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Prof. Dr. S.V. Zagraevsky

 

Redetermination of the date and status of Savior Church in Vladimir

 

 

Published in Russian: .. . .: . . . , 2009. . 126130.           

 

 

Annotation

 

The article specifies the date (1164) and the initial status of the church of our Saviour in Vladimir, built by Andrei Bogolyubsky. The important fact is noted: during the rebuilding of the temple in the late eighteenth century the builders stylized the church to "antique", not copying the old one and not building a new one in a contemporary style, but by combining the features of the pre-Mongolian architecture and Baroque. As a result, a unique monument of architecture, which has no analogues in the architecture of XVIIIXIX centuries, was erected.

 

 

Attention!

The following text was translated from the Russian original by the computer program

and has not yet been edited.

So it can be used only for general introduction.

   RUSSIAN VERSION

 

 

The Church of the Transfiguration of the Saviour was built by Andrei Bogolyubsky of white stone in the South-West of the "New town" of Vladimir fortifications 1158-1164 years (Fig. 1), not far from the Golden gate.

 

Fig. 1. The plan of Vladimir XII-XIII century (by N.N. Voronin).
The numbers on the plan identifies: I - the town of Monomakh (Picerni city); II - Vecanoi city; III - the New city; IV - the citadel; 1 - Church of the Saviour; 2 - the Church of St. George; 3 - the assumption Cathedral; 4 - the Golden gate; 5 - Originy gate; 6 - gates of Brass; 7 - Silver gate; 8 - Volga gate; 9 - Demetrius Cathedral; 10 - ascension monastery; 11 - Ro%D

 

Fig. 1. The plan of Vladimir XII-XIII centuries (NN Voronin).

The numbers on the plan identifies: I - the city of Monomakh (Picerni city); II - Vecanoi city; III - the New city; IV - the citadel; 1 - Church of the Saviour; 2 - the Church of St. George; 3 - the assumption Cathedral; 4 - the Golden gate; 5 - Originy gate; 6 - gates of Brass; 7 - Silver gate; 8 - Volga gate; 9 - Demetrius Cathedral; 10 - Who is%

 

After a fire in 1778 the white-stone Church was destroyed and in its place was built a new brick Church, which exists at present (Fig. 2). Location of the old temple on the site of the new confirmed excavations carried out under the guidance Voronin in 19531. In the lower parts of the walls of the Church of the XVIII century is widely used white stone in the secondary use.

 

Church

 

Fig. 2. The Church Of Our Saviour. General view.

 

It is important to note that the builders of the end of XVIII century stylized Church "antique", without copying the old Church (as the builders of the Cathedral of the Vladimir Nativity monastery 1860-ies and Staro-Nikolsky Cathedral in Mozhaisk 1840-ies), without building a new Church in the modern style (as the builders of the Church of the Nativity of the virgin in the hierarchy of the middle of XVIII century and CH%

The plan, forms and sizes of the Saviour Church of the XII century we currently do not know. Judging by the quadrangular Saviour Church of the XVIII century and the General concepts of architecture of the time of Andrei Bogolyubsky, the temple of XII century was a four-column, single-headed apses.

The decor of the Saviour Church of the XII century is also unknown, except that the temple must have been highly likely to attend column-type belt and advanced portals, reproduced in the XVIII century (Fig. 3).

 

The Church Of Our Saviour. The Northern wall.

 

Fig. 3. The Church Of Our Saviour. The Northern wall.

 

No architectural and archaeological evidence shows that the Church of Andrei Bogolyubsky was replaced by brick Spassky Church Monomakh, are not available2.

The Foundation of the Church of Transfiguration of our Saviour on various dates from the chronicle data 11603, 11624 and 11645 years. N.N. Voronin believed that the last date given in the Laurentian chronicle, is incorrect, as the chronicler, according to the researcher, "summarized" the Foundation of the Church and the emergence of "Leontievsky heresy"6 The first date Voronin for unknown reasons ignored7and believed that the temple was founded in 1162 and completed in 11648.

However, a few chronicle sources concerning the pre-Mongolian time is so precious that we are not entitled to disavow, and especially to ignore any of these dates. Divergence chronicle dates in this case is a logical explanation: because the "inception" is usually interpreted solemn divine service on the basis of Church"9 one can assume that the "zero cycle" construction of the temple was delayed, and this led to the fact that the service was "on the ground" was repeated several times: in 1160, 1162 and 1164 years10. Last inception was final, and after it finally started the construction, which lasted, as in most of the churches of this magnitude, one year11.

Accordingly, we are Dating Saviour Church in 1164 and can turn to the question of its status.

N.N. Voronin suggested that "the construction of a new white-stone Church near the Church of St. George in the yard Dolgoruky was the%B12 in fact, the Savior Church was the primary Church of the Prince. This view today is a stereotype, and the most widely used name of the Church is "Church of our Savior on the courtyard of Andrei Bogolyubsky.

