Prof. Dr. S.V. Zagraevsky
The first stone hipped roof temple and the origin of hipped roof architecture
Published in Russian: Заграевский С.В. Первый каменный шатровый храм и происхождение
шатрового зодчества. Электронная публикация: www.rusarch.ru (электронная
научная библиотека «РусАрх»),
Architectural, archaeological and
annalistic evidences in favor of dating of first four temples of Alexander Sloboda, including a hipped-roof Trinity (now Intersession)
church, by 1510-s are sited. It is confirmed that Trinity church was the first Russian
stone hipped-roof temple, built earlier than the
The following text was translated from the Russian original by the computer program
and has not yet been edited.
So it can be used only for general introduction.
Until recently, the first ancient stone Church marquee was considered to
be the Church of the ascension in Kolomenskoye (Fig.
1)that have a clear chronicle the date of completion -
year 15321. The architect of this Church definitely is not
installed. S. pod'yapol'skii, devoted to the matter
of special investigation2, believed that they had Petroc minor (Peter Fryazin)probably arrived in
Fig. 1. The Church of the ascension in Kolomenskoye.
Unlike the Church of ascension in Kolomenskoe,
- Pokrovsky, now Trinity Cathedral (in the future will be without reservations call it Pokrovsky) on the basis of the records of the Trinity chronicle about the sanctification of the temple (no details, stone or wood) and the arrival of Basil III in the Grand Palace Alexandrov Sloboda5 was considered to be built in 1513;
- hip Trinity, now
- Crucifixion bell to 1710 - the
Рис. 2. Троицкая церковь в Александровской слободе.
Рис. 3. Распятская церковь в Александровской слободе.
Fig. 4. The
In 1980-1990-ies series of excavations and soundings, held in the
Alexander suburb V. kavelmaherom, identified a
fundamental fact: Pokrovsky Cathedral, hip
Architectural and archaeological arguments Kavelmahera was fairly well received by all researchers as comprehensive11 and inevitably the question arose about the correction of earlier dates.
to the text of the Trinity chronicle12 and the proximity of the
stylistics of the first temple Alexander the settlement to the style of the
Kremlin cathedrals of Ivan III and Vasily III13
(this stylistic affinity was noted Aiecraft14), dated the Church of
the protection, Trinity, assumption and Alexei, Metropolitan of the first
construction period Sloboda - the beginning 1510-ies.
The second construction period 1570-s - Kavelmaher
attributed only to the restructuring of the
In the late 1990's-early 2000-ies point of view Kavelmahera was the%16. Поддерживая отнесение Покровского собора, Троицкой церкви, Успенской церкви и церкви Алексея митрополита к одному строительному периоду17 the researchers were Dating all these monuments 1570 mi18.
Detailed analysis of all the arguments Kavelmahera,
- masonry, solution, style and the performance
of the decoration of the
- the Windows of the upper tiers of the
- by the moment of rigging the pylons of the
- at the junction of walls and pylons Crucifixion bell on detected by probing the fragments of the white-stone basement and obliviscence brick decor of the Church of Metropolitan Alexei there are traces of weathering, which could have time to appear only in a few decades.
Thus, since the rebuilding of the
From this it follows that the first stone Church marquee in
To quote what I wrote in this regard Kavelmaher:
"the Proposed assignment of
The objectives of this study does not include consideration of the whole process of Genesis of stone tent-roofed architecture (we are limited to the questions of origin), so in addition to the foregoing VV kavelmaherom will note only that later date the Church of the ascension in comparison with the Trinity Church in no way detracts from the value of Kolomna monument DL is%8
Now the question arises whether we can identify the architect who built Trinity Church in Alexandrov Sloboda, at least with the same degree of certainty with which SS pod'yapol'skii identified for the Church of the ascension in Kolomenskoye authorship petroc minor.
V. kavelmaher that graduated in
in 1508, Aleviz Fryazin finished work on the Moscow Grand Palace and the New Aleviz - over Archangel Cathedral24 (the question of the identity of both buildings and architects are presented in detail below);
- in 1513 Alexandrov Sloboda was completed on the
in 1514, the
great Prince commanded one of Aleviz erect in
It is unlikely that such a chain of bilateral dates and buildings could be a coincidence. So, the authorship petroc minor in relation to the Church of the ascension in Kolomenskoye SSD is%826 и началом строительства Китай-Города в 1534 году27.
But as for the temple of Alexander the settlement, S. pod'yapol'skii objected assumptions about the erection of Italian architects, as, according to the researcher, "in terms of architecture all this slepleno so haphazard and so incompatible with the geometric clarity of the structure, typical of the architecture of the Renaissance, which is absolutely nepena the%28.
