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Prof. Dr. S.V. Zagraevsky

 

Historical topography of pre-Mongol Vladimir

 

Published in Russian: .. . ., 2016. ISBN 978-5-904913-30-4

 

 

Annotation

 

Historical topography of pre-Mongol Vladimir, despite of a large number of scientific works and archaeological researches dedicated to it, remains an opened theme. In the study of Professor, Dr. S. V. Zagraevsky one can find a wide review of proposed by different researchers versions of time and sequence of founding of the parts of pre-Mongol Vladimir, location of city gates, existence of fortified princely courts of Yuri Dolgoruky and Andrei Bogolyubsky, existence of the ancient fortress in the middle part of Vladimir. The author proposes and justifies own versions for a number of contentious questions.

Length and height of shafts of Vladimir fortifications of the XIIXIII centuries is specified, the date of the city foundation is ascertained, the issues of the material and location of Golden Gate built under Vladimir Monomakh, before famous Golden Gate of Andrey Bogolyubsky, are investigated.

 

Scientific editor T. P. Timofeeva.

Editor O. V. Ozolina.

 

Moscow, 2015.

S. V. Zagraevsky (C) 2015

 

Attention!

The following text was translated from the Russian original by the computer program

and has not yet been edited.

So it can be used only for general introduction.

   RUSSIAN VERSION

  

 

Introduction

 

Historical the topography of the pre-Mongol Vladimir-primarily its fortification component (fortifications and protected parts city), the question has long attracted the attention of researchers.

First of all refer to the plan of Vladimir XIIXIII centuries, proposed N. N. Voronin1 (ill. 1).

The plan of Vladimir XIIXIII centuries (N. N. Voronin).

The number mark: I  city of Monomakh (Picerni city); II  Vetchinoy the city; III  New city; IV  the citadel; 1  the Church of our Saviour; 2  the Church of St. George; 3  Cathedral of the assumption; 4  Golden gate; 5  Originy gate; 6  Copper gate; 7  Silver gate; 8  Volga gate; 9  Demetrius Cathedral; 10  ascension monastery; 11  the monastery of the Nativity; 12 assumption (center) monastery; 13  Trade gateway; 14  t gate; 15  gates of the citadel; 16  the Church of the exaltation on the marketplace.

 

Il. 1. The plan of Vladimir XIIXIII century (by N. N. Voronin).

The numbers on the plan marked: I city Monomakh (Picerni city); II Vetchinoy the city; III New the city; IV the citadel; 1 the Church of our Saviour; 2 the Church of St. George; 3 Cathedral of the assumption; 4 Golden gate; 5 Originy gate; 6 Copper gate; 7 Silver gate; 8 Volga gate; 9 Demetrius Cathedral; 10 Ascension monastery; 11 the monastery of the Nativity; 12 assumption (center) monastery; 13 Trade gateway; 14 Ivanovo gate; 15 gates of the citadel; 16 the Church of the exaltation on the marketplace.

 

This plan, shown in capital work "the Architecture of North-Eastern Russia XIIXV centuries", has become a textbook and has been reproduced in almost all the publications on urban history of Vladimir2. On its basis was created by the layout of the city, represented in the exhibition Vladimir-Suzdal Museum-reserve3 (ill. 2), suggests a number other reconstructions4.

 

 

Il. 2. The layout of Vladimir XIIXIII centuries, on display Vladimir-Suzdal Museum-reserve.

 

In principle, the task the reconstruction of the outlines of the pre-MongolVladimir fortifications facilitates that a wedge-shaped linear form of the city has determined a long plateau between two rivers Klyazma and Lybid. In the threefold division of the city, as in linear the dominant feature of the plan, reflected the natural terrain, deep gorges between the hills. And plan N. N. Voronin we see the threefold structure of the pre-Mongol Vladimir: Western "New town", medium "the City of Monomakh" or "Picernicity", East "Vetchinoy city" (or "Bethany").

And nevertheless, controversial issues many even in the task of reconstruction of the shape and appearance of the fortifications Vladimir, at first glance seemingly been solved long ago. More questions cause the time and sequence of appearance of all three parts of the pre-Mongol city, city gate location XIIXIII centuries These and other issues historical topography of Vladimir devoted our study.

In Chapter 2 we will see that given N. N. Voronin parts name pre-Mongol Vladimir are disputed, so for accuracy we call them Western, Central and Eastern.

 

1. The shape, length and appearance of the pre-Mongol Vladimir fortifications

 

By N. N. Voronin the total length of the pre-Mongol Vladimir fortifications was about 7 km5. The researcher-led and the length of the shafts of each from parts of the city: East 2460 m, West 1926 maverage "a few more than 2500 m 6.

In itself strange, how could the accuracy of the meter to indicate the length of the Eastern part of the fortifications the city's only hypothetically assuming the location of the gate, which N. N. Voronin called Silver, and, accordingly, the shape of the line fortifications in the area of the gate. (Details on the whereabouts of the Silver the gate we will consider in section 4).

The same applies to the Western part, where the same problemoccurs because not exactly set the location of the gate, N. N. Voronin called Volga (details about these gates we will discuss in section 6). Landslides the soil on the cliffs, too, could change the shape of the borders of fortifications.

We have the opportunity more or less accurately (of course, with accuracy to one meter, and up to ten) to name length only the fortifications of the middle part of the pre-Mongol Vladimir, N. N. Voronin called only about "a few more than 2500 m7. Actually if the South edge of the fortifications occurred in the existing edge of the cliff, this length is about 2410 m8. If in ancient times the edges of the cliffs were on, then the length of the fortifications was more and to calculate, we need to add to it twice the width of the intended opolskiego edges (for example, if slid 20 m soil, the initial length of the fortifications would be approximately 2450 m). But below we will show that such large landslides on Vladimir cliffs was not.

Our measurements of the length of the pre-Mongol fortifications of the other parts of the city gave the following results: 2450 m (East part) and 1940 m (Western). Precision measurement of plus or minus 30 m depending on the degree of approximation of the anticipated contours of the fortifications the realities of the pre-Mongolian time and scale hypothetical landslides.

Thus, the total the length of the city fortifications pre-MongolVladimir was about 6800 m, not counting the citadel (see section 7), the court of Yuri Dolgoruky (see item 3) and hypothetical fortress on the site of an ancient settlement (see claim 2). The outer perimeter of Vladimir fortifications was about 5560 m.

Controversial is the question about the appearance of the pre-Mongol Vladimir fortifications. By N. N. Voronin, throughout the process they were powerful shafts, comprising at the base width 24 m, height 9 m, with wooden fence at the top. These findings the researcher made, based on the approximation of the size of the surviving remnants of the old shaft Kozlov at the Golden gate9 and Ivanovo shaft near Nativity monastery10.

A. V. Stoletov in his the reconstruction of the original form of the Golden gate (Il. 3) the amendment made to that is near the building of the Golden gate "rooted in the ground" about 1.5 m relative to the pre-Mongol the surface, and assumed that height Kozlov shaft was still more than you thought N. N. Voronin, almost 11 m11. And V. P. Glazov was determined by the width of the shafts Vladimir to 28-30 m12.

 

 

Il. 3. Gold gate in Vladimir. Reconstruction Of AV Stoletov.

 

Such the huge height and width of the shafts we see on other reconstructions13, and on the layout of the pre-Mongol Vladimir (cm. Il. 2). Houses are like in the pits formed colossal fortifications. Accordingly, the labor costs for such fortifications were to be truly Titanic. For Example, N. N. Voronin believed, that middle part when Vladimir Monomakh built thousands of people involving hundreds of supply14. Unlikely in pre-Mongol North-Eastern Russia, Monomakh's not even quite Christianized and colonized by the Russians15 that was possible the mobilization of such resources.

Actually pre-Mongol shafts and Vladimir, and huge most other Russian tree-earth fortresses were not so impressive. Many survived to our time ramparts that are traditionally associated with pre-Mongol, as a result of numerous sprinklings of ground in the XVXVII centuries much greater height than in the pre-Mongoliantime. Let us show this.

