Prof. Dr. S.V. Zagraevsky
Historical topography of pre-Mongol Vladimir
Published in Russian: Çàãðàåâñêèé Ñ.Â. Èñòîðè÷åñêàÿ òîïîãðàôèÿ äîìîíãîëüñêîãî Âëàäèìèðà. Ì., 2016. ISBN 978-5-904913-30-4
Historical topography of pre-Mongol Vladimir, despite of a large number of scientific works and archaeological researches dedicated to it, remains an opened theme. In the study of Professor, Dr. S. V. Zagraevsky one can find a wide review of proposed by different researchers versions of time and sequence of founding of the parts of pre-Mongol Vladimir, location of city gates, existence of fortified princely courts of Yuri Dolgoruky and Andrei Bogolyubsky, existence of the ancient fortress in the middle part of Vladimir. The author proposes and justifies own versions for a number of contentious questions.
Length and height of
Scientific editor – T. P. Timofeeva.
Editor – O. V. Ozolina.
S. V. Zagraevsky (C) 2015
The following text was translated from the Russian original by the computer program
and has not yet been edited.
So it can be used only for general introduction.
Historical the topography of the pre-Mongol Vladimir-primarily its fortification component (fortifications and protected parts city), – the question has long attracted the attention of researchers.
First of all refer to the plan of Vladimir XII–XIII centuries, proposed N. N. Voronin1 (ill. 1).
Il. 1. The plan of Vladimir XII–XIII century (by N. N. Voronin).
The numbers on the plan marked: I – city Monomakh (Picerni city); II – Vetchinoy the city; III – New the city; IV – the citadel; 1 – the Church of our Saviour; 2 – the Church of St. George; 3 – Cathedral of the assumption; 4 – Golden gate; 5 – Originy gate; 6 – Copper gate; 7 – Silver gate; 8 – Volga gate; 9 – Demetrius Cathedral; 10 – Ascension monastery; 11 – the monastery of the Nativity; 12 assumption (center) monastery; 13 – Trade gateway; 14 – Ivanovo gate; 15 – gates of the citadel; 16 – the Church of the exaltation on the marketplace.
This plan, shown in capital work "the Architecture of North-Eastern Russia XII–XV centuries", has become a textbook and has been reproduced in almost all the publications on urban history of Vladimir2. On its basis was created by the layout of the city, represented in the exhibition Vladimir-Suzdal Museum-reserve3 (ill. 2), suggests a number other reconstructions4.
Il. 2. The layout of Vladimir XII–XIII centuries, on display Vladimir-Suzdal Museum-reserve.
In principle, the task the reconstruction of the outlines of the
pre-MongolVladimir fortifications facilitates that a wedge-shaped linear form of
the city has determined a long plateau between two rivers – Klyazma and Lybid.
In the threefold division of the city, as in linear the dominant feature of the
plan, reflected the natural terrain, deep gorges between the hills. And plan N.
N. Voronin we see the threefold structure of the pre-Mongol
And nevertheless, controversial issues many even in the task of
reconstruction of the shape and appearance of the fortifications
In Chapter 2 we will see that given N. N. Voronin parts name pre-Mongol Vladimir are disputed, so for accuracy we call them Western, Central and Eastern.
1. The shape, length and
appearance of the pre-Mongol
By N. N. Voronin the total length of the pre-Mongol Vladimir
fortifications was about 7 km5. The researcher-led and the length of
the shafts of each from parts of the city: East
In itself strange, how could the accuracy of the meter to indicate the length of the Eastern part of the fortifications the city's only hypothetically assuming the location of the gate, which N. N. Voronin called Silver, and, accordingly, the shape of the line fortifications in the area of the gate. (Details on the whereabouts of the Silver the gate we will consider in section 4).
The same applies to the Western part, where the same problemoccurs
because not exactly set the location of the gate, N. N. Voronin called
We have the opportunity more or less accurately (of course, with accuracy
to one meter, and up to ten) to name length only the fortifications of the
middle part of the pre-Mongol Vladimir, N. N. Voronin called only about –
"a few more than 2500 m7. Actually if the South edge of the
fortifications occurred in the existing edge of the cliff, this length is about
2410 m8. If in ancient times the edges of the cliffs were on, then
the length of the fortifications was more and to calculate, we need to add to
it twice the width of the intended opolskiego edges (for example, if slid
Our measurements of the length of the pre-Mongol fortifications of the
other parts of the city gave the following results:
Thus, the total the length of the city fortifications pre-MongolVladimir
Controversial is the question about the appearance of the pre-Mongol
A. V. Stoletov in his the reconstruction of the original form of the
Golden gate (Il. 3) the amendment made to that is near the building of the
Golden gate "rooted in the ground" about
Il. 3. Gold gate in
Such the huge height and width of the shafts we see on
other reconstructions13, and on the layout of the pre-Mongol
Actually pre-Mongol shafts and
First, according to the reconstruction of AV Stoletov (ill. 3) it turns
out that the top of Vladimir Kozlov shaft was much higher combat area, arranged
on the floor in the arch of the Golden gate at a height of about
Secondly, according to archaeological research17, Vladimir Ivanovsky, the shaft rests on the cultural layer of the XI–XII centuries, therefore, he was poured later appearances on this location in the city. Inside this shaft, traces multiple stages of construction18.