From these observations,
Unfortunately, the rule in the history of architecture of the last quarter of the XX century the theory Rappoport, prescriptive tracking building cooperatives in full composition (from architect to ordinary masons)30, has created a completely wrong stereotype: the architect "supposed" to move the head of his farm from the construction site to the site and personally to go into all the details of construction implementation of your building. Accordingly, any blemishes (the more "naive") design excluded the authorship of highly qualified architect (especially such a level as Aleviz).
But in fact, the architect in no case was not obliged to be constantly
present in the project: its main task was to develop the project and receive a
churchwarden funds for its implementation31. And in this case, the
first churchwarden temples Alexandrov Sloboda - Vasily III - was in
Consequently, Aleviz, if he was the author of
monuments Sloboda, still had to be permanently in
Thus, Aleviz could either occasionally come in the Alexander suburb during construction, or even the first time to see their temples already constructed, "entered" with Vasily III in Sloboda in 1513. And before that, according to his design work contractors are able to tolerate any mistakes - including those that Kavelmaher and S. pod'yapol'skii33.
Consequently, the end of the Aleviz in 1508 work in the Kremlin, construction of the Grand Palace and the Pokrovsky Cathedral in the village in 1513 and the order of Basil III in 1514 one of Aleviz to build 11 churches give us sufficient grounds to believe that the author of temples protection, Trinity, assumption and Metropolitan Alexei Alexandrov Sloboda is one of the Italian architects, known under the name of Aleviz.
And, despite a number occurred minor technical flaws, Vasily III was satisfied with the work of the architect - it is proved by the Grand Duke in 1514 commissioned him to build eleven new churches.
The idea of a princely Palace-temple complex in the Settlement fully meets the scale of any of Aleviz - simultaneous construction of very large for that time, the complex of buildings, absolutely unique, not like one another, but United "country" style (as opposed to "capital" style, realized in stone Kremlin Palace and the Archangel Cathedral).
And it is not surprising that in the future, along with another wonderful piece of Italian architects - the Kremlin's Archangel Cathedral - a model for numerous imitations (often eclipses the original) was the first stone tent-roofed Church of the Trinity34.
Examine the question which of the two architects of Italian origin, known under the name of Aleviz, straw%
First of all let's see what we know about these wizards. The first of
them (who arrived in
About Aleviz 1 Chronicles report the
following: "Came the ambassadors of the great Prince of Moscow, Manolo Aggelou Greek Yes Danila Mamyrov that sent them to
the Prince of the great masters to
With built in Moscow Aleviz 1st from 1494 to 1499 years, we do not know, but it looks convincing version Wppagenavi37: he replaced the deceased in 1493 by Pietro Antonio Solari on a post of the head of the Kremlin's fortification.
The following mention about Aleviz 1-m is
because in 1499 "the great Prince ordered ordered
zalozhiti your yard, chamber kamenya
and kirpichnyi, and under them the cellars and
glaciers, on the old courtyard of Blagoveschenie, yea
stone wall from the yard of his to Borovet%38. Это строительство было завершено к
1508 году, когда Василий III переехал в построенный
дворец39. What we are talking precisely about Aleviz 1-m, confirmed by the reference to "hail mediolama" (
None of the researchers had no doubt (and won't doubt, and we)that this
"Velma great master" (we will call it by Aleviz
More in the annals of Aleviz 2nd as "Aleviz Novy" is not mentioned. The attempts of a number of Italian researchers to identify the architect with the famous Venetian sculptor and Carver Alvise Lamberti di Montagnana44though has received a wide resonance in modern popular scientific literature, are only unconfirmed (and, as we shall soon see, the very somnitel%
В 1508 году «князь великий велел вкруг града Москвы ров делати камением и кирпичем и пруды чинити вкруг града Алевизу Фрязину»45. Annals of lead and more specific information about these works, which began in 1507 and completed in 1519 - built walls, towers, dams and ditch along the river Neglinnaya46.
Finally, in 1514, Vasily III ordered to build
Until 1970-ies in the history of architecture dominated following point
of view: Aleviz
In the last quarter of the twentieth century, this "extreme"
point of view has been questioned SS pod'yapol'skii50 and Vpolicy51.