First, according to the reconstruction of AV Stoletov (ill. 3) it turns out that the top of Vladimir Kozlov shaft was much higher combat area, arranged on the floor in the arch of the Golden gate at a height of about 6 m (respectively, in pre-Mongol time about 7.5 m). In this case, it becomes unclear purpose bricked up door aperture are opposite the exit to the combat ground under the arch from the middle of the site the stairs, as this aperture leading into the interior of the mound shaft (is paying attention even N. N. Voronin16).

Secondly, according to archaeological research17, Vladimir Ivanovsky, the shaft rests on the cultural layer of the XIXII centuries, therefore, he was poured later appearances on this location in the city. Inside this shaft, traces multiple stages of construction18.

Thirdly, inside the shaft in Suzdal near ancient Ilyinsky gate (extrapolated current height more 6 m) pre-Mongol shaft preserved only to a height of 1.5 m19;

Fourthly, initial height of the shafts of Dmitrov was 1.52 m extrapolated current height of 18 m20;

Fifthly, the initial height shafts Pressage (Strokosch) settlement of the XV century was 2.4 m, and in our time it is approximately 4 m21;

Sixthly, the shafts in Pinsk the final period of their existence had a height of 18-20 m, and in the start 3 m22;

Seventh, the traces numerous sprinklings the author observed in sections of shafts and Przemysl Moscow, and of Radonezh.

Eighthly, in many cases of pre-Mongol shafts, if they continue to not was posypalis, all disappeared from the face of the earth, even if in modern times not lasted no more or less intensive construction works (as in Kideksha, Vyshgorod on the Yakhroma, Gorodnya Tver region, Monay Naro-Fominsk district of the Moscow region and mn. etc.). Characteristically, in Kolomna pre-Mongol the shafts are not only preserved, but their traces are still not found at a very intensive archaeological survey conducted in the twentieth century23.

From the above we can conclude that compared to the pre-Mongol time were significantly spiked and ramparts of Vladimir (in particular, we know the repairs of the walls in 1536, as well as walls and shafts in 1670-1674,24).

The question may arise: why in the XVXVII centuries might need to pour ancient wood-earthfortifications, typologically correspond to the fortifications of the ancient Gauls, in which mass order captured Julius Caesar? Strengthening, by world standards considered hopelessly outdated even in the pre-Mongolian time25?

The answer is: ancient wood-earthenfortress paradoxically, at XV(IXVII centuries received a "second wind" in connection with the development artillery. Shafts played the role of parapets and bastions, on which effectively to place the cannon. And these fortifications (of course, their soil, and not the wooden parts that were easy to wipe off shaft via cannons, and catapults, as did the Mongols during the time of Batu Khan invasion) were very resistant to enemy artillery fire. Guns placed in earthen bastions, were perfectly protected. Not in vain the time of Peter the great earthen ramparts were arranged around the many stone Russian fortresses, including the Moscow Kremlin.

And laid side the doorway of the Golden gate points us to the level of the combat areas of the city the walls in the pre-Mongolian time no wonder on average the landing of the Golden gate, where he crossed two human streams (with the city walls and from the combat area), there was a significant flare white walls26.

Since we do not know the height the Gorodnya (cages, Tarasov), shaped the city walls of Vladimir, we can determine the initial height Kozlov shaft only approximately. If we take the height of the Gorodnya 1.52 m, height of shaft from the base Gold the gate does not exceed 4.5 m (to clarify, these figures can new archaeological research Kozlov shaft with side of the Golden gate). Respectively, were less and shaft width, and depth the moat in front of him.

Not necessary doubt that any strengthening of Vladimir could not be higher Kozlov shaft, located with outdoor the threatened party.

And from the side cliffs over rivers shafts, most likely, did not: as shown studies A. A. Yushko, this situation occurred in almost all the ancient settlements27. Indeed, in Vladimir, spreading 2-3 meter shafts above the 50-meter-high cliffs above the Klyazma would have led to large additional labor costs, but practically not increased would strengthen the reliability. And these additional labor costs would be more great that the ground for shafts over the cliffs would have had to carry out environs of the city (for outdoor shafts the soil was taken from the dig in front of them ditches, but over the cliffs to the river it was impossible to do).

In connection with we can Express doubt that Vladimir plateau within the history of the city, there was a significant landslide processes.

V. P. Glazov it was believed that the landslide was caused by the fact that on the southern slope of the Klyazma shore shafts are already missing on the plans XVIII century28. But here, first, preferred seems based on the Assembly information position N. N. Voronin, comprising that the shafts on the North and South edges of Vladimir plateau were razed (dropped from the slopes) at the beginning of the nineteenth century29. Secondly, based on the above, were razed shafts slipped later the XIIXIII centuries. In pre-Mongol same time these shafts are either not there (the walls walked right on top of the slope), or they were very small. Accordingly, we believe that since the plateau above the cliffs slid not so much, no more than 5-10 m from edge.

In favor our position is supported by the fact that Vladimir's assumption Cathedral, despite to their huge size, the location not further than ten metres from the edge and low structural reliability30, has become a victim of landslides31.

Fortunately for Vladimir monuments, Klyazmahas the tendency to deviate to the South and not the North (we see this in the example change it the riverbed in the area of the Bogolyubov). Perhaps landslides over Lybid were even more than over the Klyazma river, but on this topic one can only speculate.

 

2. Controversial issues of time and the sequence of the base parts pre-Mongol Vladimir Monomach Golden gate

 

Consider controversial issues of time and sequence the bottom of the middle, Western and Eastern parts of pre-Mongol Vladimir.

N. N. Voronin believed that "Picerni the city was" the city Monomakh" (i.e., was founded and built by Vladimir Monomakh) and spans the entire the middle part of the pre-Mongol Vladimir32. This position is reflected in the layout proposed by the researcher plan pre-Mongol Vladimir (cm. Il. 1).

Indeed, in the Laurentian chronicle, which tells of the Batu the invasion, says: "And Beja Vsevolod and Mstislav, and all the people of biasa in Picerni city33. And Lviv chronicle says: "And the princes of biasa in average grad"34.

But the fact the Foundation and construction of the fortifications of the middle part of the city Monomakh is not undisputed.

First of all, well - known ongoing for many decades discussion35 who was the founder of the Vladimir Vladimir Monomakh (1108) or Vladimir the Baptist (in the year 990). N. N. Voronin adhered to the first version36, hence the name of the middle part Vladimir on his plan "the city of Monomakh". In the case of the adoption of the second version of this part of the city, in theory, should be called "the city of Vladimir the Baptist."

In favor the founding of the city the Baptist say many Chronicles37, and for us, the most compelling is the message of the Lvov chronicle in 1108 year, which does not leave room for any misunderstandings regarding founder Vladimir: "That summer is done right hail Vladimir Zalesskii Volodymyra Manomohan, and creates in him the Church is the stone of St. Saviour, and lay it BAA before Volodimer Kiev"38. But on what part of the city laid the Baptist, a Monomakh, one of their descendants, the researchers put forward various versions. Let's consider them.

Let's start with the Western part of Vladimir, N. N. Voronin believed based upon Andrei Bogolyubsky.

"Brief Vladimir chronicler reports:" Vladimir II (Monomakh Sz) come in Zalessky land and built a castle its Volodimer and osypa spam and built a Church of stone Holy Saviour Yes Golden gate (my italics Sz) for 50 years before Velikayavirgin the Church39. This message N. N. Voronin did not pay attention40, although in 1951 M. N. Tikhomirov wrote that it "requires additional study"41. B. P. Nikolaev believes that "its", i.e. "new" city in this message is thus "New town", about which says Laurentian chronicle in connection with Batdyevym invasion42, i.e. the Western part of Vladimir. Respectively, the opinion of B. P. Nikolaev, the Western part of the city was not founded Bogolyubsky, and Monomakh43.

In principle, this interpretation of the message "Short of the Vladimir chronicle looks logical: if Vladimir the Baptist founded the middle part of the city (some researchers believe that he founded the Eastern part, but this below), Monomakh could attach to it the Western part. In the last there was a stone Church of the Savior (not the one built by Andrei Bogolyubsky, because archaeological research N. N. Voronin residues monomahova temple on this the place is not revealed44 and some primary Golden gate, in the future Andrey either completely rebuilt or built on a different location. According to quoted post "Summary of the Vladimir chronicle, Monomach Golden gate, unlike the stone Church Of our Saviour, were made of wood (because their material is not only specified, but also opposed to the material the Church of the Savior), that is, their remains could be solved forever.