Thirdly, inside the shaft in Suzdal near ancient Ilyinsky gate
(extrapolated current height more
Fourthly, initial height of the shafts of Dmitrov was 1.5–2 m extrapolated current height of 18 m20;
Fifthly, the initial height shafts Pressage (Strokosch) settlement of
the XV century was
Sixthly, the shafts in
Seventh, the traces numerous sprinklings the author observed in sections of shafts and Przemysl Moscow, and of Radonezh.
Eighthly, in many cases of pre-Mongol shafts, if they continue to not was posypalis, all disappeared from the face of the earth, even if in modern times not lasted no more or less intensive construction works (as in Kideksha, Vyshgorod on the Yakhroma, Gorodnya Tver region, Monay Naro-Fominsk district of the Moscow region and mn. etc.). Characteristically, in Kolomna pre-Mongol the shafts are not only preserved, but their traces are still not found at a very intensive archaeological survey conducted in the twentieth century23.
From the above we can conclude that compared to the pre-Mongol time were
significantly spiked and ramparts of
The question may arise: why in the XV–XVII centuries might need to pour ancient wood-earthfortifications, typologically correspond to the fortifications of the ancient Gauls, in which mass order captured Julius Caesar? Strengthening, by world standards considered hopelessly outdated even in the pre-Mongolian time25?
The answer is: ancient wood-earthenfortress paradoxically, at XV(I–XVII centuries received a "second wind" in connection with the development artillery. Shafts played the role of parapets and bastions, on which effectively to place the cannon. And these fortifications (of course, their soil, and not the wooden parts that were easy to wipe off shaft via cannons, and catapults, as did the Mongols during the time of Batu Khan invasion) were very resistant to enemy artillery fire. Guns placed in earthen bastions, were perfectly protected. Not in vain the time of Peter the great earthen ramparts were arranged around the many stone Russian fortresses, including the Moscow Kremlin.
And laid side the doorway of the Golden gate points us to the level of the combat areas of the city the walls in the pre-Mongolian time – no wonder on average the landing of the Golden gate, where he crossed two human streams (with the city walls and from the combat area), there was a significant flare white walls26.
Since we do not know the height the Gorodnya (cages, Tarasov), shaped
the city walls of
Not necessary doubt that any strengthening of
And from the side cliffs over rivers shafts, most
likely, did not: as shown studies A. A. Yushko, this situation occurred in
almost all the ancient settlements27. Indeed, in
In connection with we can Express doubt that
V. P. Glazov it was believed that the landslide was
caused by the fact that on the southern slope of the Klyazma shore shafts are
already missing on the plans XVIII century28. But here, first,
preferred seems based on the Assembly information position N. N. Voronin,
comprising that the shafts on the North and South edges of Vladimir plateau
were razed (dropped from the slopes) at the beginning of the nineteenth century29.
Secondly, based on the above, were razed shafts slipped later the XII–XIII centuries.
In pre-Mongol same time these shafts are either not there (the walls walked
right on top of the slope), or they were very small. Accordingly, we believe
that since the plateau above the cliffs slid not so much, no more than 5-
In favor our position is supported by the fact that Vladimir's assumption Cathedral, despite to their huge size, the location not further than ten metres from the edge and low structural reliability30, has become a victim of landslides31.
2. Controversial issues of time and the sequence of the base parts pre-Mongol Vladimir Monomach Golden gate
Consider controversial issues of time and sequence the bottom of the middle, Western and Eastern parts of pre-Mongol Vladimir.
Indeed, in the Laurentian chronicle, which tells of the Batu the invasion, says: "And Beja Vsevolod and Mstislav, and all the people of biasa in Picerni city33. And Lviv chronicle says: "And the princes of biasa in average grad"34.
But the fact the Foundation and construction of the fortifications of the middle part of the city Monomakh is not undisputed.
First of all, well - known ongoing for many decades
discussion35 who was the founder of the Vladimir – Vladimir Monomakh
In favor the founding of the city the Baptist say many Chronicles37, and for us, the most compelling is the message of the Lvov chronicle in 1108 year, which does not leave room for any misunderstandings regarding founder Vladimir: "That summer is done right hail Vladimir Zalesskii Volodymyra Manomohan, and creates in him the Church is the stone of St. Saviour, and lay it BAA before Volodimer Kiev"38. But on what part of the city laid the Baptist, a Monomakh, one of their descendants, the researchers put forward various versions. Let's consider them.
Let's start with the Western part of
"Brief Vladimir chronicler reports:"
Vladimir II (Monomakh – Sz) come in Zalessky land and built a castle its
Volodimer and osypa spam and built a Church of stone Holy Saviour Yes Golden gate (my italics – Sz) for 50
years before Velikayavirgin the Church39. This message N. N. Voronin
did not pay attention40, although in
In principle, this interpretation of the message
"Short of the
This position confirmed and given N. N. Voronin
message "the genealogy register Supraslska chronicle", which repeated
the message "the genealogy register The Novgorod first chronicle":
"the Prideaux Prince Vladimir Manamah IP in Kiev Volodimer castle and
built Church the stone of the Holy Saviour at
Golden lie (my italics – Sz), and the pojde in Kiev"45. Note
that, according to this report, at the time of joining Monomakh city
In principle, in a statement cited "the genealogy
register" it could go on and on the Golden gate Andrei Bogolyubsky (as,
apparently, and thought N. N. Voronin46). But the meaning of this
message it is that the Church of our Saviour was initially set at the Golden
gate, have last existed during Monomakh. As quoted the message "a Summary
So we we believe the construction of the first wooden Golden gate Monomakh proven. Keep these gates could in any part of the city that existed at time, and likely that they were located, like the Golden gate Bogolyubsky, from the South-West side of the fortifications: with this side was Kiev, where in Zalesie arrived Russian princes, with Monomakh and his ancestors, except the waterway, there were land – "the road pramoedya".