Both researchers have attributed the
Arguments S. Podyapolsky and Wppagenavi in favour of the inclusion of the Kremlin Palace "creative wall and ward wizard" Aleviz 1 undeniable: Aleviz 2nd in 1499 was not yet in Russia, moreover, in the chronicle report this year reads that the master was from Milan. But valid doubts about these researchers are submitted by Aleviz 2nd churches, with
VP Vygolov rightly believed that, because the same chronicle under the year 1508 reports that fortification works ("pit delatite stone and brick...") were charged Aleviz Fryazino, and the Cathedral of the Archangel and the Church of the Nativity of St. John the Baptist built the New Aleviz, a chronicler he spoke about different architects. But out of this situation, the researcher made the highly controversial conclusionThe rationale for this conclusion was that the architect mentioned in the annals under the year 1514, was named Aleviz Fryazino - as well as in reports on the activities of Aleviz 1 under 1494 and 1499 years.
In fact, in a position Wppagenavi we see one more "extreme" point of view, but with the opposite sign: greatest architect of the era, capable of building and fortresses, palaces, and temples (in the same time and on an unprecedented scale), was Aleviz 1st, and Aleviz 2nd built in Russia for four years, two temples and after 1508 disappeared.
Apparently, in this case, the%B
Undoubtedly, researchers have always understood that the wording "Aleviz Fryazin" means nothing more than a statement of the fact that Aleviz was Italian. And yet in this work Wppagenavi52 (perhaps unnoticed by the investigator) occurred "rebirth" this finding in sustainable nickname of one master - Aleviz 1st. But, of course, Aleviz 2nd was too Aleviz Fryazino, and the adjective "new" was used by the chronicler only in order to stress that the Italian Aleviz who built the Cathedral of the Archangel, arrived in Moscow later Italian Aleviz, who built fortifications on Neglinnaya. Therefore, we can not rely on the naming of an architect Aleviz Fryazino in determining the author's temples, the construction of which was started in 1514.
Far more important message is seen chronicle 1494 that Aleviz was "master wall and ward. The chronicler could hardly make it a fundamental clarification accidentally, and such specialization Aleviz 1st puts everything in its place.
From 1494 to 1499 years Aleviz 1 was constructed to strengthen the Kremlin, which did not have time to complete Solari. In 1499-1508 years the architect built led
Hardly the architect had the opportunity in parallel with these
large-scale fortification works to build 11 churches in
And Aleviz 2nd from 1505 to 1508 years, built the Cathedral of the Archangel and the
The temple building was supposed to be the specialization of the architect in Italy, otherwise he immediately on arrival not trust such crucial building, like Archangel Cathedral (in this regard, the identity of Aleviz 2nd and sculptor Alvise Lamberti di Montagnana very unlikely). And the experience of building the Palace complexes Aleviz 2nd could get in B%D53.
The ability of Aleviz 2nd (for simplicity, in the future we will call it New Aleviz, as Aleviz 1st in our study is not mentioned more) to work in a wide range of architectural forms were confirmed in XIX-XX centuries, so different from each other buildings of the architect, as the Bakhchisaray Palace, the Cathedral of the Archangel and is known for lithographs AA Martynov and im Snegireva the Church of the Nativity of St. John the Baptist under the Forest and of the Annunciation in the Old Vagankovo. In the 1960-ies to this list were added octagonal Cathedral of St. Peter the Metropolitan of vysokopetrovsky monastery. Now we uprav
The question of the origin of the old Russian stone architecture in a tent (we will henceforth call it simply a marquee architecture, material structures will specify only in the case of wooden architecture) takes the researchers is not the first hundred years. For a detailed historical overview of all points of view put forward beyond the scope of this article, Perret is
- hip architecture of Ancient Russia was a direct or indirect reminiscent of the late Gothic Western (Karamzin, Imoneynet, LDL, E.E. Golubinsky, A.I. Nekrasov, H. Wagner)54;
- hip architecture is a unique phenomenon, formed
on the basis of old Russian wooden architecture (ia Zabelin, FF Gornostayev, Grabar,
- hip architecture is derived from the ancient Serbian churches with elevated supporting arches (Ni Bruno)56;
- hip architecture was formed under the influence of the architecture of ancient castle towers (PN Maksimov, mA Il'in, mn Tikhomirov, H. Wagner)57;
- by becoming a hip architecture greatly influenced by the ancient pillars of the Church-bell (mA Il'in, H. Wagner)58;
- old Russian pavilion was "an accident in the architecture and just replaced the dome, Perek is%59.
