden could initiate the offset unwanted priests, but, again, it required the consent of the Bishop.
Rostov Bishop in the early 1150-ies was Nestor. When and by whom it was delivered to the Department, we do not know. E.E. Golubinsky in his research on the history of the Church has not put forward on this subject any hypotheses110.
M.D. priselkov thought that Bishop Nestor took
place in 1137111, i.e. before the election of Metropolitan Smolyatich (1147). The researcher's argument was as follows:
Nestor could not be delivered to the Department later in 1139, since this year
Grand Prince of
But the argument Medpersonala not sufficiently substantiated.
First, hostility Vsevolod and Yuri hardly was so severe as to preclude the Church policy implemented by the Greek Metropolitan Michael.
Second, it is incorrect to Supplement existing chronicle details the
assumptions that at this time could have happened something like that had
escaped the notice of the chronicler. If the chronicler wrote about the
separation of the
Third, the researcher proceeded from the a priori assumption that Nestor was an ally Dolgoruky. But this assumption can not agree: Yuri, finishing in 1155 Grand buffet, got rid of his chief opponent, Metropolitan Kliment113and immediately - in the 1156 - initiated the shift Nestor new Metropolitan Constantine114. Just sent from the Byzantine Greek Constantine, naturally, without the insistence of the Grand Duke would not have made such a hasty decision to remove the Bishop of Rostov.
Put forward their own vision of the date of the consecration of Nestor:
he was put Clement at the end 1140-ies, and the diocese of
This gives us the answer to the question why the Bishop of Rostov was
absent from the Cathedral in 1147, which Clement on Russian Metropolitan115.
M.D. priselkov thought that Nestor "did not
respond to the Prince invitation"116, and N.N. Voronin - that the absence of the Cathedral Nestor
"showed indifference towards climate Smolyatich"117. But,
of course, the actual situation of civil war would not allow the Rostov Bishop
"to show indifference" and to ignore such an important event. Actually
the answer to this question is much more simple and logical:
Based on all said about the consecration of Nestor, we may assume that he was a protege and ally Metropolitan Kliment. You can imagine the complexity of the role it had to play the Rostov Bishop at the end of 1140-s-early 1150-ies, but, apparently for political reasons, George and Clement deliberately aggravated the situation. In the end, the Metropolitan had the strongest "trump card" - the enemy's excommunication from the Church, but such a glow of their struggle is not reached.
However, in 1152 Dolgoruky was in a very difficult situation. Spending huge efforts and means of exploration quarries and construction of cathedrals, he risked not receive the blessing or the Kiev Metropolitan or Patriarch of Constantinople, which would mean the failure of the Rostov Bishop to bless already built temples and therefore catastrophe for the princely policy.
In this regard, the complete absence of the
Therefore, we may say that the final compromise is agreed Metropolitan (respectively, and the blessing of the Bishop) for the construction of Suzdal in 1152 white stone churches with "universal" Roman ornamental decor - was a major victory Dolgoruky. Despite the fact that the Prince had to make concessions in the decoration.
And now we can recall the fact, crucial for our study: as we have shown in paragraph 6, the master of sculptural decoration were sent Barbarossa yet to Yuri Dolgoruky as the last great Prince of Kiev (1155-1157 years).
Therefore, for the time of its great Prince Dolgoruky
has achieved the blessing of the Church on the introduction of zooantropomorfnogo sculptural decoration. Given that at
this time the jury dismissed Clement and Nestor, and invited Kiev Greek
Metropolitan Constantine, this situation looks absolutely logical. May the
blessing of zooanthropomorphous sculptures on the
temples was even one of the conditions set by the Grand Duke in the
Hence, the appearance of Suzdal zooantropomorfnogo sculptural decoration - especially credit not Bogolyubsky and Dolgoruky.