And as to the possibility of founding the Western part of Vladimir Monomakh, we allowed her, but this is assumption is only true if right assumption B. P. Nikolaev that "its", that is, the "new" city in the "Summary of the Vladimir chronicle is thus the "New city" spoken of in the Laurentian chronicle in connection with Batdyevym invasion47. But in 1238, speaking about the "New the city", the chronicler may already have in mind a fortress, not based Monomakh, and Bogolyubsky. Accordingly, we have no right definitely to disavow the position N. N. Voronin relative to the base of the Western part Vladimir Prince Andrey.
Requires individual review and the establishment of
the Eastern question part of
Therefore, the Eastern part of
Let's start with the first option. B. P. Nikolaev49and
L. Mazur50 assumed that the Eastern part of the city was founded by
First, the sources XVI–XVII centuries called this part
Secondly, the message Typographical chronicle says:
"the city of
Thirdly, the message Supraslska chronicle says:
"the legend of the true knasen Russians. First kako clubs Russian land ,
svyatyi playvery Prince Vladimir of Kievand all Russia, the heir to Prince
Constantino, others like myself crestina and people of Navy verawati in Shine
Troica, the father and the son and the Holy spirit. Then pojde in Slovenian
land, at Retz on the Klyazma builtthe city the name
Fourthly, B. P. Nikolaev wrote, citing the research of
Vladimir regional specialists of the mid-nineteenth century55, that
specified in the above chronicle the wooden message our lady the Church in
Vatsana city in the XII century there
already existed and was in the first fence in Vladimir Dormition convent; that
in this Church Andrey Bogolyubsky for a while set brought from Vyshhorod icon,
as another Holy virgin Church in this time in Vladimir allegedly was not; and
that this Church was exactly in the middle between Western and Eastern ramparts
of the Eastern part of Vladimir, and this should to prove denouement the
erection of the Church and shafts. But actually to install the existence in the
twelfth century in the Eastern part of
Generalize it is written, since recognition of the founding of the Eastern part of the city the Baptist violates fortification logic, which governs environmental the area the middle part of the city is much better suited for first city the fortress than the low hand of the Lybid river and the Klyazma, the arguments in favor of such an early Foundation the Eastern part has to be extremely compelling. Neither B. P. Nikolaev, neither L. D. Mazur, as we have seen, such arguments not led. Accordingly, we cannot accept their version.
And, of course, it is impossible to accept the
inevitable consequence of two reviewed by us versions B. P. Nikolaev57that
There was a version about the fact that the Eastern
There is one more option: the Eastern part of
So way, question time and the sequence of bases in Western and Eastern the city remains open. But about the middle part based on the all the above chronicle reports can believe that it was founded Vladimir The Baptist. Regarding the participation in the construction of Monomakh we can result the following versions:
– Monomials strengthened the fortifications of the middle part of the city, previously built by the Baptist;
– Monomials built fortifications the middle of the
city, and the Baptist – the only hill in its South-Western corner, where in the
first Millennium BC, even before the Russian colonization, the settlement was
located60. Subsequently Andrey Bogolyubsky built on the site of the
Cathedral of the assumption. This hill in our time (after nivelirovat
associated with the construction of the assumption Cathedral and arrangement
the area around it) is about
– Monomials did not take part in the construction of the middle part of the city, and raised him the Western part (the theoretical possibility of such an option we showed above).
All cases of fortifications built by
In connection with the above, we can hypothesize the
origin the name "Picerni city". N. N. Voronin believed, what's in it
for some reason was reflected
Our hypothesis is that the word "picerni" ("cave")
in this case means "bottom", and, accordingly, the middle part of
In any case, we can assume that a small ancient fortress on above the hill when Andrei Bogolyubsky was almost entirely occupied assumption Cathedral, when Vsevolod became part citadel, whose territory was significantly higher, and have not kept any of their fortifications, nor their names, which could sound like "Upper city" or otherwise.
This indirectly is confirmed by the chronicle wording: "And Beja Vsevolod and Mstislav, and all the people of biasa in Picerni the city; and Bishop Mitrofan... and mnozstvo many of the boyars and the people of satories in the Church of the Holy mother of God"66; "And the princes of biasa in average hail, and Princess with daughter-in-laws... satories in the Church on Polytech"67. These messages can be interpreted so, the Dormition Cathedral was not in Picerne (Average), that is, Vladimir the citadel to PeerName the city did not belong.
3. Fortified Vladimirsky Dvor Yuri Dolgoruky
Need note that in
N. N. Voronin wrote available around Vladimirskaya Church George fortified courtyard Dolgoruky68, but did not lead any evidence and has not designated this yard on his plan (cm. Il. 1). We can confirm the existence of such yard the following provisions:
– Yuri, who reigned in Suzdal with 1113 (perhaps even with 109669) year, is unlikely to 1150 years not to have your own backyard at one of the largest (if not largest) town of his Principality, Vladimir;
– the area around the Church George is extremely favorable from the point of view of natural protection on three sides it was spotlessly cliff and two of the ravine, and the "outdoor" side very short;
– dedication of the Church patron Dolgoruky in itself cannot be used as evidence the fact that the Church was a house Church, but in light of the previous regulations on this also you should pay attention.