Before we begin to address these hypotheses, we note that research Kavelmahera and the author of this article that led to the revision of the position relative to the first stone temple of hip, cannot by themselves materially affect the choice of one or another point of view researchers or to develop a new theory of the origin of hip architecture. One of the Grand temple (ascension 1528-1532 years), with high probability, built by Italian architect (petroc minor), "replaced" by another (Trinity 1510-ies), and with high probability, built by Italian architect (Aleviz New). Both temples belong to the era of Basil III, marked by the flowering of architecture and an active search of new forms. The only thing we will further study the "replacement" of the Church of the ascension at Trinity Church - the traditional forms of the quadrangle of the latter.
And we start with a statement of fact that is hard to question, - that during the formation of the ancient Russian architecture of the XII-XV centuries it on%D60, появление повышенных подпружных арок, обработка барабанов килевидными кокошниками61, возведение над куполами высоких луковичных глав62 the construction of the column churches "under the bells"63- all of these phenomena are in line with overall impression "Lancet", which produces Gothic.
Characteristic of Gothic tendency to increase and zalnosti" the interior of the temples also reflected in the ancient Russian architecture - the pillars was getting thinner and thinner, less and less XP, the%B64, а затем и с крещатым сводом65. А Успенский собор Фиораванти, к примеру, С.С.Подъяпольский справедливо относил к типу готической «зальной церкви»66.
H. Wagner wrote that "if the development of "high-rise"
architecture was not interrupted by the Mongol invasion, then
In this regard must assume that the emergence of "upward" hip architecture corresponds to one of the major trends of Gothic, and this is a serious argument in favor of the position nm Karamzin, im Snegireva, L.V. dal, E.E. Golubinsky and A.I. Nekrasov. Here we'll take and position Neemrana (temples with elevated supporting arches), Mailin, PN Maksimov, M.%68, is closely associated with the "tall" Gothic features and, therefore, with a marquee architecture.
But the question arises: is connected directly or indirectly? Here are a number of provisions that force us to deny a direct link hip architecture and Gothic.
First, higher arches and canopied temples are completely different constructive entity (arch p%D
Secondly, pillar-shaped temples before the erection in 1510-ies the Church of Metropolitan Alexei Alexandrov Sloboda and the Cathedral of St. Peter the Metropolitan of vysokopetrovsky monastery had not unlike tent churches, more or less extensive SPLA, that is, in engineering terms were closer to the towers, than to the Church buildings (examples - Church-belfry of St John Climacus 1329, %
Third, a direct parallel between the fortified towers and temples marquee impossible. The first had a utilitarian character, the second appearance is determined solely by spiritual needs and architectural thought era. Moreover, from a utilitarian point of view tent churches had no sense, as compared to "scale" a cross churches (especially with the European basilicas) their area SPLA small, and "kolodtseobraznost" interior creates a lot of problems with acoustics.
Fourth, for the Western Gothic (like romanik,
as for the Renaissance) is absolutely unusual overlap SPLA tent. Over sredokrestiyami sometimes were built or stone octahedral
dome (Imperial Cathedral of Speyer (
Рис. 6. Купол над средокрестием собора в Лимбурге на Лане.
Рис. 7. Церковь в Брюгге.
Fig. 8. Cathedral in
This fully applies to the East, where, in addition to towers, stone tents sometimes overlap small mausoleums (as in the Volga Bulgaria).
In this connection it is necessary to make an important reservation: determining the origin of hip architecture and speaking of the first stone tent-roofed Church, we can provide the%
Acciona wrote that the origin of hip architecture of Gothic "found in the source form of the tent, but not hip typology of the temple. This means that nothing was found: the architectural typology does not consist of individual parts on the principle of collage. If we assume that the Russian tent comes from the Gothic spire, we subsequently have to assume many intermediate links between the two typologies - Gothic bell tower integrated into the vaulted Basilica, and the Russian detached centric tent-roofed Church. For example, Russian Basilica with belfry, from which ZAT%DThe available evidence is insufficient. May not be such that the spire "cut down" from the bell tower and hoisted on the way undertaken (and, it appeared, by the way, nowhere) octagon on square"70. We must fully agree with the researcher.
Fifth, one of the most characteristic trends Gothic - increase the area of the internal space of the temples. With marquee same architecture, the situation is the opposite: we have already said that compared to "scale" a cross churches, and especially with the European basilicas, their area SPLA small.
Sixth, the beginning of XVI century in
It is useful to note that in the Church of the ascension in Kolomenskoye, as shown by S. pod'yapol'skii, there were numerous "Renaissance" elements (orders, portals with direct architraves embrasure, "Renaissance" drawing Gothic visperhof etc). Against taking place in Kolomna temple Gothic elements (total stolpoobraznosti and many decorative elements, first of all themselves visperhof) the researcher believed that Petroc Small applied them as imitation of the "local" architecture, as caught in the preceding old Russian architecture spirit of Gothic71.
