Prof. Dr. S.V. Zagraevsky
Organization of production and processing of white stone in ancient Russia
Published in Russian: Çàãðàåâñêèé Ñ.Â. Îðãàíèçàöèÿ äîáû÷è è îáðàáîòêè áåëîãî êàìíÿ â Äðåâíåé Ðóñè. Â êí.: Ðóññêîå îáùåñòâî ñïåëåñòîëîãè÷åñêèõ èññëåäîâàíèé. Ì., 2008. Ñ. 5–28.
This scientific study investigates all aspects of the work of ancient
masters with white stone – the most important and most prestigious pre-Mongol
building material of North-Eastern Russia. Mining, processing and transportation
of stone in Ancient Russia are studied and confirmed experimentally. Special
attention is paid to the ancient quarries near
The following text was translated from the Russian original by the computer program
and has not yet been edited.
So it can be used only for general introduction.
1. General provisions
Usually, the white stone is
understood light Carboniferous limestone (Carboniferous period of the Paleozoic
era), lying in the Central regions of the European part of modern
Fig. 1. Map of the middle occurrence of deposits in the
Central part of
First of all let us look at some provisions indicating the importance of white stone, not only for ancient architecture, but also for the history of Ancient Russia.
In Byzantium the Church construction was carried out from plinfy or in mixed technique - "opus mixtum"; stone built only in certain suburbs of the Byzantine Empire, and then only because the mountains and deserts were clay firing plinthite. Plinthite or mixed was the construction of Kiev, Novgorod, Pskov, Polotsk, Smolensk, Chernigov, Pereslavl South, Vladimir, Volhynia and all other ancient lands, except for the Galician and Suzdal2.
In the Galician Principality
white-stone construction began in 1110-1120-ies, in Suzdal
According to calculations provided by the author in the book "Yuri Dolgoruky and the old white-stone architecture", white stone building was about d4. Reliability of buildings, built of white stone, in the Russian climate was significantly lower Printania5. Often sung in the popular literature white color of the stone was not his advantage: the white-stone building in a few years after the construction was dull gray from the smoke ovens and frequent fires, and the practice of cleaning them appeared only in the XIX century.
Thus, the white stone as a building material lost to plinthite (and especially brick) on all indicators.
But in the XII century, when
Western European example and made Galician, and then Suzdal princes go to white stone building is expensive and unreliable, but "Imperial". The direct predecessor of white stone temples of Ancient Russia was a huge Romanesque Cathedral in Speyer (Speyer) - the tombs of the emperors of the Holy Roman Empire" (very likely that there were "trained" the first old Russian masters "stone cases)7.
Thus, the prestigious white stone building became a "business
card" of two dynamic principalities and Halych,
and Suzdal. In order to build "on-Imperial", Galician and Suzdal princes spared neither effort nor money. Galich in the middle of XIII century was absorbed by
This is of great importance for the white-stone building in Russian history. It has become one of the main components of the process of entering Ancient Russia among the major European powers8- the process , for a long time interrupted only by the Mongol invasion.
It is noteworthy that even in the hardest times of the Mongol yoke old Russian builders not switched on cheap and reliable plinthite, and continued to build exclusively "European" white stone. And, apparently, it was one of the factors that allowed the great Principality of Suzdal, who "ulus" Horde, not to lose their spiritual independence, reset hated yoke and be reborn under a new name - the Moscow Rus9.
And only in the end of XV century, when the masters of the Western
European Renaissance completely switched to a much more reliable, cheap and
practical brick construction, expression of state power and Imperial ideology
in the stone lost its meaning. Then, and in
The last big old white-stone Church was the assumption Cathedral in
Further white stone churches in
2. Exploration of quarries and mining regions
Before starting the construction, it was necessary to carry out a reconnaissance of the sites for future quarries.
That in the land of Vyatichi along the Oka river, Moscow, pahry
and Gums - there are huge deposits of stone, most likely, has been known since the time of colonization of this land in the XI - the
beginning of XII century (by Yaroslav the Wise and
Vladimir Monomakh). The main transportation was
carried out on rivers and their banks could be seen numerous exits stone. Could be known about the deposits on the
Yuri Dolgoruky, starting in his Principality white-stone building, could not be interested in the huge additional costs of transporting the stone to several hundred kilometers. Accordingly, the Prince could not give the masters of the task to find a white stone as close as possible from the place of future construction.