N. N. Voronin assumed the existence in
However for a number of reasons, we cannot agree with this assumption.
First, residence of Andrew of Bogolyubovo was,
Secondly, Andrew inherited a yard with a white-stone
Thirdly, the Church of our Saviour is located to
the West of the centre of Vladimir and Bogolyubovo – East. If Andrew and there
was a need to build in
Fourthly, the location of the Church of our
Savior can be considered unique: it is not only very close to the slope above
the Klyazma and because of this perfectly visible from the river, and is on a
hill, towering far above surrounding streets. But on this hill too little space
for the Palace, farm buildings and fortifications (unlike, for example, from
the area around the
From the foregoing it can be concluded that the Church of our Saviour was not home, and a separate "front" of the temple, prevailed over the Western part of Vladimir and intended to advance to improve the image of the Vladimir Principality in the eyes of foreign ambassadors and merchants (same status had the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl, which "marked" the crossroads of major trade routes on the Nerl and Klyazma). But the yard of Andrey Bogolyubsky around the Church of the Savior, as we have shown, was not.
4. Vladimir fortress time Andrei Bogolyubsky, Silver gate
In Chapter 2 we said that position N. N. Voronin was that when Andrei
Bogolyubsky were strengthened Western and Eastern parts of
N. N. Voronin believed that in the city fortress when
Bogolyubskywas seven gates: Golden, Silver,
The Chronicles of these gates is known for Gold,
Silver, Originy (Asinine), Copper (Copper) and
As we can see, in the inventories of the seventeenth century references to other gates except marked on the plan N.N. Voronin. But whether they existed in pre-Mongol time, can only speculate. However, as we will soon show only conjecture can be in regard to material, location and the original names of all pre-Mongol the Vladimir gate, except Gold, built by Andrei Bogolyubsky. (This last comment is no coincidence, since in Chapter 2 we showed that there existed Golden gate, built with the Monomakh).
Consider questions of material and location of the Silver gate.
N. N. Voronin believed their white stone81. The latter in
itself is doubtful, as you should only mention those near the Golden gate in
the above-cited the message of the Ipatiev chronicle, according to which Andrey
Bogolyubsky "Golden gate dope, and the other silver ucini"82.
But the words "silver ucini" nothing talking about the gate material,
as silver can decorate any travel tower. Moreover, in
Golden gate which is an allusion to the Golden gate of Kiev,
Constantinople and Jerusalem, when Andrei Bogolyubsky had a special
"ceremonial" status83, which hardly had the rest of the
Vladimir gate towers, how many of them . No wonder V. N. Tatischev, talking
about the work in
We can't judge with sufficient share of confidence it is not only about the material but about the location and Silver gate. We only know that they were from the Bogoliubov – East. In the Life of Andrei Bogolyubsky" says: "Gather all the priests, and, putting on the robe, go before The silver gates, the icon of the mother of God; then wait for the Prince"85. And although "The life" relative to the XII century later (beginning of XVIII century) and on a number of issues has internal contradictions and refuted earlier sources86, in this case, we accept his message, as if it were fiction, it is much more likely would be a description of the meeting of the body of the Prince "parade" Golden gate.
N. N. Voronin reconstructed Silver gate on modern
Given this, V. P. Glazov and L. V. Dudorova tried to clarify the location Silver gate, referring to the fact that the remains of a hypothetical large white stone structures were not found in alleged N. N. Voronin place at the archaeological observation of the construction of the street Frunze88. These researchers based on the reconstruction of the direction of the "old" roads in Bogolyubovo painted Silver gate on your plan89several South (ill. 4).
Il. 4. Plan pre-Mongol Vladimir (V. P. Glazov and L. V. Dudarova)
But we first, we note the principal impossibility of reconstruction location pre-Mongol fortress gates known to us by highways roads XVIII–XX centuries, as these roads constantly shifts. For example, in an impassability of roads, when the road was completely broken and impassable, next could pave a new one; after a few years to return (or never return) to the old; if near new the village, the road could collapse to him; in the future again streamlets; respectively could gradually change the direction of the village main streets; abandoned road in 20-30 years overgrown, if you were walking through the forest, opened, if you were walking through a field, etc.
The result of these processes in for several centuries each road
traveled for several miles in an unpredictable direction. A vivid example – the
Old and the New Smolensk road, already during the war of
On the roads leading from
Moreover, in the pre-Mongolian time, the main transport links was carried out on rivers, land and road served primarily for troop movements and trips to farmers at local fairs. Why not be sure that the roads of the XII–XIII centuries, even if they were a little bit stable, led directly to the gate. They can lead to bypass of the city, before the gates could do any bends, etc92
So reconstruction of the Vladimir road XII–XVII centuries and, therefore, location hypothetically, the respective gate of the city, with an accuracy of at least a few hundred meters is impossible in principle, and we cannot accept the basis for determining the location of the pre-Mongol Vladimir nor gate leading out of the city "old" (i.e., described by local historians XIX century) the road or the road of the twentieth century.
City streets more stable than the road, but only in the
context of stone buildings. Wooden the building is, the more near the city
walls (i.e. the outskirts of the city), was for hundreds of years to change
beyond recognition. Even in
Consequently, we do not entitled to reconstruct the location of the pre-Mongol the gate and through the streets depicted on the plans of Vladimir XVIII–XIX centuries.