This position confirmed and given N. N. Voronin message "the genealogy register Supraslska chronicle", which repeated the message "the genealogy register The Novgorod first chronicle": "the Prideaux Prince Vladimir Manamah IP in Kiev Volodimer castle and built Church the stone of the Holy Saviour at Golden lie (my italics Sz), and the pojde in Kiev"45. Note that, according to this report, at the time of joining Monomakh city Vladimir already existed, which is an additional fact about the founding city Baptist.

In principle, in a statement cited "the genealogy register" it could go on and on the Golden gate Andrei Bogolyubsky (as, apparently, and thought N. N. Voronin46). But the meaning of this message it is that the Church of our Saviour was initially set at the Golden gate, have last existed during Monomakh. As quoted the message "a Summary of the Vladimir chronicle clearly States that monomials built the Golden gate.

So we we believe the construction of the first wooden Golden gate Monomakh proven. Keep these gates could in any part of the city that existed at time, and likely that they were located, like the Golden gate Bogolyubsky, from the South-West side of the fortifications: with this side was Kiev, where in Zalesie arrived Russian princes, with Monomakh and his ancestors, except the waterway, there were land "the road pramoedya".

And as to the possibility of founding the Western part of Vladimir Monomakh, we allowed her, but this is assumption is only true if right assumption B. P. Nikolaev that "its", that is, the "new" city in the "Summary of the Vladimir chronicle is thus the "New city" spoken of in the Laurentian chronicle in connection with Batdyevym invasion47. But in 1238, speaking about the "New the city", the chronicler may already have in mind a fortress, not based Monomakh, and Bogolyubsky. Accordingly, we have no right definitely to disavow the position N. N. Voronin relative to the base of the Western part Vladimir Prince Andrey.

Requires individual review and the establishment of the Eastern question part of Vladimir. N. N. Voronin believed that this part of the city was built when Andrei Bogolyubsky. But this is only a hypothesis, based on the message of the Nikon chronicle, Andrei "the city of Vladimir lay exceedingly Parenago bolse first48. This message can be interpreted not only as the fact that the newly founded town were much more old, but that the city as a whole has become much in size more old that could occur in the case that Andrew was attached to average part only the Western (on the disputed issues, concerning the latter, we said above).

Therefore, the Eastern part of Vladimir could be built earlier and later time of Andrei Bogolyubsky.

Let's start with the first option. B. P. Nikolaev49and L. Mazur50 assumed that the Eastern part of the city was founded by Vladimir the Baptist. In favor of its version of the researchers led a number of arguments. Let's consider them.

First, the sources XVIXVII centuries called this part of Vladimir "Old" or "Vetenim" ("Mechanim") by city51. But these messages late springs can not testify to the early time of the Foundation of this part of Vladimir, because, according to the just remark of N. N. Voronin, the Eastern part of the city could in the XVIXVII centuries, to have old and dilapidated-building52. We add that the old and old at this time in this part of town could be urban development;

Secondly, the message Typographical chronicle says: "the city of Volodimer, others like in Suzdal land. In the summer 6498 IDA Volodimer in Suzdal land and deliver. hail in the name of Volodimer and spam of osypa and the Church of the Holy virgin Cathedral the drevyana the ISS and all the people baptize Roccia and the defender of earth. Hail Volodimer from the Golden gate to Christmas gate six hundred and forty fathoms fathoms, and old vetchinoy the city (my italics Sz) gate from Christmas until the end of the Spa in length to Conceive six hundred yards and dvadeset fathoms"53. But by the time of writing of this fragment Typographical annals (across likely, quite late) the Eastern part of the city was able to decay. To also this message does not exclude the fact that other parts of Vladimir at this time too were "old", but they are, in distinction from East, not dilapidated;

Thirdly, the message Supraslska chronicle says: "the legend of the true knasen Russians. First kako clubs Russian land , svyatyi playvery Prince Vladimir of Kievand all Russia, the heir to Prince Constantino, others like myself crestina and people of Navy verawati in Shine Troica, the father and the son and the Holy spirit. Then pojde in Slovenian land, at Retz on the Klyazma builtthe city the name Vladimir, in his name vetrano the city and deliver. (my italics Sz), and zborow Church Holy Bogorodica drivenow, and spam of osypa, and Steve Church, and baptize the people, and put the governors, and IDA in Kiev..."54. But, in our opinion, this message Supraslska the chronicle is not enough for a radical revision of the urban planning history Vladimir for the same reasons: the chronicle's message "deliver. city name Vladimir, in his name vetrano the city and b" can be interpreted not as the fact of the construction of the Baptist Church of the city in the XVIXVII centuries called "Vetenim", but as a fact of the construction of the town which the time of writing the message to the chronicle became old and (or) the old.

Fourthly, B. P. Nikolaev wrote, citing the research of Vladimir regional specialists of the mid-nineteenth century55, that specified in the above chronicle the wooden message our lady the Church in Vatsana city in the XII century there already existed and was in the first fence in Vladimir Dormition convent; that in this Church Andrey Bogolyubsky for a while set brought from Vyshhorod icon, as another Holy virgin Church in this time in Vladimir allegedly was not; and that this Church was exactly in the middle between Western and Eastern ramparts of the Eastern part of Vladimir, and this should to prove denouement the erection of the Church and shafts. But actually to install the existence in the twelfth century in the Eastern part of Vladimir wooden Church and monastery without documentary and / or archaeological data is impossible, and the not so confidently assert that in the time of arrival in Vladimir Andrei Bogolyubsky in the city there was only one our lady Church. Wooden Church dedicated to the virgin, could be any number in all parts of the city. And the distance from the above-mentioned assumption the Church to the West and East shafts actually varies (about 500 m and 700 m, respectively,56), but even if that distance was same, that in no case does not prove the erection denouement the Church and shafts.

Generalize it is written, since recognition of the founding of the Eastern part of the city the Baptist violates fortification logic, which governs environmental the area the middle part of the city is much better suited for first city the fortress than the low hand of the Lybid river and the Klyazma, the arguments in favor of such an early Foundation the Eastern part has to be extremely compelling. Neither B. P. Nikolaev, neither L. D. Mazur, as we have seen, such arguments not led. Accordingly, we cannot accept their version.

And, of course, it is impossible to accept the inevitable consequence of two reviewed by us versions B. P. Nikolaev57that at first Vladimir the Baptist he founded the Eastern part of the city, then Monomakh West, and the middle part the highest and favorable from the point of view of defence all this time remained unfortified.

There was a version about the fact that the Eastern part of Vladimir was founded not earlier and later middle and Western. It adhered Vladimir historians of the nineteenth century, K. N. Tikhonravov and N. And. The artleben58. Available in our available sources can neither conclusively prove nor unambiguously to refute this version, as we have previously shown that the message of the Nikon chronicle that Andrew "the city of Vladimir lay exceedingly Parenago bolse the first"59 can be interpreted not only as that again laid part of the city were much more old, but as something in the city General became much larger old that could occur in if Andrew was attached to the middle partonly West, and the East wing was added later for example, when Vsevolod the Big Socket.

There is one more option: the Eastern part of Vladimir could be based later average, but before the West. But this version also impossiblenor confirm nor deny.

So way, question time and the sequence of bases in Western and Eastern the city remains open. But about the middle part based on the all the above chronicle reports can believe that it was founded Vladimir The Baptist. Regarding the participation in the construction of Monomakh we can result the following versions:

Monomials strengthened the fortifications of the middle part of the city, previously built by the Baptist;

Monomials built fortifications the middle of the city, and the Baptist the only hill in its South-Western corner, where in the first Millennium BC, even before the Russian colonization, the settlement was located60. Subsequently Andrey Bogolyubsky built on the site of the Cathedral of the assumption. This hill in our time (after nivelirovat associated with the construction of the assumption Cathedral and arrangement the area around it) is about 10 m above the rest of the plateau forming the the middle part of Vladimir61. The length of the fortifications of the fortress could to make 300-400 m, which is not too small (for example, the perimeter of the ancient cities North-Eastern Russia the Mstislavl and Kleschin about 500 m);

Monomials did not take part in the construction of the middle part of the city, and raised him the Western part (the theoretical possibility of such an option we showed above).