The idea of where in the
North-Eastern Russia was regions theoretically possible quarrying, gives a modern geological map11 (see Fig. 1). Note that this map is recommended to be treated with great caution,
as the admission in the 20-
But in the twelfth century, of course, no one even approximate data about available begin to see the depth of coal deposits. And you can imagine how many unsuccessful exploratory excavations were done until Suzdal "geologists" not convinced that high-quality stone you cannot get closer than several hundred kilometers.
Hence, the exploration of the quarries started at least a few years before 1152.
Where was the first ancient quarries, so far we can speak only approximately.
In 1950-1960-s were conducted micropaleontological tests showed the affiliation of stone
temples Dolgoruky myachkovsky the horizon of coal deposits12.
Consequently, the stone was mined in the South-West of the Principality, close
The main pre-Mongolian
trade route linking
princes quarried stone away from the protected trade routes, in the uninhabited
forest region between
Therefore, the most likely region for production of white stone in the middle of the XII century are facing to the river environs of modern villages of Upper and Lower Myachkovo is closest to Suzdal mining area, where high-quality stone lies close to the surface.
In this case, the average distance
from the quarry to the construction sites were: conventional (straight) - about
In addition to the results micropaleontological analyses 1950-1960-s, there are other reasons that the production of building materials for the first white stone churches of Suzdal land could not be held in other regions:
is further away from the major cities of Suzdal
- mined whether qualitative%
- distance from Zvenigorod and Mozhaisk to the major cities of Suzdal land was even more than from Dorogomilovo;
- from Kasimov (in the middle of the XII century - Gorodets Meshchersky) direct trade route in the main city of the Principality was not - was hampered by impassable swamps Meshchersky. Therefore, to carry the stone still had to go through the mill, and the path was even longer than that from Myachkovo;
- in the area of the modern
localities of Kovrov, Melekhov and Sudogda quality
limestone located at a considerable depth (in Milehovska career, according to the observations of
the author of this book, not less than
Further quarrying regions grew with
the increase of the territory of the great Principality of Suzdal,
then Tver and
So, in the
South-West of Suzdal land in pre-Mongol
times likely to promote the quarries of Myachkovo
Apparently, the region Carpets - Melekhovo - Sudogda became available
for quarrying after joining Suzdal
Principality of Nizhny Novgorod (the beginning of the XIII century). Perhaps,
After the accession in the beginning
of XIV century to the Moscow Principality Kolomna,
Tver at the time of its state%D
And since the beginning of the XVI century at the disposal of the old Russian stone miners were zaoksky territory.
Until mid XV century stone building
And only with the private (mid XV century boyar, since the beginning of the XVI century and merchant), a stone building could appear and private (nobles, merchants and artisanal) quarries.
3. "Efficiency" of miners
The vast majority of white stone buildings of the Ancient Rus was built in the half-rubble technique (of hewn white stone built two walls-facing internal and external; the space between them is backing, i.e. filled with rubble - stone fragments, fragments plinfy (brick) and cobblestones; then filled with lime mortar).
Accordingly, since the XII century stone was quarried for treatment (for wall masonry, decoration etc.; in the future we will call such a stone commodity), and bottles, and lime.
Today methods of Dating ancient quarries with a precision of at least a century does not exist, and a conditional term "the old quarry" in our time may be marked with the development and Ancient Russia, and the Russian Empire XVIII-XIX centuries. Yet, given the General understanding that the methods of extraction of stone with XII and XVIII century has changed is not so essential, we can make some observations on the reconstruction of extraction of stone in Ancient Russia.
First of all it should be noted that the stone was quarried in open and closed methods.
Layers of commodity stone interbedded substandard, and develop them more convenient and more efficient private way - horizontal. When producing marketable stone open method proved requires a lot of additional work to remove the upper layers that, in the absence of mechanization difficult. Accordingly, the remaining development in the form of vertical pits are likely to belong to a later time (not before XIX century).
On the lime in Ancient Russia has always required a lot more rock than trademark use. The reasons for this are the following:
- from the white stone churches about one-third the thickness of the walls were backing (see above), up to 80% of the foundations - white stone bottles, shed lime;
- a lot of lime (and on the foundations - lime, but bout) in the XII-XV centuries demanded popenoe construction, which did not stop, although plinfy at this time mostly not built temples, and
from the end of the XV century a massive brick building required a huge amount of lime, and on the foundations - lime, but the bout. Commercial white stone on the basement, architectural decoration and very few white stone churches were required many times less.