Thus, all the characteristic features of what we call the "Russian romanik", appeared in Suzdal (and later in the Tver and Moscow Grand Duchy) solely due to Yuri Dolgoruky. And architecture Andrei Bogolyubsky was as natural, progressive development of truly innovative architecture Yuri, as the architecture of Vsevolod the Big Nest - architecture Andrew.
And I would like to understand this important historical and architectural fact has contributed to the "historical portrait of Yuri Dolgoruky, deserves much more than warm words than those which characterize his modern stereotypes.
3. Detailed justification for the beginning of the white-stone building in Suzdal see in the book: Yuri Dolgoruky and old white-stone architecture. M., 2002 (hereinafter - Zagraevsky, 2002).
4. Details about
division and ornamental decoration on zooantropomorfnogo
see the book. Zagraevsky,
5. CIT. in book.: Voronin. The
architecture of North-Eastern Russia XI-XV centuries. So
6. Whalebones. Vladimir-Suzdal Rus. Essays on social and
7. V.N.Tatischev. History Of
8. CIT. in book.: Karamzin. History of the Russian state. M., 1991. So 2-3, S. 143.
9. Russian encyclopedic dictionary. M., 2000. So 2, S. 1868.
11. PSRL 2:581.
12. The rationale
for the Dating of buildings Yuri Dolgoruky see: apology
13. N.N. Voronin believed the Church of the Saviour in the city of Suzdal, mentioned in the message Printing Chronicles the construction of Yuri Dolgoruky in 1152 (PSRL 24:77), the chapel to the Church Monomakh (Voronin. The decree. cit., S. 64).
The assumption is
that the Church of the Saviour was in the yard of
Yuri Dolgoruky in the city of
The author of this book there is reason to believe that the Church of the Saviour was located on the Suzdal yard Dolgoruky within the city walls, close to the ramparts from the river side (like the temples in Pereslavl, Kideksha and Yuriev-Polsky).
In fact, the altars of the overwhelming majority of Russian churches of the XVIII century focused almost exactly on the East (90 degrees). Exceptions are not all churches this time located in the city centre of Suzdal. And only the altars of the Church of the assumption, standing just outside the ramparts to the right of the entrance to the Kremlin, is oriented to 60 degrees is exactly the same as the altars of pre-Mongol virgin Nativity Cathedral.
construction period of the Church of the assumption with a certain degree of
probability is the end of the XVII century, and in 1617 there was a wooden
Church (ad Varganov. Suzdal.
satisfactory explanation of this situation is the following: the Church of the
assumption was built on the site (perhaps even the foundations of the
pre-Mongolian Church, i.e. the Church of the Saviour
in the city of
See Church of the
Savior could be renamed the assumption at any time between the XII and XV
centuries. Perhaps it was and the transfer of the throne of the Transfiguration
of our Saviour in founded in 1350 by the Prince the
monastery of Saint Euthymius. And the pre-Mongolian
Church (not the Saviour, and the assumption) could
collapse, for example, in the time of Troubles (as constructed simultaneously
with it the
But, of course,
confirm the hypothesis of the author about the location of
the Church of the Saviour in the city of
14. Voronin. The decree. cit., S. 69.
15. Ibid., C. 56.
presence at Dolgoruky fortified courtyard outside the
17. Voronin. The decree. cit., S. 69.
18. V.N.Tatischev. The decree. cit., so 2, S. 303; Voronin. The decree. cit., S. 317.
19. Paterik of Kiev-Pechersky
20. So thought Voronin (Voronin. The decree. cit., S. 28).
21. Whalebones. Vladimir-Suzdal Rus. Essays on social and
speaking, the Cathedral of the assumption we may not be attributed to the
white-stone building, as the technique Fioravanti is
not white stone, and mixed: the most critical structural elements (arches,
pillars, drums, the wall of the apse) made of brick. And
yet, despite unprecedented measures to strengthen the temple, "in 1624
threatening drop in the vaults of the Cathedral were taken before a single
brick" and the newly composed taking into account formed in the upper tier
of deformations on the changed picture ("vsparushennoy"
configuration), with the reinforcement of their connected with iron, and with
the introduction of additional arches" (Kavelmaher.