However, for some reasons we can not agree with this assumption.

First, the residence of Andrew was Bogolubovo and Vladimir he m

Secondly, the Church of our Saviour is located West from the center of Vladimir and Bogolyubovo - East. If Andrew and there was a need to build in Vladimir certain "helper" yard, he soon could face the hierarchy.

Thirdly, the Church of our Saviour is located almost in a straight line between Gold (ceremonial) and Volga (the main shopping) gate is%

Fourth, the location of the Church of the Saviour is unique: it not only is situated very close to the slope above the Klyazma (and thanks to this perfectly visible from the river and from Volga gate - see Fig. 1), but stands on the hill, much towering above the surrounding streets. It also emphasizes the importance of the temple, but excludes the presence of nearby fortified courtyard, TA%D

Fifth, Andrei inherited the house with the white-stone Church of St. George from his father - Dolgoruky. The presence around the Church of St. George beautifully fenced yard Yuri Vladimirovich confirmed by the following provisions13:

- Yuri, the Prince of Suzdal with 1113 (or even 109614) years, was unlikely to 1150 m years not to have its own yard in one of the largest (if not the largest) city of Suzdal - Vladimir;

- the area around the Church of St. George exceptionally advantageous from the point of view of natural protection: three sides it is flanked by two steeps and the ravine, and "field" side is very short;

in 1152, when, according to the Printing record, was built the Church of St. George15she was still outside the city walls, as the walls of the "New city" was built only%D

- consecration of the Church "heavenly patron" Dolgoruky - George - itself cannot serve as a proof that the Church was home, but in the light of the preceding provisions of this you should also pay attention.

Therefore, it is unlikely Andrei Bogolyubsky was the need to close with its court of Vladimir former courtyard of Yuri) to build another house because

From the above it can be concluded that the Church of the Saviour was not home and detached "parade" Church, dominating the South-Western part of the "New town" and designed to improve the image of the Vladimir the great Principality in the eyes of foreign ambassadors and "guests" (merchants). Around the same status had the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl, "decorate the%B

In light of this understanding of the status of the Saviour Church can be assumed that the temple had a shape similar to the appearance of the Intercession on the Nerl. But this, of course, only a hypothesis, to confirm or deny that can only new archaeological research16.

 

NOTES

 

1. Voronin. The architecture of North-Eastern Russia XII-XV centuries. Vol. 1. M., 1961. C. 199.

2. Ibid., C. 197.

3. PSRL 9:21.

4. PSRL 15:234.

5. PSRL 1:351.

6.

7. Ibid.

8. Ibid.

9. For more information, see: SV zagraevsky. To the question about the Dating of the Church the monk Nikon (Nikon chapel Trinity Cathedral in the Trinity-Sergius Lavra. M., 2005. The article is on the web-site www.zagraevsky.com.

10. A similar situation took place, in particular, the construction of stone walls of Novgorod: they were laid in 1302, and construction - with the re - laying-started only in 1131 (the first Novgorod chronicle senior and Junior nagged. Ryazan, 2001. C. 331, 345).

11. For more information, see: SV zagraevsky. To the question of reconstruction and the Dating of the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl. M., 2006. The article is on the web-site www.zagraevsky.com.

12. Voronin. The decree. cit., S. 200.

13. N.N. Voronin wrote about the presence around the Church of St. George fenced yard Yuri Dolgoruky, but did not lead any evidence (Voronin. The decree. cit., S. 91-92).

14. Whalebones. Vladimir-Suzdal Rus. the%

15. PSRL 24:77. More study of Dating the Church of St. George, see: SV zagraevsky. Apology Rostov chronicler (to the question about the Dating temples Yuri Dolgoruky). In the book: Materials of the regional conference dedicated to the centenary of the birth of N.N. Voronin (19 April 2004.). Vladimir, 2004. C. 25. The article is also on the Internet site www.zagraevsky.com.

16. Excavations Voronin Is10 m North of the Church the remains of a necropolis, a female burial which might have been the Prince's status (M.E. Ter-Minassian homeland. About the unknown burial XII century from the excavations N.N. Voronin near the Church of our Saviour in Vladimir. In the book: Russian archaeology, 1996. 3. C. 161-166. The author thanks TP Timofeeva for the link to this article). Me homeland on the basis of similarity of the Griffin on TC is%BWe have to note that the similarity of griffins seen enough to slip some confident Dating burial of the pre-Mongolian time - griffins were very common decorative motifs and post-Mongolian time. But if this is the burial of the pre-Mongol, it emphasizes the importance of the Church of the Saviour, and again refutes the possibility of the presence near the Palace complex, as the burial nor in the Palace, nor beside him be located could not.

 

Moscow, 2007.

 

Sergey Zagraevsky

 

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