Since we don't know were there Silver white stone gate, we could not conduct the search and "method exceptions, based on negative archaeological data (i.e., assuming that if the remains of the gate were found, they were located somewhere in other place). If the gates were wood, traces repeatedly under perekladyvaniya urban bridge could not be maintained. Moreover, in the base of the shafts were located gorodno93, and since the shafts have been razed long ago, during excavations traces of these the Gorodnya it is very difficult, often impossible to distinguish from traces of wooden gates.
We are not sure even that Silver gate actually was at
the Eastern end of the Eastern part of
Il. 6. Plan pre-Mongol Vladimir ( L. D. Mazur). In the explication kept spelling the original.
The assumption N. N. Voronin that Silver gate was on
the Eastern tip of the Eastern part of
In Chapter 2 we said that the Eastern part of
First, The "drawing" of
Secondly, the origin of the name "the gate"
and its associated names "
N. N. Voronin assumed that the gate got its name or by
name the Bishopand the OAINPA, consecrated in 1190 or arranged on top of this gate,
So we we believe that the name of Ivanov's gate"
appeared only in the late sixteenth the beginning of the XVII century. Probably
somewhere in this time the Church was located John the Baptist siltand IAONPA the
theologian. (Perhaps it was destroyed in Soviet times, theological, then the
Trinity, the Church, located on the site of the house No. 92A by the Great
Moscow the street. This temple was first mentioned in the Patriarchal the tax
book in 1656 for
So, to as the Eastern gate of the middle part of Vladimir became known as Ivanovo, they were called Christmas, and before that could (if the hypothesis is correct K. N. Tikhonravov and N. And. Artleben late the construction of the Eastern part of the city) to be called Silver. And yet, according to N. N. Voronin102, in the XVI century Silver gate was called Andrievskii – whether in honor of their Creator, whether in honor of the dedication hypothetical gate Church. Again, we can only speculate, at which time such change of names might occur, and whether these existed names in parallel.
Remain open to the following questions:
– how to if the Silver gate was located on the site of
– how was called in pre-Mongol times Eastern gate the
middle part of the city if the Silver gate was located somewhere on the Eastern
tip of the Eastern part of
5. Copper and Asinine gate
Not less than the controversial issue is Copper and Ironing the gate.
In the already cited us the message of the Laurentian chronicle says that the Tartars "from the Golden gate at Holy Saviour , Unidose omen for Ceres the city and Sud from North countries from Lybid to Ariminum collar and Copper and Sud from the Klyazma river to Volga goal; and tacos soon usasa New grad"103. It turns out what Asinine and Copper gates are not identical. But in the Lviv chronicle, these are some and the same gate: "Taco same from Lybid in Originy gate in Meenie"104.
No matter different is the gateway or the same (which, for example, in
everyday life could called Copper, and their gate Church was dedicated to St.
Irene), the researchers had them in the Northern sector of the fortifications
And according to Laurentian chronicle, and Copper, and Asinine gate
could not be located from the North the city: Tatars somewhere in the North
only broke through the wall (in the same way how about the Golden gate), and
then went to Iraninan and Copper shot which, consequently, could be located
anywhere. For Example, Copper gates could be the Western gateway of the middle
part of the city (in Chapter 2 we showed that at this place at Monomakh could
be wooden Golden gate, and then the status of the gate after the construction
of white stone Gold goal by Andrei Bogolyubsky could be reduced from
"gold" to "copper"). In case of acceptance of this
hypothesis we can assume that when Bogolyubsky immediately for the Golden gate
on the main street
Even if Copper gate was on the North side of the city, it is more controversial than that N. N. Voronin put them on your plan (ill. 1) actually in the moat. "Road circle city moat", which says inventory 1626105, could pass in the seventeenth century, when Vladimir fortress has been adapted exclusively for artillery and the remains of the moats had no defensive value, but in XII–XIII centuries ditches had to be filled with water or at least swampy, that is, the gate and the road from them, they could hardly be adapted (it was noted by V. P. Glazov106). Throughout visibility, N. N. Voronin, reconstructing pre-Mongol Vladimir-building, wanted to make the ascent is from Lybid perhaps more gentle and used natural ravine.
But Western part of the pre-Mongol Vladimir not so
much overlooks the countryside for Lybid, and she Lybid is not so deep and wide
that it was impossible post city gate anywhere and from them to make a bridge
across the river. For example, the top of the Northern slope of the Western
part of the city is situated at altitude in average
Plus Northern slopes of the plateau, on which is
located the Western part of
It was debatable whether the words of the Laurentian chronicle about the
fact that the Tatars broke into "New town", refer only to the Western
In case, if the words of the Laurentian chronicle about the "New city" belonged to the Eastern part of Vladimir and if the hypothesis is correct K. N. Tikhonravov and N. And. Artleben about that the Silver gate stood on the site of Ivanovo, Copper and (or) Asinine gates could be travel East tower the East of the city, i.e. settle where N. N. Voronin was reconstructed Silver gate.
And gate Asinine N. N. Voronin has posted on his plan (ill. 1) in terms of residues of the shaft, see the "Drawing" of 1715 (ill. 5). But on the "Drawing" shows that it it is the remains of the shaft, so this section could appear by chance. Therefore, accommodation there Ironing gate (and especially not from the side of the Lybid river, and on the North side of the city, which, as we have seen above, it would be somehow justified) is essentially arbitrary110.