All cases of fortifications built by Vladimir the Baptist could be kept to a minimum and to include, as we showed in section 1, not even walls with wooden walls on them, but simply stockades on the slopes. However, as it could look and fortifications built by Monomakh. Strengthened their future generations the princes of Vladimir, first of all, the son of Monomakh, Yuri Dolgoruky. Will not forget that and the Baptist, and Monomakh been to Suzdal only occasionally, Dolgoruky also reigned there for decades, and was built in Vladimir its fortified courtyard, which we will discuss in section 3.

In connection with the above, we can hypothesize the origin the name "Picerni city". N. N. Voronin believed, what's in it for some reason was reflected Kiev the monastic name Kiev-Pechersk Lavra62. But it remains unclear why in purely secular Vladimir fortress reflected exactly the name of the monastery. Because of this G. I. Mokeevand B. P. Nikolaev is even believed (without any archaeological grounds), in the middle part of Vladimir were really caves63. But in terms of humid climate and clay (rasciesa in bad weather) soils North-Eastern Russia the presence of these caves are unlikely, and in the absence archaeological evidence about them in the pre-Mongol time cannot be considered scientifically sound. Hardly in the middle part of Vladimir were arranged even underground tunnels (the presence of such a move from the assumption Cathedral expected B. P. Nikolaev64), as in the Batu the invasion of the defenders of the city to escape through them failed and were killed in the Cathedral65.

Our hypothesis is that the word "picerni" ("cave") in this case means "bottom", and, accordingly, the middle part of Vladimir was "lower" in relation to anything. Depending on when appeared the name "Picerni" (first mentioned by Chronicles in connection with Batdyevym invasion), it could be either we mentioned the elevation in the southwest corner of the plateau, where there was the ancient settlement of, or built by Vsevolod the Big Nest, the citadel (see section 7).

In any case, we can assume that a small ancient fortress on above the hill when Andrei Bogolyubsky was almost entirely occupied assumption Cathedral, when Vsevolod became part citadel, whose territory was significantly higher, and have not kept any of their fortifications, nor their names, which could sound like "Upper city" or otherwise.

This indirectly is confirmed by the chronicle wording: "And Beja Vsevolod and Mstislav, and all the people of biasa in Picerni the city; and Bishop Mitrofan... and mnozstvo many of the boyars and the people of satories in the Church of the Holy mother of God"66; "And the princes of biasa in average hail, and Princess with daughter-in-laws... satories in the Church on Polytech"67. These messages can be interpreted so, the Dormition Cathedral was not in Picerne (Average), that is, Vladimir the citadel to PeerName the city did not belong.

 

3. Fortified Vladimirsky Dvor Yuri Dolgoruky

 

Need note that in Vladimir there was one fortress courtyard Yuri Dolgoruky. If the correct hypothesis about the Foundation of the Western part of the city Vladimir Monomakh (cm. p. 2), this fortress originally inside the city's fortifications. If the Western part founded Bogolyubsky, this fortress was included in the territory of the city at him, and before that country was a princely residence.

N. N. Voronin wrote available around Vladimirskaya Church George fortified courtyard Dolgoruky68, but did not lead any evidence and has not designated this yard on his plan (cm. Il. 1). We can confirm the existence of such yard the following provisions:

Yuri, who reigned in Suzdal with 1113 (perhaps even with 109669) year, is unlikely to 1150 years not to have your own backyard at one of the largest (if not largest) town of his Principality, Vladimir;

the area around the Church George is extremely favorable from the point of view of natural protection on three sides it was spotlessly cliff and two of the ravine, and the "outdoor" side very short;

dedication of the Church patron Dolgoruky in itself cannot be used as evidence the fact that the Church was a house Church, but in light of the previous regulations on this also you should pay attention.

N. N. Voronin assumed the existence in Vladimir and yard Andrei Bogolyubsky (although it also did not reflect this yard on his plan cm. Il. 1). The researcher had the yard around the Church of our Savior and wrote that "building a new white-stone Church near the Church of St. George at the yard Dolgoruky was associated with the organization of the new courtyard of the Prince Andrew"70.

However for a number of reasons, we cannot agree with this assumption.

First, residence of Andrew of Bogolyubovo was, and in Vladimir, he could only have "subsidiary" yard.

Secondly, Andrew inherited a yard with a white-stone Church of St. George from his father Dolgoruky, and he was hardly a necessity next to her Vladimir's court (former court of jury) to build another yard as the main residence Andrew, as we just noted, was Bogolyubovo.

Thirdly, the Church of our Saviour is located to the West of the centre of Vladimir and Bogolyubovo East. If Andrew and there was a need to build in Vladimir a extra yard, he would more likely be by Bogolyubov.

Fourthly, the location of the Church of our Savior can be considered unique: it is not only very close to the slope above the Klyazma and because of this perfectly visible from the river, and is on a hill, towering far above surrounding streets. But on this hill too little space for the Palace, farm buildings and fortifications (unlike, for example, from the area around the Church of St. George).

From the foregoing it can be concluded that the Church of our Saviour was not home, and a separate "front" of the temple, prevailed over the Western part of Vladimir and intended to advance to improve the image of the Vladimir Principality in the eyes of foreign ambassadors and merchants (same status had the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl, which "marked" the crossroads of major trade routes on the Nerl and Klyazma). But the yard of Andrey Bogolyubsky around the Church of the Savior, as we have shown, was not.

 

4. Vladimir fortress time Andrei Bogolyubsky, Silver gate

 

Proceed to Vladimir fortress Andrei Bogolyubsky laid in 115871. How long did it take to build this the fortress is unknown. N. N. Voronin wrote about the year 1164 as possible about the date of completion72, based on what the Church of the deposition, situated on the Golden gate, was in this year consecrated73. Of course, some thus the date of completion can only be considered a conditional (construction of fortifications could end much earlier, and continue much longer), and can only Express surprise why the researcher capital work "the Architecture of North-Eastern Russia XIIXV centuries" not only unequivocally led 1164 year as the date of completion fortifications, but was made on the basis of this date conclusions about the scale of the building74.

In Chapter 2 we said that position N. N. Voronin was that when Andrei Bogolyubsky were strengthened Western and Eastern parts of Vladimir. There we showed that the Western part of the city could be founded Monomakh, and the East and to Bogolyubsky, and later. But even if the Western part of the city built monomials, then Bogolyubsky could significantly to expand (e.g., to distribute fortified by ramparts and walls on the territory riverine part of the city near the Volga, as I thought B. P. Nikolaev75). All this corresponds to the message Nikonchronicle that Andrew "hail Vladimir lay exceedingly Parenago bolse first"76.

N. N. Voronin believed that in the city fortress when Bogolyubskywas seven gates: Golden, Silver, Ivanovo, Shopping, Asinine, Copper and Volga (see ill. 1).

The Chronicles of these gates is known for Gold, Silver, Originy (Asinine), Copper (Copper) and Volga. So, Hypatian chronicle, speaking of construction in Vladimir during the reign of Andrey Bogolyubsky, reports that the Prince of the city "strongly gave to him the same Golden gate dopeand the other silver ucini"77, that is, in the XII century mentions Gold and Silver gate. And in the story The Laurentian chronicle of the Tatar-Mongol invasion reads as follows: "Tatariv... from the Golden gate of the Holy Saviour of Unidose by omen Ceres city, and Sud from the North of the country from Lybid to Ariminum collar and to Copper and Sud from the Klyazma river to Volga goal; and tacos soon usasa New grad'78.

About Ivanovo and commercial gates said in opinoi book 162679. In this inventory mentions four gate towers: the Ivanovo with a trip to Bethany city (East gate the middle part of Vladimir), Shopping with a trip to New Earth, the city (that there is the East gate middle part), Frolovskayawith a visit to the Lybid river and on the way the circle of the city moat", and Potaninii gate, went to the Volga goal on the descent to the river Klyazma. In the inventory of 1646 States also about Nikita Epiphany and gate80.