We can all agree with SS pod'yapol'skii and to
say the same about Aleviz New: in the
Now we can proceed to the consideration of hypotheses regarding the origin of hip architecture of old Russian wooden architecture.
"The chronicler briefly the Russian land" (XVI century72) under the year 1532 says: "the great Prince Vasily placed the stone Church of Vnesenie of our Lord Jesus Christ up on the wooden case73. This message draws a direct parallel between to%
We have the image is not extant wooden tent-roofed Church in the village una Arkhangelsk region (Fig. 9), the construction of which registers the records referred to 150174, respectively, this Church was built before the first stone temple of hip.
Fig. 9. Church in the village una
Nor The%B75, и мы можем привести ряд аргументов в поддержку их позиции.
First, these researchers have provided examples of images wooden tent
churches on the icon of the beginning of the XIV century from the village curve
(Fig. 10) and in the fields of
Fig. 10. The icon of the village of the curve.
Secondly, these researchers believed on the basis of textual and iconographic analysis of ancient documents %D77, Устюге (конец XIII века)78, Ледском погосте (1456 год)79 и Вологде (конец XV века)80. Про церковь 1501 года в селе Уна мы уже упоминали выше.
Third, these researchers have led the chronicle reported high "stanah" in Moscow81 and showed that we are talking about a wooden tent pillar-shaped churches82;
Fourth, wooden belfry is shown in the image of the Tver Kremlin first half of the XV century on the icon Michael of Tver and Duchess Xenia83 (Fig. 11).
Fig. 11. The image of the Tver Kremlin first half of the XV century on the icon Michael of Tver and Duchess Xenia.
Fifthly, it is highly likely that many of the wooden tent-roofed temples of the XVI-XVII centuries are copies of more ancient. This position was justified Acciona84 on the basis of the following considerations:
- folk architecture conservative typology change very slowly;
- there was a practice to replace rotten logs in the frame of one, why time in the ancient monument of the original material could be very small. Therefore, radiocarbon Dating and dendrochronological method is reliable only if for analysis take a large number of logs. Accordingly, some wooden monuments due to a lack of representative sample material for analysis could receive a later date;
- carpenters are often obliged to build a new Church on the model of the old, dilapidated.
Sixth, as have already written to the author of this article85, wood is much easier to build a tent than the dome, and stone dome to build simpler than the tent. The reasons for this are the following:
- technology of building stone domes (and formwork, and without it86) was well known and established since the days of Ancient Rome, and large stone tents before the beginning of the XVI century nowhere in the world was erected (very rarely built tents over %D87 – рис. 12);
Рис. 12. Кухня в аббатстве Фонтевро (романика).
- stone tent has almost the same rip as the dome, and to achieve uniformity of spreading at a high altitude tent (relatively speaking, to mean not "dipped") - a complex engineering task;
- from wood to build the dome is very difficult (you will need to attach any logs semicircular shape, or use them very short intervals);
- the construction of wooden tent several (usually eight) logs (the edges of the tent) are at the top and covered with boards, and it can make almost any little bit of a skilled carpenter. And not in vain, as we have noted previously, all known Gothic tents over sredokrestiyami - wooden.
That tent from wood to build much easier than the dome, it follows that
the tent could be "simplified" dome during the whole time of
existence of the old Russian wooden architecture,
including in the XI-XV centuries. I can give an example of such replacement
In this regard, it is appropriate to support the position Kavelmahera in that pavilion was simple replacement dome, overlapping SPLA, is the only significant caveat that this change in the wooden architecture was no accident, but the design-based phenomenon. Grabar and FF Gornostayev questioned the origin of the tent from a wooden%88. But in XI-XV centuries, wooden tent over the naos were quite clear pattern - the dome of stone temples.
And because the tent in the wooden architecture was multi-faceted (this is due to the heart of its design - beams forming the frame), it is logical that the richness of acquired and drums. The number of faces more often equal to eight (apparently, this is the optimal ratio for the transition to the tent of Chetverikov, and for maximum stability of the structure). Thus, we see the source form "octagon on square".
Another question in the "wooden" the origin of the tent may be due to the fact that in the preserved ancient wooden churches tent top is usually not closed down, and separated from the SPLA horizontal ceiling. But the reasons for erection of additional ceiling convincingly demonstrated Wagrain: it was caused by the need to protect the facility Church iconostasis from the rain (snow)that fall into the gaps between the boards of Polis and logs knock down when the wind is strong, effective functioning of ventilation in the upper level of the log stable and independent ventilation in the%89.