Stone extraction at lime was conducted by the open way - careers. The proof is a huge number of non - bout, which filled up the old quarry: because it was not necessary to pull out to the surface debris generated during the development of commodity seams, stone lime was extracted in other places that could only be career (probably pull out of the ground stone for lime was not economically feasible).
Stone extraction at lime closed
method to avoid purchase under a large quarry land14 typical of
later times. In old
Antique career now almost impossible to find: they had the appearance of deep grooves in the river banks and within a few decades after the cessation of development is completely overgrown, becoming inconspicuous ravines. A quarry XII-XVI centuries might well survive. Furthermore - each of the known major ancient systems (Article15, Kaminska16, Nemerinsky17, Byakovskoy18, Cherepkovskaya-119, Seltsovsky20 etc) could theoretically include the development of the times of Ancient Rus. But, as we have said, methods of Dating quarries with a precision of at least a century to date does not exist.
A huge number of non - bout in the old quarries allows to reconstruct a number of important aspects of quarrying.
There is a stereotype that the development of stone in Ancient Russia
was held by tunnels and galleries21, and missed
bout fit along them. According to this position, the average
width of the tunnel (drift) with booth - about
Therefore, tunnels in the quarries are very different from drifts, for example, in the coal mines. If in the past the tunnels are the result of primary production strata, but in the old quarry is most often the passages left in abandoned the bout24.
The bout was also often laid on the floor (the layer of rubble crumbs on the floor of stol%25), leaving the minimum altitude for commercial haul stone - about one and a half meters.
Thus, the number of non - bout in the old quarry is about 80-90% of the volume of the extracted stone. This is the reality: only 10-20% of stone turned out to trade.
Be aware that even with such a rigorous selection of ancient stone quarries was exported, processed only a rough draft - in the form of shapeless lumps. "Half-clean" and "clean" process that required special stone masons (other qualification than the miners), was done at the construction site. This is proved by the following provisions:
- delicate and responsible work of stone treatment (making of straight angles and perfectly smooth surfaces) hardly could be effectively carried out in the darkness and dampness;
- organization of stone treatment in the quarry would interfere with work of miners;
blocks of stone in Ancient Russia was not (their sizes range from HK to HH cm,
often in the masonry of the same building). Accordingly, the
required adjustment of stone in place. The same applies to well-treated details of architectural decoration - they
were also treated at the construction site, sometimes already in the walls of
the building, as the ornament of
- treatment of just chipped off (respectively, melted stone almost identical stone, brought to the construction site (respectively, relatively dry). The latter is as flexible and as easy to work in all directions26;
- numerous finds in the quarries hewn stone fragments belong to a later time (XVIII-XIX centuries), when a high degree of unification of building blocks and components of decor was possible to create "operating reserves" to meet the needs of a variety of potential buyers. Accordingly, the quarry was used as a warehouse of finished goods;
During the processing of a stone at the construction site of another 20-30% of the total was spent in the bottle and lime. Thus, the "efficiency" of the old Russian stone miners in breaking down and processing of commercial white stone was about 10%. This once again confirms the enormous complexity of white stone development compared to the much more simple and cheap brick (plinthite) production.
4. Production of white stone
Given all the above, the process of quarrying in Ancient Russia is seen as follows.
Both open and closed development was carried out by high river banks - it was more comfortable and to explore the stone, and access to commodity formations and ship blocks, bottles and barrels with lime in the boat (in summer) or in a sledge in winter. Inputs could be approximately in the middle between the top of the slope and the water edge.
As we mentioned in paragraph 3, punching sign from above, with smooth surface, extremely inconvenient huge additional work and at penetration substandard layers, and pulling the stone out along a steep slope or on a vertical shaft, and transportation of stone to the place of loading in the boat. Accordingly, we may assume that in Ancient Russia, this method was not used.
Quarried stone in winter and in summer. Under the ground the temperature is almost constant in every season (5-10 degrees Celsius). At surface mines in the cold season lit bonfires, which solves two problems: heating workers and the increasing fragility of low-quality stone used in lime.
Most likely, the stone lime usually fired near the quarries. Chemical formula of lime-burning:
CaCO3 = CaO + WITH2 with the absorption of heat.
i.e. when the firing carbon dioxide and remained quicklime. Received quicklime fit in the barrel (to protect from moisture) and transported to the construction site. However, it is possible to carry the rubble for their firing on the building site, although the transport of stone for his subsequent burn irrational, as if Obi
Further on-site lime extinguished in the so-called "making wells" pits (the walls of these pits were usually covered with wooden boards to prevent the mixing of lime ground). Chemical formula of lime slaking:
CaO + N2O = CA(OH)2 with the evolution of heat ("boiling").