On the initial appearance of the assumption Cathedral of the
Moscow Kremlin. In the book: Architectural heritage. Vol.
26. N.p.kondakov. Russian antiquity in the
27. Generikov. About the churches of
Vladimir-Suzdal Principality of XII-XIII centuries,
31. Voronin. The decree. cit.
32. Ibid., C. 110.
34. Ibid, 107 S..
35. Ibid., C. 110.
37. V.N.Tatischev. The decree. cit., S. 687.
38. PSRL 1:351.
39. Voronin. The decree. cit., S. 332.
42. Zagraevsky, 2002.
45. Currently the author of this article is a study of possible places of extraction of stone, which were built Suzdal churches.
48. PSRL 1:351.
49. The calculation
is given in the book: Zagraevsky,
50. Ibid., C. 36-40.
51. PA Rappoport. Construction production of
Ancient Rus. St.Petersburg,
52. Voronin. The decree. cit., 106 S..
54. PSRL 24:77.
56. Voronin. The decree. cit., S. 344.
57. Zagraevsky, 2004.
58. V.N. Lazarev. Byzantine and old Russian art.
61. BA Ognev. Some problems of the early
62. Dpring. Architecture Of The Latin
63. Die Kunst der Romanik. Architektur, :, Malerei. Koeln, 1996. With. 85.
64. There also, with. 58.
65. Der Kaiserdom zu Speyer. Speyer, 1994. With. 24.
66. For more
information, see Zagraevsky,
67. For more information, see ibid., C. 69.
68. Voronin. The decree. cit., S. 110.
69. Karamzin. The decree. cit., S. 345.
70. Ibid., C. 266.
71. Ibid., C. 318.
72. Christianity. Encyclopedic dictionary. M., 1995. (Hereinafter - Christianity). So 2, 222 S..
73. PSRL 3:107.
74. Christianity. So 2, S. 258.
75. Karamzin. The decree. cit., S. 320.
76. Ibid., C. 168.
78. Ibid., C. 157.
79. PSRL 1:351.
80. Voronin. The decree. cit., S. 139.
81. Ibid., C. 132.
82. Ibid., C. 262-301.
83. V.N.Tatischev. The decree. cit., S. 687.
85. Ioannisyan, 2000.
87. PSRL 1:348.
88. Whether there
was Andrew's friendship with
89. Karamzin. The decree. cit., S. 338.
90. PSRL 1:348.
91. For example, in 2004, on the television channel ORT was shown a film about Andrei Bogolyubsky, which seriously asserted the following:
Hardly such fabrications need any comments.
92. Voronin. The decree. cit., S. 323.
93. Ibid., C. 150.
95. T.P. Timofeeva. To the question of the
five-domed assumption Cathedral of Andrei Bogolyubsky
96. SV zagraevsky. Reconstruction of the Dormition Cathedral in 1158-
97. SV zagraevsky. New Christian philosophy.
98. Acts of the
99. For more
information, see: Zagraevsky,
100. V. field. The
101. Individual interviews with AI Komech. 2002.
102. Acts of the
103. The decrees of
the Holy governing Synod from 1721 to
104. Macarius, Metropolitan of
105. E.E. Golubinsky. The history of the
106. Anwarul. The state and the Church Ancient
Rus X-XIII centuries M,
107. Ibid., C. 70; E.E. Golubinsky. The decree. cit., so 1, 1 o'clock, s 386.
108. E.E. Golubinsky. The decree. cit., so 1, 1 o'clock, S. 487.
109. Ibid., C. 492.
110. Ibid., C. 677.
112. Voronin. The decree. cit., S. 59.
113. Karamzin. The decree. cit., S. 168.
114. Whalebones. The decree. cit., S. 48.
115. PSRL 2:248.
117. Voronin. The decree. cit., so 1, 119 S..
© Sergey Zagraevsky