GP Goltz believed that "vertically directed stone tent-roofed architecture may not occur on a horizontal directed wooden constructions"90. But there are many examples of verticalization wooden churches (as already mentioned by us the Church in the village of Ura (Fig. 9), the Church of St. Elijah 1600 Vysokogo churchyard top-Tomskogo district Archangel is%91 – рис. 13, Богоявленская церковь 1605 года в деревне Челмужи Заонежского района Карелии92 – рис. 14, Вознесенская церковь 1654 года в селе Пиялы Онежского района Архангельской области93 - Fig. 15 and mn. others), and the wooden tent (anyway, its frame) usually does not consist of horizontal and vertical logs.
Fig. 13. The Church Vysokogo churchyard of the
Fig. 14. The Church in the village of chelmuzhi Zaonezhie district of Karelia. Longitudinal section.
Fig. 15. Church in the village Pialy Arkhangelsk region. Longitudinal section.
In General wooden tent-roofed architecture generates no less "Gothic" Association than stone. Of course, hardly rural (and urban), the carpenters were familiar with Western European experience, is probably Gothic "altitude" came in wooden architecture indirectly (through ancient pillar-shaped temples and churches with elevated supporting arches). N%D
Let's sum up. We see a fairly extensive set of factors that can directly or indirectly affect the emergence of hip architecture, all these factors have a very high cross-correlation, due to which any logical construction sooner or later "closed" to each other. As an example, the basic postulates, the validity of which we display%D
– шатровые храмы имеют несомненную типологическую связь и со столпообразными колокольнями, и с храмами с повышенными подпружными арками;
- "high-rise" pillar-shaped temples "under the
bells", as the temples with elevated supporting arches, appeared in
- for Gothic unusual overlap SPLA (and even sredokrestiya) tent, the more stone;
- hip architecture contradicts one of the main tendencies of Gothic - increase the area of internal space of the temples;
- Italian architects of the Renaissance could not directly focus on the Gothic style;
- in the work of Italian architects in
- wooden tent-roofed architecture was extended
- there chronicle proof of origin architecture of the wooden tent;
- wood is much easier to build a tent than the dome (a stone dome to build simpler than the tent);
- in the wooden architecture of the tent was the replacement of the dome, overlapping SPLA;
- total altitude
- pillar-shaped temples and churches with
elevated supporting arches, appeared in
"Logical circle has closed. In this case, the "closure" means that the emergence of hip architecture in varying degrees, affected all the above factors.
Therefore, each of the researchers, whose position we discussed in paragraph 4, was in his own right. But out of loyalty to such a wide range of positions can be concluded: hip architecture has been prepared by the entire previous history and Russian and world architecture, with all the infinite set of relationships, influences and origins.
However, the construction of the first tent-roofed Church of the
We will not forget that the authorship of the New Aleviz,
like any other Italian architect, in respect of
Theoretically, we can assume that the source of inspiration for the architect to have tents that housed the biblical patriarchs Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. In the future, these pavilions became a symbol of the dwelling, i.e. the "porch", and the same value in the words of the prophet Isaiah received the sky: "He (God - SZ) stretches out the heavens like a curtain, and spreadeth them out as a tent to dwell in" (ISA. 40:22). MA Il'in, trying to "reveal the ideological content of the tent"94, drew attention to these words of the prophet and, on their basis were attached tent "shadowing" the role95. But the researcher himself wrote that "the arches" is most fully expressed in the Church's cross (the dome on the pillars)96and it remains unclear, why in the XVI century in Russia, the architect decided to replace one "canopy" (dome") to another (tent). If a tent in the Church tradition had any independent symbolic (and even more canonical) value, it is as a phenomenon ka
In accordance with the "Occam's razor" ("should not multiply entities beyond necessity"), we can assume that the source of inspiration for the New Aleviz were not rotunda over the Holy Sepulchre in distant Palestine and not abstract biblical characters, and specific the Grand order and surrounding architect of the old Russian architecture.
In Ancient Russia since the time of termination in the middle of the XII century a direct copy of Byzantine models specificity ktitorskih orders given by invited foreign architects, was that the task was built not Italian, German or English churches, namely Russian. In other words, from architects have always wanted to work in line with the already established at the time of the traditions of Russian architecture, despite the fact that they were free to make the principles and elements of different styles, adopted in their country of origin.
From this General rule we do not know no exceptions.