As we can see, in the inventories of the seventeenth century references to other gates except marked on the plan N.N. Voronin. But whether they existed in pre-Mongol time, can only speculate. However, as we will soon show only conjecture can be in regard to material, location and the original names of all pre-Mongol the Vladimir gate, except Gold, built by Andrei Bogolyubsky. (This last comment is no coincidence, since in Chapter 2 we showed that there existed Golden gate, built with the Monomakh).

Consider questions of material and location of the Silver gate.

N. N. Voronin believed their white stone81. The latter in itself is doubtful, as you should only mention those near the Golden gate in the above-cited the message of the Ipatiev chronicle, according to which Andrey Bogolyubsky "Golden gate dope, and the other silver ucini"82. But the words "silver ucini" nothing talking about the gate material, as silver can decorate any travel tower. Moreover, in Vladimir, along with Gold and Silver and Copper were gate (which will be discussed in section 5) and there is a symbolic hierarchy" gold, silver, copper. To the material of the gate is not relevant, or if we would take the white stone and Brass gates.

Golden gate which is an allusion to the Golden gate of Kiev, Constantinople and Jerusalem, when Andrei Bogolyubsky had a special "ceremonial" status83, which hardly had the rest of the Vladimir gate towers, how many of them . No wonder V. N. Tatischev, talking about the work in Vladimir architect, sent to Andrew Frederick Barbarossa himself, among his fortification buildings mentioned only Golden gate84.

We can't judge with sufficient share of confidence it is not only about the material but about the location and Silver gate. We only know that they were from the Bogoliubov East. In the Life of Andrei Bogolyubsky" says: "Gather all the priests, and, putting on the robe, go before The silver gates, the icon of the mother of God; then wait for the Prince"85. And although "The life" relative to the XII century later (beginning of XVIII century) and on a number of issues has internal contradictions and refuted earlier sources86, in this case, we accept his message, as if it were fiction, it is much more likely would be a description of the meeting of the body of the Prince "parade" Golden gate.

N. N. Voronin reconstructed Silver gate on modern Frunze area, before the former here in New time the bridge over the Lybid. At the same the researcher wrote, referring to the work of the geologist Vladimir A. A. Dobrolyubov: "In the ancient topography of this part of town was no different: the South of the modern street Frunze (now Bolshaya Nizhegorodskaya street S. Z.) was the hollow in which could the road leading to Silver goal"87.

Given this, V. P. Glazov and L. V. Dudorova tried to clarify the location Silver gate, referring to the fact that the remains of a hypothetical large white stone structures were not found in alleged N. N. Voronin place at the archaeological observation of the construction of the street Frunze88. These researchers based on the reconstruction of the direction of the "old" roads in Bogolyubovo painted Silver gate on your plan89several South (ill. 4).

 

 

Il. 4. Plan pre-Mongol Vladimir (V. P. Glazov and L. V. Dudarova)

 

But we first, we note the principal impossibility of reconstruction location pre-Mongol fortress gates known to us by highways roads XVIIIXX centuries, as these roads constantly shifts. For example, in an impassability of roads, when the road was completely broken and impassable, next could pave a new one; after a few years to return (or never return) to the old; if near new the village, the road could collapse to him; in the future again streamlets; respectively could gradually change the direction of the village main streets; abandoned road in 20-30 years overgrown, if you were walking through the forest, opened, if you were walking through a field, etc.

The result of these processes in for several centuries each road traveled for several miles in an unpredictable direction. A vivid example the Old and the New Smolensk road, already during the war of 1812 in the area of the battle of Borodino were removed from each other by about 5 km90. And modern Minsk and Mozhaisk highway without repeating a track of any of these roads, this the area removed from each other by more than 7 km91. As complicated even relatively recent (XVIIIXX centuries) history of all highway leading from Moscow, and their tracks for the last 200-300 years is often not only moved for miles, and completely change direction (e.g., highway, now called Warsaw, leads not to the West and South).

On the roads leading from Moscow and her city gates we can judge, since the sixteenth century, is preserved to the modern era fortifications and survived to us the plans of the late XVI early XVII century. But from the Vladimir serfs the gate to the New time only preserved white stone Gold, and the earliest extant and highly conditional "drawing" of Vladimir dates back to the year 1715 (ill. 5).

 

 

Il. 5. Vladimir. "Drawing" of 1715.

 

Moreover, in the pre-Mongolian time, the main transport links was carried out on rivers, land and road served primarily for troop movements and trips to farmers at local fairs. Why not be sure that the roads of the XIIXIII centuries, even if they were a little bit stable, led directly to the gate. They can lead to bypass of the city, before the gates could do any bends, etc92

So reconstruction of the Vladimir road XIIXVII centuries and, therefore, location hypothetically, the respective gate of the city, with an accuracy of at least a few hundred meters is impossible in principle, and we cannot accept the basis for determining the location of the pre-Mongol Vladimir nor gate leading out of the city "old" (i.e., described by local historians XIX century) the road or the road of the twentieth century.

City streets more stable than the road, but only in the context of stone buildings. Wooden the building is, the more near the city walls (i.e. the outskirts of the city), was for hundreds of years to change beyond recognition. Even in Vladimir, where the XII century there is the main street that runs through the city from West to East, the place the output of this street in the pre-Mongolian time to the fortifications on the Eastern edge of the Eastern part of the city, as we saw above, is reconstructed very ambiguous.

Consequently, we do not entitled to reconstruct the location of the pre-Mongol the gate and through the streets depicted on the plans of Vladimir XVIIIXIX centuries.

Since we don't know were there Silver white stone gate, we could not conduct the search and "method exceptions, based on negative archaeological data (i.e., assuming that if the remains of the gate were found, they were located somewhere in other place). If the gates were wood, traces repeatedly under perekladyvaniya urban bridge could not be maintained. Moreover, in the base of the shafts were located gorodno93, and since the shafts have been razed long ago, during excavations traces of these the Gorodnya it is very difficult, often impossible to distinguish from traces of wooden gates.

We are not sure even that Silver gate actually was at the Eastern end of the Eastern part of Vladimir where they were shown at their plans N. N. Voronin and (with minor adjustments hypothetical location) other researchers, for example, V. P. Glazov94 and L. V. Dudorova95 see ill. 4, L.D. Mazur96 see ill. 6.(About the illegality of the reconstruction of the pre-Mongol streets and roads, shown on plan L. D. Mazur, we said just above).

 

 

Il. 6. Plan pre-Mongol Vladimir ( L. D. Mazur). In the explication kept spelling the original.

 

The assumption N. N. Voronin that Silver gate was on the Eastern tip of the Eastern part of Vladimir, was based on the fact that the Eastern part the city was built by Andrei Bogolyubsky. But, as we have shown in Chapter 2, this is only one possible option, and this part of the city could appear earlier, and later. And if in the case of an earlier Foundation the Eastern part of Vladimir established in the twentieth century submission of at least an approximate location of the Silver gate on the Eastern end of the Eastern part of the city do not change, in the case of more late base are changing dramatically.

In Chapter 2 we said that the Eastern part of Vladimir considered late (anyway, the later middle and Western parts) K. N. Tikhonravov and N. And. The artleben. Accordingly, these researchers placed Silver gate when leaving the middle part of the city to the East, that is there, where the inventory 1626 pointed Ivanovo gate97. In favor of this position there are two indirect evidence.

First, The "drawing" of Vladimir 1715 (ill. 5) at the Eastern end of the Eastern part city not shown any gates. And although this in itself proves nothing (between the pre-Mongol era and 1715 year has passed too much time), but everything is the same an additional argument in favor of the controversial nature of the reconstruction location Silver gate.

Secondly, the origin of the name "the gate" and its associated names "Ivanovo shaft" is still a controversial issue, and the naming of the East gate the middle part of the city does not exclude the fact that they previously might have been called Silver.

N. N. Voronin assumed that the gate got its name or by name the Bishopand the OAINPA, consecrated in 1190 or arranged on top of this gate, St John 's Church perhaps in honor of the patron Saint of Bishop John98. But if the title "the gate" belongs to the pre-Mongol time, it becomes unclear why this gate in the sixteenth century was called Christmas99, and then come back to them the name of Ivanovo.