Requiring a particularly high-quality lime (for example, for plastering frescoes), in order to fully slaked lime kept in "making wells" pits from several weeks to several months.
Slaked lime mixed with sand and other ingredients (straw, wood and coal, crushed ceramics, plaster etc) and put the solution into the walls, foundations etc. where slaked lime dried ("grappled"), highlighting the water and re-forming limestone.
Chemical formula dry hydrated lime:
CA(OH)2 + WITH2 = SASO3 + N2O.
Sometimes, to accelerate the "seizure" near the walls lit bonfires, which served as sources of not only heat, but also carbon dioxide27. In the Foundation, where the air was closed, lime grappled very slowly (sometimes for decades), which negatively affect the reliability of the buildings.
Let us turn to the issues of production quality (commodity) stone in Ancient Russia.
In search of commodity layers of stone miners were loose (talus) layers of rock beneath the cliffs by the open way - by ditches or moats grinding "28 (excavated stone could be used for lime). When you find a seam, deepened in the closed method.
As we saw in paragraph 3, the development of stone privately in Ancient Russia usually was almost complete excavation of the layer, not the sinking of long drifts. Apparently, in this case the understanding of ancient masters of rationality (minimizing the distance to the exit) coincided with the modern. Accordingly, the formulation had in plan view uneven "bubbles", "inflated" from the entrance. The diameter of such a bubble could be from several dozens to several hundreds meters, as in the largest known ancient systems (Article, Byakovskoy, Cherepkovskaya-1). As the number of these "bubbles" were connected with each other and created a fairly complex form of output.
In the halls to support the ceiling
is usually left "column" of the monolith with a span of 5-
Fig. 2. Drift in the quarry "anniversary".
Fig. 3. Conditional plan Kamenskoy quarries.
The total length of the known drifts
in Byakovskoy the quarry is
The height of the bottom (Fig. 4)
and, accordingly, drifts, depending on the power of commodity formation ranged
from 1.5 to 4 m32. Commodity layers could have less of a thickness
Fig. 4. Abandoned quarry face in the "jubilee".
Was used sparingly and, in all likelihood, only in a rock fall-hazardous places (for example, under the cracked ceiling). Widespread need for this fix was not a stone monolith much stronger than wood. As we indicated in paragraph 3, the role of further strengthening the ceiling is often played and neatly arranged behind the booth (Fig. 5)
Fig. 5. Boot from the ceiling in the quarry "jubilee".
It should be noted that some ancient quarries virtually no waste dumps (as bottles on the surface is usually not imposed), and this makes them difficult to find. The same can be said about the ancient quarries: their piles were formed only from random debris and ash from the furnaces, which burnt lime.
About the tools that were used by the miners, there are many legends, up to the fact that you used the "ancient Egyptian" method - driving in the gap (or pre-done indent) wooden wedges, which then poured water that they have swelled and "ripped" a block of stone.
Perhaps in Ancient Egypt, where the builders of the pyramids had no iron tools, and the climate is extremely dry, with water pouring method of wooden wedges could give good results. But in Ancient Rus, a wholly-owned quarries humidity, the swelling wedges with water pouring very doubtful. Even if wedges were harvested and dried in advance, they still managed to be at least partially dry until they were carried to the place of manufacture. And the time, this method takes too much.
Based on the above General
considerations and the experiment conducted with the participation of the
author of the study in
The stone was mined mainly in layers, as breaking stones on the edges of layers (ie, fractures) are much easier.
Starting to work with monolithic wall, stone miners primarily punched under the "ceiling" (i.e. under the bed which was going to leave untouched) wide cavity depth of about half a meter and a width to the top then you could drive a crowbars and wedges. Punched the cavity of rough stone just broke up. Sometimes (depending on the specific conditions of production), similar cavity could penetrate and in the middle of the wall, and below35.
Then, by setting the width future units, punched ("hollowed out") vertically on all height of a wall of a deep (more than half the depth of the block36) indent (Fig. 6). Because the white stone of a very viscous and elastic, not applied in rare heavy blows into the monolith, and multiple and mild, mostly no "hacking"and "cutting" (i.e. not at right angles to the plane).
Fig. 6. Unfinished old generation in the slaughter Article quarries. In the top right corner of the picture there is the upper chamber, in the middle - vertical indents.
Depth indents been driven by the need to further break out of the unit (if likened to breaking the block separation of the paper, then indent played the role of perforation). Consequently, too small indent would not be allowed to break the block, too deep lead to excessive labor costs.