So, the construction of the "Western" the material is white stone -
in the pre-Mongol Suzdal was conducted, including
masters of Frederick Barbarossa, "Byzantine" (by that time already
traditional for Ancient Russia) cross-forms, though with the introduction of a
number of Romanesque decor elements and%297. Строительство столпообразных храмов «под колоколы»
(вероятнее всего, первым из них был октагональный храм Иоанна Лествичника
was prepared four-column temples with high supporting arches and columns -
" pylon99. The Church with groin vaults became a logical
development of a four-column temples100. Octagonal Cathedral of St.
Peter the Metropolitan (1514-1518 years) - a continuation of the tradition
pillar-shaped temples "under the bells", although lacking the
function of the bell tower. Assumption Cathedral in
In short, from the "mainstream" of ancient architecture not drop any Church, including built invited foreign architect. As we showed above, is no exception and tent architecture.
On this basis, we may assume that the New Aleviz
received from the Grand Prince Basil III the task is to build a Palace-temple
complex of Alexandrov Sloboda
in "national" style - naturally, in the measure of understanding and
perception of this style of famous European architect. Neither in Europe nor
anywhere else in the world was not such buildings as the first temple Sloboda - hence Aleviz took a sample architecture, surrounded him in
However, the taking of a sample in no case did not mean a complete up - even Pokrovsky Cathedral in Alexandrov Sloboda, direct the remake of" the Trinity Cathedral of the Trinity-Sergius Lavra, differ from the design type and proportions and size, and the decor. Pokrovsky Cathedral brick and white stone Trinity. At first there basement and galleries, and the second is not. The first wall is vertical, and the second "pyramid" tilted inwards.
Therefore, Aleviz New built their churches in Russia as understanding of Russian architecture, and to apply the General volume-compositional and decorative solutions, which saw around him, while not abandoning its own creative search and the techniques of the Renaissance, which he had, as they say, "in the blood".
In this regard, we can assume that elevated Aleviz
stone tent over the naos of the Trinity Cathedral in
the Alexander settlement was built under the impression General elevation and
"Lancet" Russian churches, including wood. The latter due to their
huge number and formed the overall appearance of the ancient temple architecture
is no less (if not inSo, Kavelmaher
wrote about "Divadelni" motifs in the
architecture of the Church of the Trinity: "Among churches Sloboda only the Church of the Holy Trinity does not have
the stone porch, as was originally built the wooden mansions... On the
Thus, the use of
Of course, any reconstruction plan of the architect can only be hypothetical. But what hip architecture is an organic continuation of the preceding ancient architectural tradition, we may take for granted. And this tradition included and wooden architecture, and a wide range of relationships with the global architecture.
1. PSRL 8:280; PSRL 13:65; PSRL 20:413.
2. С.С.Подъяпольский. Архитектор Петрок Малой. В кн.: Памятники русской архитектуры и монументального искусства. Стиль, атрибуции, датировки. М., 1983 (далее – Подъяпольский, 1983). С. 34-50.
3. Там же, с. 44.
4. Там же, с. 46.
5. THE PR RSL. F. 304. Ed. Chr.
6. Because traditionally it was considered that the first stone Church marquee was the Church of the ascension in Kolomenskoye, on the basis of this theoretical background Trinity Church could not be dated the first construction period Sloboda - 1510 ties.
Monuments of ancient Alexandrova Sloboda. Collection of articles.
8. Ibid., C. 77.
9. Read more about the history of
the reconstruction of the
11. S. pod'yapol'skii.
On the Dating sites Alexandrova Sloboda.
- In the book: Proceedings of the
12. Kavelmaher. The decree. cit., S. 7.
13. Ibid., C. 17.
15. Kavelmaher. The decree. cit., S. 13.
18. The argument S. Podyapolsky and al Batalov was as
follows: "too much in the concept Kavelmahera
(relative Dating of the first temples Sloboda 1510
ties - SZ) contrary to established views on the development of architecture of
the Moscow Russia of the XVI century" (pod'yapol'skii,
19. SV zagraevsky. To the question about the Dating and authorship of the monuments of Alexandrov Sloboda. In the book: Zubovsky reading. Sat. scientific articles. Vol. 3. Strunino, 2005 (hereinafter - Zagraevsky, 2005). C. 69-92.
20. For more information, see ibid.
21. Kavelmaher. The decree. cit., S. 70.
22. Ibid., C. 43, 70.
23. Ibid., C. 6, 75.
24. PSRL 6:247; 13:10.
25. PSRL 6:254.
27. Ibid., C. 35.
29. Kavelmaher. The decree. cit., S. 70, 42.
30. PA Rappoport.
Construction production of Ancient Rus. St.Petersburg,
31. For example, it is known that the architectural work Alberti (1404-1472) was limited primarily to the preparation of drawings and models, which further R the%B
32. ОР РГБ. Ф.