Attempts to bind the location of Copper and Ironing gate to the roads and streets of the New time not have a chance of success due to the instability of dirt roads and wooden urban development111. We talked about this in step 4.
Concluding the discussion about Copper and Ironing the gate, note that true if any of the hypotheses that they were the Western gateway of the middle part of Vladimir and (or) the Eastern gate the Eastern part of the city, we left open the question whether generally in pre-Mongol Vladimir Northern gate. Because, as we have seen in section 4, with roads to Suzdal and Yuriev-Polsky, this issue is not linked (these roads in XII–XIII centuries could, for example, lead respectively to the Eastern and Western extremities of the city112), we must admit, North gate could not be.
At all times the number the fortress gates were determined primarily by the balance between the following fortifications:
– gates should not be too much, because they reduce the reliability of the fortifications and require supplementary protection;
– gates should not be too little, because they allow the defenders to make raids.
How the balance between these requirements were provided in the
pre-MongolVladimir, one can only speculate. For example, on the outer perimeter
of the city fortifications of ancient
Can to assume that if the North gate in Vladimir still existed, it could be not only Copper and (or) Asinine, but any of those that inventories of the seventeenth century mention how Frolovskaya(unreleased to the Lybid river and on the way the circle of the city moat"114), Nikita (probably located near Nikitsky Church in the Northwest corner of the Western part town115) and Epiphany (the location of which is unknown116). But this is nothing more than speculation.
We still have to consider controversial issues of location and names of
two more pre-Mongol the
By assumption N. N. Voronin117, which we see absolutely fair,
West gate Central part of the city could get the name of Trade after Vsevolod
the Big Nest was moved
Likely to transfer bargaining in the middle part of
This hypothesis will add one: the name of the Volga , these gates could
get after Yuri Vsevolodovich founded Nizhny Novgorod and
The hypothesis so far is and the specific location of the
It should be noted and controversial the topography is built by Vsevolod the Big Nest of Vladimir citadel.
The citadel, as established archaeological research N. N. Voronin,
occupied the South-Western sector the middle part of
Laid the citadel was in 1194: "That summer was laid by Prince
Vsevolod the Detinets in hail Volodimer month of June in 4 day121.
In 1196, was built the
Hypothetical outline citadel N. N. Voronin showed on his plan (ill. 1). In favor of the position N. N. Voronin said that the Dmitrievsky Cathedral apses still traced the remains of the slope of the ravine that could define the Eastern edge citadel.
After some investigation historical topography of the South-Western sector of the middle part of Vladimir, T. P. Timofeeva suggested125that since the citadel, in addition to the Episcopal court that included princes court at St. Demetrius Cathedral it is possible that the citadel was occupied by the East side much larger area than assumed N. N. Voronin.
Researcher justified its position by the fact that East of the proposed
boundaries of the citadel, between Dmitrievsky Cathedral and Christmas
monastery in 1993 was made the excavation discovered a layer of pre-Mongolian
time the remains of two wooden buildings XII–XIII centuries. among the findings
were fragments of stained glass, Eastern glazed ceramics, copper gilt relief
overlay in the form of a dragon or a
Since the continuity from the princely yard to the voivodship is quite natural, the researcher believed that the Eastern side of the citadel bordered with almost Christmas monastery127. However, in this case remains strange, the remains of which the white stone walls were discovered during planning works 1954.
As for Northern the walls of the citadel, it is, according to T. P.
Timofeeva128, began from the gate to the
In connection with the above, we can state that the issue of clarifying and Eastern the Northern borders of the citadel remains relevant today. Unknown what were fortifications of the citadel from the West and South – just whether the fragments citywide fortifications, or any special wall, maybe too white stone? The answers to all these questions can be given only by new archaeological findings.
Only new excavations can help to clarify whether in pre-Mongol time own fortifications at St. Vladimir urban monasteries – Christmas and Knyaginin.
So, we researched different versions of time and sequence the bottom of
the Western, middle and Eastern parts of pre-MongolVladimir, the city gate
location, if the town is fortified princely courts Yuri Dolgoruky and Andrei
Bogolyubsky, and the original fortress on the site of an ancient settlement. On
a number of contentious issues we have proposed and substantiated. In addition,
we have specified the length and the height of the trees
We have to say that today it is impossible with any degree of certainty about the periods of construction and the precise contours of the pre-Mongol fortifications of Vladimir, nor about the location and the appearance of all of the Vladimir gate of the fortress of the XII–XIII centuries, in addition to Gold, built by Andrei Bogolyubsky.
The historic topography of the pre-Mongol Vladimir, despite the large number of dedicated to her scientific works and archaeological investigations continue remained open.
1. Voronin N. N. The architecture of North-Eastern Russia XII–XV centuries. M., 1961-1962. Vol. 1. S. 129.
2. For example,
cm.: Ancient urbanism of the X–XV centuries. Under the General editorship of N.