So we we believe that the name of Ivanov's gate" appeared only in the late sixteenth the beginning of the XVII century. Probably somewhere in this time the Church was located John the Baptist siltand IAONPA the theologian. (Perhaps it was destroyed in Soviet times, theological, then the Trinity, the Church, located on the site of the house No. 92A by the Great Moscow the street. This temple was first mentioned in the Patriarchal the tax book in 1656 for Ivanovo gateway100, therefore, existed in the past). In favor of this version demonstrated by the fact that most of the other surviving fragments Vladimir shafts in the New era is also called the dedications are near churches101.

So, to as the Eastern gate of the middle part of Vladimir became known as Ivanovo, they were called Christmas, and before that could (if the hypothesis is correct K. N. Tikhonravov and N. And. Artleben late the construction of the Eastern part of the city) to be called Silver. And yet, according to N. N. Voronin102, in the XVI century Silver gate was called Andrievskii whether in honor of their Creator, whether in honor of the dedication hypothetical gate Church. Again, we can only speculate, at which time such change of names might occur, and whether these existed names in parallel.

Remain open to the following questions:

how to if the Silver gate was located on the site of Ivanovo, was called the Eastern gate of the Eastern part of Vladimir;

how was called in pre-Mongol times Eastern gate the middle part of the city if the Silver gate was located somewhere on the Eastern tip of the Eastern part of Vladimir.

 

5. Copper and Asinine gate

 

Not less than the controversial issue is Copper and Ironing the gate.

In the already cited us the message of the Laurentian chronicle says that the Tartars "from the Golden gate at Holy Saviour , Unidose omen for Ceres the city and Sud from North countries from Lybid to Ariminum collar and Copper and Sud from the Klyazma river to Volga goal; and tacos soon usasa New grad"103. It turns out what Asinine and Copper gates are not identical. But in the Lviv chronicle, these are some and the same gate: "Taco same from Lybid in Originy gate in Meenie"104.

No matter different is the gateway or the same (which, for example, in everyday life could called Copper, and their gate Church was dedicated to St. Irene), the researchers had them in the Northern sector of the fortifications of Vladimir (cm. Il. 1, 4, 6). But this issue is controversial.

According To Lvov chronicle, the Tatars broke through the gates, which were located from the side of the Lybid river, and it could be not only the North, but the East. Therefore, these Copper-Irinyi the gate could be located anywhere in Vladimir from the North or East side. For example, if faithful to the example considered in section 4 version K. N. Tikhomirova N. And. Artleben that Silver gate was at the place N. N. Voronin was defined as Ivanovo, Copper-Irinyi could be on the place N. N. Voronin was defined as Silver.

And according to Laurentian chronicle, and Copper, and Asinine gate could not be located from the North the city: Tatars somewhere in the North only broke through the wall (in the same way how about the Golden gate), and then went to Iraninan and Copper shot which, consequently, could be located anywhere. For Example, Copper gates could be the Western gateway of the middle part of the city (in Chapter 2 we showed that at this place at Monomakh could be wooden Golden gate, and then the status of the gate after the construction of white stone Gold goal by Andrei Bogolyubsky could be reduced from "gold" to "copper"). In case of acceptance of this hypothesis we can assume that when Bogolyubsky immediately for the Golden gate on the main street Vladimir followed Copper, and on the other side there was a Silver, and it looked solemn and symbolic. And further Copper gate could be renamed in Trading (cm. p. 6).

Even if Copper gate was on the North side of the city, it is more controversial than that N. N. Voronin put them on your plan (ill. 1) actually in the moat. "Road circle city moat", which says inventory 1626105, could pass in the seventeenth century, when Vladimir fortress has been adapted exclusively for artillery and the remains of the moats had no defensive value, but in XIIXIII centuries ditches had to be filled with water or at least swampy, that is, the gate and the road from them, they could hardly be adapted (it was noted by V. P. Glazov106). Throughout visibility, N. N. Voronin, reconstructing pre-Mongol Vladimir-building, wanted to make the ascent is from Lybid perhaps more gentle and used natural ravine.

But Western part of the pre-Mongol Vladimir not so much overlooks the countryside for Lybid, and she Lybid is not so deep and wide that it was impossible post city gate anywhere and from them to make a bridge across the river. For example, the top of the Northern slope of the Western part of the city is situated at altitude in average 130 m above sea level, street Front Borovok 125 m the water's edge Lybid 122 m, the area for Lybid again 125 m107. At this elevation the construction of the bridge to the gate not would be big problems.

Plus Northern slopes of the plateau, on which is located the Western part of Vladimir, not so steep that they couldn't do the shoot even from the level of the Lybid river. For example, shoots even more the high hills to the gate were built in Kiev (Lyadsky gates), Moscow (Borovitsky gate), Lviv, Repalce, Vshizh , etc108

It was debatable whether the words of the Laurentian chronicle about the fact that the Tatars broke into "New town", refer only to the Western part of Vladimir. After all, the Eastern part of the city relative to its the middle part (and perhaps, as we have seen in section 2, and compared to their Western counterparts), too was new. Therefore, Copper and (or) Asinine gate could be not only in Western but also in Eastern part of the pre-Mongol Vladimir, where they were restored and L. V. Dudorova (cm. Il. 4) and L. D. Mazur (see ill. 6). And since the Eastern part of the city is situated at a lower altitude over Lybid than the Western (the average height above the level sea Northern sector of the Eastern part of the city on average 118 mthe water's edge Lybid 114 marea for Lybid again 118 m109), with accommodation there anywhere gate and device bridge over the Lybid would be even less of a problem.

In case, if the words of the Laurentian chronicle about the "New city" belonged to the Eastern part of Vladimir and if the hypothesis is correct K. N. Tikhonravov and N. And. Artleben about that the Silver gate stood on the site of Ivanovo, Copper and (or) Asinine gates could be travel East tower the East of the city, i.e. settle where N. N. Voronin was reconstructed Silver gate.

And gate Asinine N. N. Voronin has posted on his plan (ill. 1) in terms of residues of the shaft, see the "Drawing" of 1715 (ill. 5). But on the "Drawing" shows that it it is the remains of the shaft, so this section could appear by chance. Therefore, accommodation there Ironing gate (and especially not from the side of the Lybid river, and on the North side of the city, which, as we have seen above, it would be somehow justified) is essentially arbitrary110.

Attempts to bind the location of Copper and Ironing gate to the roads and streets of the New time not have a chance of success due to the instability of dirt roads and wooden urban development111. We talked about this in step 4.

Concluding the discussion about Copper and Ironing the gate, note that true if any of the hypotheses that they were the Western gateway of the middle part of Vladimir and (or) the Eastern gate the Eastern part of the city, we left open the question whether generally in pre-Mongol Vladimir Northern gate. Because, as we have seen in section 4, with roads to Suzdal and Yuriev-Polsky, this issue is not linked (these roads in XIIXIII centuries could, for example, lead respectively to the Eastern and Western extremities of the city112), we must admit, North gate could not be.

At all times the number the fortress gates were determined primarily by the balance between the following fortifications:

gates should not be too much, because they reduce the reliability of the fortifications and require supplementary protection;

gates should not be too little, because they allow the defenders to make raids.

How the balance between these requirements were provided in the pre-MongolVladimir, one can only speculate. For example, on the outer perimeter of the city fortifications of ancient Kiev there were only three gates of Gold, Lyadsky and Jewish (Lviv)113. So, it turns out, was on the outer perimeter of the pre-Mongol Vladimir excluding hypothetical Northern gateway: West (Gold), Eastern (controversial issues the location and name of which we have considered above) and South, which will be discussed in section 6.

Can to assume that if the North gate in Vladimir still existed, it could be not only Copper and (or) Asinine, but any of those that inventories of the seventeenth century mention how Frolovskaya(unreleased to the Lybid river and on the way the circle of the city moat"114), Nikita (probably located near Nikitsky Church in the Northwest corner of the Western part town115) and Epiphany (the location of which is unknown116). But this is nothing more than speculation.

 

6. Trading and Volga gate

 

We still have to consider controversial issues of location and names of two more pre-Mongol the Vladimir gate towers those N. N. Voronin said at my plan (ill. 1) as a Trading and Volga.