304. Ед. хр.
33. Even if Vasily
III, as I thought Kavelmaher, "moved his
construction personnel in the Sloboda, still
34. All other alevizou
temples in the village is not so original:
pillar-shaped Church-bell had been known in
35. PSRL 12:238.
36. For more information, see: S. pod'yapol'skii. Italian construction
37. VP Vygolov. To the question of the buildings and personality Aleviz Fryazino. In the book: Drawn%
38. ПСРЛ 12:249.
39. ПСРЛ 6:247.
40. ПСРЛ 12:258.
41. Monuments of ancient
42. Ibid, so 2, S. 551-552.
43. PSRL 13:10.
44. For more information, see: pod'yapol'skii,
45. PSRL 13:8.
46. PSRL 30:140-144.
47. PSRL 8:254-255.
49. Ibid., C. 328-330.
51. VP Vygolov. The decree. cit.,%2
52. Там же, с. 242.
54. For more information, see: mA Il'in, PN Maksimov,
Cot. The decree. cit., S. 414; mA
Il'in. Russian tent-roofed
architecture. The monuments of the middle of XVI
century. Problems and hypotheses, ideas and images.
55. For more information, see: mA Il'in, PN Maksimov, Cot. The decree.%2
56. For more information, see: mA Il'in. The decree. cit., S. 16.
57. For more information, see mA Il'in. The decree. cit., S. 16; H. Wagner. The decree. cit., S. 27.
58. For more information, see mA Il'in. The decree. cit., S. 20; H. Wagner. The decree. cit., S. 27.
Letter to TP Timofeeva.
1988. The letter is kept in the Museum "Alexandrovskaya
Sloboda". Here is the full text of the paragraph
dealing with this subject: "with regard to the tent, he is nothing. The accident in the architecture. It only replaces the dome,
overlapping SPLA. Of the former Byzantine provinces, most developed typological
grid, in myRussian ear it says nothing, well, normal bizantology says nothing
our "pillarless" Church. You cannot define
the subject of no evidence. Scientists guys Altshuler
and Aleshkovsky, when revealed in
61. SV zagraevsky. The architecture of North-Eastern Russia the end of the XIII-the first third of the XIV century. M., 2003 (hereinafter - Zagraevsky, 2003).
62. SV zagraevsky.
About the form of the domes of ancient Russian temples.
Theses see in the book: Materials of the regional conference (April 14
63. the Sabbath.
64. Подробнее см.: Заграевский, 2003.
65. For more information, see: SV zagraevsky. Architectural history of the Church Trifon Naprudnom and origin groin vault. M., 2005 (hereinafter - Zagraevsky, Trifon Naprudnom). The article is on the web-site www.zagraevsky.com.
66. S. pod'yapol'skii. To the question about the peculiarity of architecture of the Moscow Uspenie Cathedral. - In the book: Assumption Cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin. Materials and study%D
68. Там же.
69. Необходимо выразить благодарность Ю.В.Тарабариной, обратившей внимание автора на этот храм.
70. Форум Интернет-сайта www.archi.ru.
74. PN Maksimov, N. Voronin. The decree. cit., S. 271.
75. Ibid., C. 264.
78. Ibid., C. 265.
79. Ibid., C. 268.
81. PSRL 15:183.
82. PN Maksimov, N. Voronin. The decree. cit., S. 266.
83. Nor the%
84. The forum web site www.archi.ru.
85. For more information, see: Zagraevsky, 2005.
86. General history of architecture. M., 1966. So 4, S. 655.
87. The author is grateful Uwharrie for a link to a photo of this kitchen.
89. V. a,Krokhin. The construction of the tent coverings in wooden architecture of the Russian North. In collected articles: "Architectural heritage and restoration". M., 1986.
90. Swiergiel. Introduction to art history. Description and analysis of monuments. University of history of cultures. Program of training course. Website unic.edu.ru.
91. PN Maksimov, N. Voronin. The decree. cit., S. 267.
923. Wagrain. The decree. cit.
97. For more information, see Zagraevsky, 2002.
98. Kavelmaher, T. Panova. The decree. cit.
99. More see: Zagraevsky, 2003.
100. For more information, see: Zagraevsky, Trifon Naprudnom.
101. Kavelmaher. The decree. cit., S. 29.
© Sergey Zagraevsky