And the upper chamber, and the indents were made blunt instrument - pick, "picks", hacks or crowbars, but could be used and chisels, beaten with hammers.
Then the top started to break the blocks. After punching the upper cavity and vertical indents the next block was attached to the monolith only two surfaces - back and bottom. If the lower surface caught on the boundary layers, one had only to pull back as the bottom easily hanging out with the drive there wedges. If not, then it was necessary for the indents on the lower surface, to block held only on the back.
At successful coincidence of circumstances on the back of the unit could also be a vertical crack in the monolith, and then break off the block itself. But, as a rule, had to block on the rear surface break off, and this, as the experiment showed, it was a major problem of miners.
We must assume that when breaking off of the back surface in the course of walking and wedges, and crowbars, and chisels. They were "slipped" from above, was killed in a few places as possible deep and breaking block (Fig. 7). You probably had pre-rock the block wedges, chisels and crowbars and from the sides. In these cases could require access to the unit not only from above, but from the side, and then had to penetrate cavity, similar to the top, and sides of the block.
Fig. 7. The block, broken off during the experiment
As further breaking the blocks in the slaughter (the second block on the top, third, etc.; following numbers of blocks vertically etc) gap between the rear surface of blocks significantly simplified, as the top and side appeared more space for off Lomov, driving wedges and even punching Kyle indents on the back surface.
If the height of commodity formation horizontally (respectively, the face height) were considerably higher than human height, for convenience of work on calving upper blocks the production normally were "stepping stones" (had got the upper blocks, standing on the bottom left neukrotimy from the previous layers vertical)37.
According to the "task status" of 192938, normal working hours at the break of white stone was 0.82 man-days per cubic meter. The results of this experiment approximately39 confirmed the adequacy of these standards. However, it should be noted that the final figures for the volume of labor actually produced commercial white stone should be applied with a coefficient of 10 (as we showed in paragraph 3, the "efficiency" of miners was approximately 10%).
5. Transportation and processing of stone
Broken blocks commodity stone stone miners were pulled out of the quarries, harnessing horses in small truck or small in the old quarries survived many traces of such trucks - Fig. 8, 9). Then blocks were loaded onto boats (in summer) or on sleigh (in winter) and transported to the construction site.
Fig. 8. Traces of trucks or scrapers on the floor drift (quarry "anniversary")
Fig. 9. Traces of trucks or scrapers at the turn of the roadway (Article quarry)
Military boats and riding horses belonging to the Prince and used in wars, for transportation of stone did not fit. Accordingly, the organization of transportation of stone required to attract a large number of additional personnel, not less valuable than the miners or stonemasons, - the owners of horses and (or) cargo boats. It could be either Sait the%B
It is possible and the purchase of horses and boats specifically for the needs of construction.
Forced "mobilization" of vehicles could be used only in exceptional cases, as a wealthy peasant or a merchant man, requiring respect and fair pay. Otherwise, the horse "sick" and will not go anywhere, but the boat "accidentally run aground". And supervisors at each kilometer of the route cannot be delivered.
"Ordinary" peasants, attracted by the Prince to serve the labor service, could only be used for auxiliary operations not requiring qualifications.
Accordingly, the transportation of
stone from the quarry to construction sites was the most difficult part of the
construction. In the pre-Mongolian time (with an
average leverage the supply of stone in
At the construction site of the stone was unloaded, stockpiled, selected by size and subjected to "half-clean" and "clean" processing.
For blocks treatment of white-stone blocks (blocks intended for wall masonry) at the construction site was used tesovic (small hammer with pointed ends), Tesla (similar to a chisel and a boaster (like a scraper with a rounded end). Some stone masons and semifinished", and even "pure" of stone instead of all the above instruments used a small axes43. To cut blocks began only in XVIIfirst century.
One end of each wall of the block is usually left untreated (or rather, processed "semifinished"). Blocks were placed in untreated brickwork inside that provides good coupling with the wall filling.
At various times, the stone was treated differently.
Thus, the surface of the pre-Mongol blocks covered with the characteristic grooves - traces of instruments that were treated with a stone. Blocks were cut and fitted very accurately, and they were laid in the lining very small amount of the solution.