By assumption N. N. Voronin117, which we see absolutely fair, West gate Central part of the city could get the name of Trade after Vsevolod the Big Nest was moved Vladimir bargaining in this part the city, under the walls of the citadel118. But since these gates for the first time referred to as Trading only in the inventory 1626, we must clarify that this is the name could not be pre-Mongol. Even if to assume that renaming these gates in Trading occurred immediately after transfer of bargaining and, therefore, the Copper gates at the time of the Mongol invasion was located somewhere in other place, prior to transfer of the trade of the Western gate the middle part of the city were called not Trading, but as something else. In p. 2 we said that under Vladimir Monomakh this place could be a Gold gate.

Likely to transfer bargaining in the middle part of Vladimir bargaining was located, as in most ancient cities, river, "Podol". A large basin at the Klyazma river, over which towered Cathedral of the assumption and the Church George and Saviour, perfectly suited for bargaining, and the reasons for his transfer is possible only speculate. But for us now, fundamentally, together with bargaining could be immediately or gradually transferred and the name of the gate. Therefore, the gate indicated on the plan N. N. Voronin and in upamanyu The Laurentian Codex as the Volga (from the Klyazmato Volga goal,"119), originally could be called Trading.

This hypothesis will add one: the name of the Volga , these gates could get after Yuri Vsevolodovich founded Nizhny Novgorod and Vladimir opened a direct route to Central Volga on the Klyazmaand Oke. Previously, to get from Vladimir to the Volga river in its middle reaches, it was necessary climb the Klyazma Nerli, then dragged to drag a court in the Volga Nerl, then you can rappel, then along the Volga. This the path was much longer and heavier.

The hypothesis so far is and the specific location of the Volga. K. N. Tikhonravov assumed that they were on the site of the present Murom street, before pre-existing wooden bridge over the Klyazma river, that is just under the hill on which stands the Cathedral of the assumption120. N. N. Voronin has placed this gate on his plan (ill. 1) a little further from this the slope, on the center of the basin. In the absence of conclusive archaeological data both these versions have an equal right to exist. But convincing data archaeology may appear soon (or never appear): as we have already mentioned in section 4, the traces of wooden of substrokein the basis razed shafts is very difficult, often impossible to distinguish from traces wooden gate.

 

7. Vladimir citadel

 

It should be noted and controversial the topography is built by Vsevolod the Big Nest of Vladimir citadel.

The citadel, as established archaeological research N. N. Voronin, occupied the South-Western sector the middle part of Vladimir, we have included a hypothetical "top" the fortress, which we discussed in section 2.

Laid the citadel was in 1194: "That summer was laid by Prince Vsevolod the Detinets in hail Volodimer month of June in 4 day121. In 1196, was built the Church of Joachim and Anna " citadel on Vortech"122. Excavations N. N. Voronin 1936-1937, found the base of the white stone gate and white stone walls, adjacent to the East and West123. To East of the apse of St. Demetrius Cathedral when planning work 1954 found the remains of another white stone walls, interpreted as possible mark the Eastern edge of the citadel124.

Hypothetical outline citadel N. N. Voronin showed on his plan (ill. 1). In favor of the position N. N. Voronin said that the Dmitrievsky Cathedral apses still traced the remains of the slope of the ravine that could define the Eastern edge citadel.

After some investigation historical topography of the South-Western sector of the middle part of Vladimir, T. P. Timofeeva suggested125that since the citadel, in addition to the Episcopal court that included princes court at St. Demetrius Cathedral it is possible that the citadel was occupied by the East side much larger area than assumed N. N. Voronin.

Researcher justified its position by the fact that East of the proposed boundaries of the citadel, between Dmitrievsky Cathedral and Christmas monastery in 1993 was made the excavation discovered a layer of pre-Mongolian time the remains of two wooden buildings XIIXIII centuries. among the findings were fragments of stained glass, Eastern glazed ceramics, copper gilt relief overlay in the form of a dragon or a Griffin, and a bronze icon of XIV century. T. P. Timofeeva thought it was the stuff of princes appliances, and noted that this quarter plan Vladimir 1769 shows "the first place of the former princely houses where now the old state-owned provincial house wooden"126.

Since the continuity from the princely yard to the voivodship is quite natural, the researcher believed that the Eastern side of the citadel bordered with almost Christmas monastery127. However, in this case remains strange, the remains of which the white stone walls were discovered during planning works 1954.

As for Northern the walls of the citadel, it is, according to T. P. Timofeeva128, began from the gate to the Church of Joachim and Anna, and passed, what is included in the composition of the citadel of the Church of Boris and Gleb and the Governor's quarter house (provincial court). It is even possible that the North wall of the citadel appeared on main street of the city, like the North wall of the Nativity monastery.

In connection with the above, we can state that the issue of clarifying and Eastern the Northern borders of the citadel remains relevant today. Unknown what were fortifications of the citadel from the West and South just whether the fragments citywide fortifications, or any special wall, maybe too white stone? The answers to all these questions can be given only by new archaeological findings.

Only new excavations can help to clarify whether in pre-Mongol time own fortifications at St. Vladimir urban monasteries Christmas and Knyaginin.

 

Conclusion

 

So, we researched different versions of time and sequence the bottom of the Western, middle and Eastern parts of pre-MongolVladimir, the city gate location, if the town is fortified princely courts Yuri Dolgoruky and Andrei Bogolyubsky, and the original fortress on the site of an ancient settlement. On a number of contentious issues we have proposed and substantiated. In addition, we have specified the length and the height of the trees Vladimir fortifications of the XIIXIII centuries.

We have to say that today it is impossible with any degree of certainty about the periods of construction and the precise contours of the pre-Mongol fortifications of Vladimir, nor about the location and the appearance of all of the Vladimir gate of the fortress of the XIIXIII centuries, in addition to Gold, built by Andrei Bogolyubsky.

The historic topography of the pre-Mongol Vladimir, despite the large number of dedicated to her scientific works and archaeological investigations continue remained open.

 

NOTES

 

1. Voronin N. N. The architecture of North-Eastern Russia XIIXV centuries. M., 1961-1962. Vol. 1. S. 129.

2. For example, cm.: Ancient urbanism of the XXV centuries. Under the General editorship of N. F. The gulyanitskii. M., 1993. S. 167; PilyavskiyV. I., TIC A. A., Ushakov S. History of Russian architecture. Tutorial. L., 1984. S. 134. In the latter case, the plan pre-Mongol Vladimir N. N. Voronin provides even without reference to the author. The author of this study had also took this plan without critical evaluation (see Zagraevsky S. V. New study of architectural monuments of Vladimir-Suzdal Museum-reserve. M., 2008. Il. 45).

3. Meeting GUSS, NV-9351, 1980.

4. For example, cm. reconstruction of O. V. Grishchuk in the book: Ancient urbanism... P. 174-175.

5. Voronin N. N. Architecture... Vol. 1. S. 131.

6. Ibid.

7. Ibid.

8. The measurements were conducted using a computer the program "Google Earth".

9. Voronin N. N. Architecture... Vol. 1. S. 131.

10. Ibid. S. 40.

11. Reconstruction of AV Stoletov given in the book.: Timofeeva T. P. Golden gate in Vladimir. M., 2002. S. 25.

12. Glazov, V. P., In the summer 6616-e (to the topography of Vladimir) // On the native land. People, history, life, nature of Vladimir land. Yaroslavl, 1978. S. 32.

13. For example, cm. reconstruction of O. V. Grishchuk in the book: Old Russian town planning... With 174-175.

14. Voronin N. N. Architecture... Vol. 1. S. 40.

15. According To "The Life Of Abraham Of Rostov", during the life of the monk on the areas of Rostov stood idols (Life of ven. Abraham Rostov // old Russian tradition (XIXVI centuries.), 1982. P. 137). According to V. O. Klyuchevsky, Abraham lived in the end of the XI century http://www.pravenc.ru/text/62956.html). But, whatever reality and life time of Abraham, hardly Monomakh, who ruled North-Eastern Rus from Kiev and have played there only sporadically, could bring until the end of the process of colonization and Christianization distant Zalesky lands.