F. The gulyanitskii. M., 1993. S. 167; PilyavskiyV.
3. Meeting GUSS, NV-9351, 1980.
4. For example, cm. reconstruction of O. V. Grishchuk in the book: Ancient urbanism... P. 174-175.
5. Voronin N. N. Architecture... Vol. 1. S. 131.
8. The measurements were conducted using a computer the program "Google Earth".
9. Voronin N. N. Architecture... Vol. 1. S. 131.
10. Ibid. S. 40.
of AV Stoletov given in the book.: Timofeeva T. P. Golden gate in
12. Glazov, V. P.,
In the summer 6616-e (to the topography of
13. For example, cm. reconstruction of O. V. Grishchuk in the book: Old Russian town planning... With 174-175.
14. Voronin N. N. Architecture... Vol. 1. S. 40.
15. According To "The Life Of Abraham Of Rostov", during the life of the monk on the areas of Rostov stood idols (Life of ven. Abraham Rostov // old Russian tradition (XI–XVI centuries.), 1982. P. 137). According to V. O. Klyuchevsky, Abraham lived in the end of the XI century http://www.pravenc.ru/text/62956.html). But, whatever reality and life time of Abraham, hardly Monomakh, who ruled North-Eastern Rus from Kiev and have played there only sporadically, could bring until the end of the process of colonization and Christianization distant Zalesky lands.
16. Voronin N. N. Architecture... Vol. 1. S. 140.
17. Ibid. S. 41.
19. Sedova M. V. Suzdal in the X–XV centuries. M., 1997. S. 52.
21. Ovsyannikov O. V. Fortified manor XIV–XV centuries, as the monuments of military architecture of the Russian North. In the book: Brief reports The Institute of archaeology. Vol. 172. P. 97-104.
23. Mazurov A. B. the location of the citadel and the size of Kolomna in the XII–XIII centuries // local history note. Sat. scientific works of Kolomenskoye Museum. Kolomna, 2001. S. 28.
24. Voronin N. N. Architecture... Vol. 1. S. 135; Mazur , L. D. Strengthening the Kremlin and tenements in Vladimir XVII century // Academic journal of Uralniiproect RAASN. No. 2, 2012. P. 46.
25. For example,
26. Voronin N. N. Architecture... Vol. 1. S. 140.
27. Yushko A. A. Moscow land IX–XIV centuries. M., 1991. S. 97.
28. Glazov, V. P., In the summer 6616-e... P. 36.
29. Voronin N. N.
From the early history of
30. Read more cm.: Zagraevsky S. V. Yuri Dolgoruky and old white-stone architecture. M., 2001. S. 82.
31. Detected in due
time the author of this study tilt of the head temple of 2.5 degrees to the
East (not South, i.e. not in the side of the cliff) was not associated with a
landslide, and with the fire in 1185 (for more, see: Zagraevsky S. V. Uspensky
Cathedral in Vladimir: some of the architectural history // to the memory of
Andrei Bogolyubsky. Sat. articles.
32. This clarification N. N. Voronin (see Voronin N. N. Architecture... Vol.1. S. 448)
33. The Russian
Chronicles. Vol. 12. Laurentian chronicle.
34. The Russian
Chronicles. Vol. 5. Lviv chronicle.
Aboutthe TAS K chronicle reports,
telling about the founding of the city of
38. The Russian
Chronicles. Vol. 5. Lviv chronicle.
39. Tikhomirov, M. N. Little-known chronicle monuments // Historical archive. T. VII. M., 1951. S. 210.
40. Voronin N. N. Architecture... Vol. 1. S. 39.
41. Tikhomirov, M. N. Little-known chronicle monuments... S. 208.
"Tatariv... from the Golden gate of the Holy Saviour of Unidose omen for
Ceres city, and Sud from the North of the country from Lybid to Ariminum collar
and Copper and Sud from the Klyazmato Volga goal; and tacos soon usasa New
grad" (the Russian Chronicles. Vol. 12. Laurentian chronicle.
43. Nikolaev B. P.
New in historical topography the ancient city of
Typographical chronicle. T. XXIV. PG, 1921. S.
54. PSRL, vol. XVII. Supralskii list.
55. Nikolaev B. P. Decree. withPTS. P.162.
56. The measurements were conducted using a computer the program "Google Earth".
57. Nikolaev B. P. Decree. withPTS. P.162.
58. K. Tikhonravov
City of Vladimir in the early eighteenth century. HBV, 1871. No. 15; The
Artleben N. Vladimir the Kremlin is a city in opinoi book
65. The Russian
Chronicles. Vol. 12. Laurentian chronicle.
67. The Russian
Chronicles. Vol. 5. Lviv chronicle.
70. Voronin N. N. Architecture... Vol. 1. S. 200.
71. The Russian
Chronicles. Vol. 12. Laurentian chronicle.
72. Voronin N. N. Architecture... Vol. 1. S. 128.
73. The Russian
Chronicles. Vol. 12. Laurentian chronicle.
74. Voronin N. N. Architecture... Vol. 1. S. 128.
75. Nikolaev B. P. Decree. withPTS. P. 162. Details this version of the Explorer we considered in the note. 43.
76. PSRL, vol. IX. Chronicle the collection, referred to as Patriarchal or Nikon chronicle. Ed. 3-E. M., 2000.S. 211.
77. The Russian
Chronicles. T. 11. Ipatiev chronicle.
78. The Russian
Chronicles. Vol. 12. Laurentian chronicle.
79. Glazov, V. P.,
In the summer 6616-e... P. 38. Researcher cites the following sources: extract
from the census books
80. RGADA. F. 1209.
Op. 1. Part 2. KN.
81. Voronin N. N. Architecture... Vol. 1. S. 515.
82. The Russian Chronicles.
T. 11. Ipatiev chronicle.
"parade" to the status of the Golden gate Bogolyubsky detail cm.:
Zagraevsky C. V. To the refinement of
the reconstruction of Golden gate in
84. Read more cm.:
Zagraevsky S. V. Architect Frederick Barbarossa // "Glory decent..."