At the end of the XIII century to the first third of the XIV century due to the difficult economic conditions of the Mongolian yoke on clean steel processing to save and put the blocks in the clutch processed "semifinished" - only roughly Obelya surface, not even trying to get quite right angles. This Church was built on the site of ancient Settlement in Kolomna, St. Nicholas Church in Kamenskoye, first Success%44. This technique required the use of rubble when laying blocks in the lining to secure the stones before pouring (the so-called "podschebnivanie"). Due to large gaps between the stones filling was carried out with the thick fluid. However, details of architectural decoration at this time continued to be treated relatively smoothly and accurately.
In the end of XIV century the old Russian masons returned to the pre-Mongol technology of blocks treatment is almost perfectly exact, with the grooves of the tools. Later, these grooves became less and less visible and by the end of the XV century have disappeared completely.
Kvadra XVI-XVII centuries handled very smoothly. Probably, they were subjected to additional grinding sand (which is rubbed on the surface of wood or iron "float"). Masonry became more smooth (it is often referred to as "dry"), it began to be used blocks of almost equal size.
In conclusion, we emphasize again that the white stone of Ancient Russia had enormous historical significance. He was not just a building material, it was an expression of state power and Imperial ideology. And all the huge complexity of the production and processing of white stone (in the masterpiece of Russian literature of the beginning of XIII century - "the Prayer of Daniel the exile" - is a proverb: "Lapse is the stone of Dolomiti than evil wife teaches") is more than was justified by the exceptional importance of the white-stone building of the state prestige of Ancient Russia.
3. SV Zagraevsky. Yuri Dolgoruky and old white-stone architecture. M., 2002 (hereinafter - Zagraevsky, 2002). It contains the rationale for the Dating of the beginning of white stone building of Yuri Dolgoruky 1152.
5. Ibid., C. 91-99.
6. Ibid., C. 72.
7. Zagraevsky SV ANDPology Rostov chronicler (to
the question about the Dating of temples Yuri$%
9. SV zagraevsky. The architecture of North-Eastern Russia the end of the XIII century to the first third of the XIV century. M., 2003 (hereinafter - Zagraevsky, 2003). C. 112.
10. Whalebones. Vladimir-Suzdal Rus. Essays on social and
12. P.V. Florensky, Solov'eva M.S. White stone white-stone cathedrals. In Wurns.: "Nature", ¹ 9,
13. Ie cosmology. The history of the city of
14. VA Kisses, Ivities.
15. Quarry near the
16. Quarry near the
17. Quarry near the
village Meshcherin Leninsky district,
18. Quarry near the
village Bykovo venevskaja district,
19. Quarry near the former village Cherepkova Staritsa district of Tver region (in everyday life usually called "Dolobetskiy").
20. Quarry near the village Seltso Staritsa district of Tver region.
21. Galleries are usually called the horizontal straight line output that appears on the surface. Drifts - any side branch of the entrance tunnel, which has no outlet to the surface.
23. Information courtesy of Y.A Molotovym and AP Degtyaryov.
24. Wagalulu noted that, in contrast to earlier stages of development, when the miners moved into "rooms" ("broad front"), in the nineteenth century began to delve into the monolith on separate sites, engaging the production of tunnels and galleries. This layer still chosen almost completely. Probably, this method provides more rapid development with better capacity ceiling.
26. The author of
this book 2 September
27. Information kindly communicated AP Degtyaryov.
28. Seegraben, Assoluto,
29. Information kindly communicated AP Degtyaryov.
30. The original map is available on the web site AP Degtyarev: http://d21.chat.ru.
31. Modern revised data provided ya Dolotova.
32. Information kindly communicated ya Dolotova.
33. Information kindly communicated ya Dolotova.
34. E.xperiment production of white stone in Ancient Russia was held in Article quarry September 2, 2006. The participants of the experiment: Duplenskiy, Khabibov, Wagalulu, mV Zheleznov, SV zagraevsky, GA Izotov, Ivelaw, Ulatov, Pay, Shishmanova. The discussion of the results of the experiment, see on the Internet forum http://www.caves.ru.
35. The fact that the primary cavity could break not only at the top of the wall, the author kindly pointed Khabibov.
36. That indent were made not on the depth of the block, the author kindly pointed mV Zheleznov and GA Izotov.
37. To this author kindly pointed SB Gusakov and A. Yu Mishin.
38. Nige Rochefort.
Illustrated by engaging position. Ed.
39. Lack of qualified participants of the experiment as of miners , to a certain extent offset by great enthusiasm.
43. So, Kavelmaher, the father of the
author of this book, in 1950th years worked belokamenschikom, in free time carved out of
absolutely dry white stone small metal axe almost the exact model of the Church
of the Intercession on the Nerl height
© Sergey Zagraevsky