Andrey Bogolyubsky in Russian history and culture. International scientific
85. Ants A. N. Lives of the saints of the Russian Church, also Iverand Slavic, St. Petersburg, 1859.
For example, the author of this the study showed a number of inconsistencies
with earlier sources in the Life of Andrei Bogolyubsky" in the following scientific works: Zagraevsky
C. V. To the question on the
reconstruction and Dating of the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl //
regional Materials the regional conference (April 20-21
87. Voronin N. N. Architecture... Vol. 1. S. 515.
V. P., In the summer 6616-e... P. 36; Dudorova L. V. New data about the
location of the ancient gates in the ancient city of
89. V. P. Glazov (Glazov, V. P. In the summer 6616-e... P. 32) and L. V. Dudarova (Dudorova L. V. New data about the location ancient gates... P. 282), for unknown reasons, given the same plan pre-Mongol Vladimir without reference to the author, so we conventionally believe its owned by both researchers.
90. The scheme of the battle, see the Internet site http://ñõåìî.pô/shemy/istorija/beskrovnyi-l-g-atlas-kart-i-shem-po-ruskoi-voenoi-istori-1946-g/71.html.
91. The measurements were conducted using a computer the program "Google Earth".
92. For Example, T.
P. Timofeeva (T. P. Timofeeva Architecture of the time of Andrey Bogolyubsky //
To The Memory Of Andrei Bogolyubsky. Sat. articles.
93. N. N. Voronin wrote that wooden constructii in Vladimir shafts absent (Voronin N. N. Architecture... Vol.1. P. 131), but research V. P. Glazov identified a large the number of the Gorodnya inside shafts (Glazov, V. P., In summer 6616-e... P. 31-33).
94. Glazov, V. P., In the summer 6616-e... P. 36.
95. Dudorova L. V. New data about the location ancient gates... P. 282.
96. Mazur , L. D.
Russian city XI–XVIII centuries the
97. K. Tikhonravov
City of Vladimir in the early eighteenth century. HBV, 1871. No. 15; The
Artleben N. Vladimir the Kremlin is a city in opinoi book
98. Voronin N. N. Architecture... Vol. 1. S. 41.
99. Ibid. S. 515.
101. V. P. Glazov
(Glazov, V. P., In the summer 6616-e... P. 41) described the remnants of
Vladimir fortifications in the late nineteenth century by P. A. Subbotin (Subbotin
A. P. Provincial Vladimir city in 1877. HBV, No. 46, 1881): "The ancient
monuments mostly religious, then the ramparts surrounding the actual the city
for hundreds of miles; these shafts in height from 15 to
102. Voronin N. N. Architecture... Vol. 1. S. 128.
103. The Russian
Chronicles. Vol. 12. Laurentian chronicle.
104. The Russian
Chronicles. Vol. 5. Lviv chronicle.
105. Glazov, V. P., In the summer 6616-e... P. 38.
107. The measurements were conducted using a computer the program "Google Earth".
108. Reconstruction of the pre-Mongol form of these cities is given in the book.: Old Russian town planning P... 76-95.
109. The measurements were conducted using a computer the program "Google Earth".
110. V. P. Glazov
assumed as arbitrarily: "we Can assume the place (Copper gate – Sz) in the
territory the Excavation of the city also from the North, but travel between
Monastic and Borowiecki shafts, where the leaves on Gagarina street sarabetsu
part of the city (formerly Tsaritsyn street). Asinine the gates stood,
obviously near Copper gate, the output of
111. For example,
L. V. Dudorova wrote: "From modern Erofeev descent starts on the road
Yuryev-Polsky. Here, undoubtedly, was also some kind of gate. All the
researchers placed here Asinine gate (actually N. N. Voronin put here a Copper
gate – Sz). Where would be taken out of the Copper gate, if their post Nikita
descent? No roads coming out outside of
112. We have
already mentioned that, according to the local historian of the nineteenth
century N. Astrovtsova (Of Astroverb N. Decree. withPTS.) in Suzdal from
113. Ancient urbanism... P.87.
114. Glazov, V. P., In the summer 6616-e... P. 38.
115. Mazur , L. D. Strengthen The Kremlin and Posada... P. 48.
117. Voronin N. N. Architecture... Vol. 1. S. 545.
118. Ibid. P.347.
119. The Russian Chronicles. Vol. 12. Laurentian chronicle. Ryazan, 2001. S. 334.
120. K. Tikhonravov City of Vladimir in the early eighteenth century. HBV, 1871. No. 15.
121. PSRL. T. I. Stlb. 441.
122. PSRL. T. X. S. 23, 29, 30; T. XX. P. 140; Vol XXIII. C. 56.
123. Voronin N. N. Architecture... Vol. 1. P. 448-454.
124. Ibid. S. 445.
125. Timofeeva T. P. Historical topography Vladimir citadel. Publ. in redundant. the form in the book: The Kremlin Of Russia. Materials and research. Abstracts of reports at the all-Russian Symposium "Kremlin of Russia (23-26 November 1999 of the year). M., 2003. Completely this article is posted on the Internet site http://rusarch.ru/timofeeva5.htm.
126. Baranov, Alexandr
Andreevich. F. VOIE. D. 21824. About the Dating of the plan of cm.: Timofeeva T. P.
Architectural appearance of the city of
127. Timofeeva T. P. Historical topography
© Sergey Zagraevsky