16. Voronin N. N. Architecture... Vol. 1. S. 140.

17. Ibid. S. 41.

18. Ibid.

19. Sedova M. V. Suzdal in the XXV centuries. M., 1997. S. 52.

20. Cm. Website www.dmitrov.su.

21. Ovsyannikov O. V. Fortified manor XIVXV centuries, as the monuments of military architecture of the Russian North. In the book: Brief reports The Institute of archaeology. Vol. 172. P. 97-104.

22. Cm. Website http://pinskhistory.by.ru.

23. Mazurov A. B. the location of the citadel and the size of Kolomna in the XIIXIII centuries // local history note. Sat. scientific works of Kolomenskoye Museum. Kolomna, 2001. S. 28.

24. Voronin N. N. Architecture... Vol. 1. S. 135; Mazur , L. D. Strengthening the Kremlin and tenements in Vladimir XVII century // Academic journal of Uralniiproect RAASN. No. 2, 2012. P. 46.

25. For example, here is Palestine, where the poor, desolate and uninhabited region, in the conditions of constant wars with the Muslims, XII century was built more than two hundred stone fortresses. An example of one of them the fortifications of Acre (Akko), which consisted of a system of double walls converging at a right angle and components in terms of a right-angled triangle, the base of which served as sea. Each of the walls had a length of about 500 m and had twelve powerful towers. At the point the meeting of East and North of the inner wall (northeast corner fortifications) there was a huge round tower of Henry". Before the city walls there were deep moats, and ditches before, covering the message of the city with the outside world by land towers stood, surrounded by moats. All the walls were fitted with internal corridors with loopholes. And Northern suburbs of Acre, Memuser, also was fortified by a double stone wall with towers.

26. Voronin N. N. Architecture... Vol. 1. S. 140.

27. Yushko A. A. Moscow land IXXIV centuries. M., 1991. S. 97.

28. Glazov, V. P., In the summer 6616-e... P. 36.

29. Voronin N. N. From the early history of Vladimir and his boroughs // Soviet archaeology, 1959, No. 4, pp. 74-81.

30. Read more cm.: Zagraevsky S. V. Yuri Dolgoruky and old white-stone architecture. M., 2001. S. 82.

31. Detected in due time the author of this study tilt of the head temple of 2.5 degrees to the East (not South, i.e. not in the side of the cliff) was not associated with a landslide, and with the fire in 1185 (for more, see: Zagraevsky S. V. Uspensky Cathedral in Vladimir: some of the architectural history // to the memory of Andrei Bogolyubsky. Sat. articles. Moscow Vladimir, 2009. P. 95).

32. This clarification N. N. Voronin (see Voronin N. N. Architecture... Vol.1. S. 448)

33. The Russian Chronicles. Vol. 12. Laurentian chronicle. Ryazan, 2001. S. 440.

34. The Russian Chronicles. Vol. 5. Lviv chronicle. Ryazan, 1999. S. 204.

35. For example, cm.: Gordeev S. P. the founding of the city of Vladimir // To the question about the founding date of Vladimir. Vladimir, 1992. Pp. 39-43; To the question of the date of the base g. Vladimir. Vladimir, 1992; Kuznetsov A. A. To the study of the chronicle dates the Foundation of Vladimir-on-Klyazma // Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk state University. No. 1, 2011.

36. For example, cm.: Voronin N. N. Vladimir-Suzdal land XXII century // problems of pre-capitalist history societies. No. 5-6, 1935; Voronin N. N. Vladimir. M., 1945. S. 5; Voronin N. N. Social topography of Vladimir XIIXIII centuries and "drawing" 1715 g. // Soviet archaeology, 1946. Vol. VIII; Voronin N. N. From early the history of Vladimir and its surroundings // Soviet archaeology, 1959. No. 4; Voronin N. N. Architecture... T. 1. C. 42.

37. Aboutthe TAS K chronicle reports, telling about the founding of the city of Vladimir the Baptist, in particular, given: Gordeev P. S. the Decree. withPTS.

38. The Russian Chronicles. Vol. 5. Lviv chronicle. Ryazan, 1999. S. 134.

39. Tikhomirov, M. N. Little-known chronicle monuments // Historical archive. T. VII. M., 1951. S. 210.

40. Voronin N. N. Architecture... Vol. 1. S. 39.

41. Tikhomirov, M. N. Little-known chronicle monuments... S. 208.

42. "Tatariv... from the Golden gate of the Holy Saviour of Unidose omen for Ceres city, and Sud from the North of the country from Lybid to Ariminum collar and Copper and Sud from the Klyazmato Volga goal; and tacos soon usasa New grad" (the Russian Chronicles. Vol. 12. Laurentian chronicle. Ryazan, 2001. P. 334.)

43. Nikolaev B. P. New in historical topography the ancient city of Vladimir // Proceedings of the regional conference, dedicated to 100-anniversary from birthday of N. N. Voronin. Vladimir, 2004. S. 158. According to the researcher, monomials, and founded the Western part of the city, built a fortress that had only its most elevated part, and slopes to the Klyazma river and the riverine area of this part of Vladimir entered part of the fortress, built by Andrei Bogolyubsky. For confirm its position B. P. Nikolaev attracted the name of this the area in the XVIII century "China town" and believed that this is due to the fact that pagan by the name of Andrew was "China": this name is writing, in particular. "Kievan synopsis" (Sapozhnikov, O. J., I. Y. Sapozhnikova Dream about Russian unity. Kievan synopsis (1674). M., 2010. CH. 65). From this name B. P. Nikolaev deduced, and the name of Kiev Kitaeva desert and Moscow Kitai-Gorod (B. P. Nikolaev Decree. withPTS. P. 162). But this version of ancient origin "China-towns"no more convincing than many other versions (from "whales" - the fence, from Italian "withitta" the citadel, from the Turkic word "Cathay" is a city, fortress, English "city" the city, etc.)

44. Voronin N. N. Architecture... Vol. 1. S. 44.

45. CIT. by the book: Voronin N. N. Architecture... Vol. 1. S. 42.

46. Ibid. S. 42.

47. The Russian Chronicles. Vol. 12. Laurentian chronicle. Ryazan, 2001. S. 334.

48. PSRL, vol. IX. Annalistic collection called Patriarchal or Nikon chronicle. Ed. 3-E. M., 2000. S. 211.

49. Nikolaev B. P. Decree. withPTS. P. 159-162.

50. MazurL. D. The strengthening of the Kremlin and Posada... P. 45.

51. These reports see: Nikolaev B. P. Decree. withPTS. S. 160; Mazur , L. D. Strengthening the Kremlin and Posada Vladimir P... 45.

52. Voronin N. N. Architecture... Vol. 1. S. 129.

53. PSRL. Typographical chronicle. T. XXIV. PG, 1921. S. 39. In the decree. withPTS. B. P. Nikolaev (p. 160) on this record unknown reasons called a "Topographic".

54. PSRL, vol. XVII. Supralskii list. St. Petersburg, 1907. C. 1.

55. Nikolaev B. P. Decree. withPTS. P.162.

56. The measurements were conducted using a computer the program "Google Earth".

57. Nikolaev B. P. Decree. withPTS. P.162.

58. K. Tikhonravov City of Vladimir in the early eighteenth century. HBV, 1871. No. 15; The Artleben N. Vladimir the Kremlin is a city in opinoi book 1626 g. Yearbook of Vladimir gubernia statistics Committee. T. II. Vladimir, 1878.

59. PSRL, vol. IX. Annalistic collection referred to as Patriarchal or Nikon chronicle. Ed. 3-E. M., 2000. S. 211.

60. Voronin N. N. From the early history... P. 76; Voronin N. N. Architecture... T. 1. C. 39.

61. The measurements were conducted using the computer program "Google Earth".

62. Voronin N. N. Architecture... Vol. 1. P. 46

63. Mokeev G. Y. Three Of Vladimir. Three center for the spread of Christianity in the Russian land. The article is on the website http://www.voskres.ru/school/3vladim.html. Date of article not specified; B. P. Nikolaev Decree. withPTS. S. 157.

64. Nikolaev B. P. Decree. withPTS. S. 157. The researcher referred to some "stories the indigenous inhabitants of Vladimir" about the caves and underground tunnels under the Vladimir, in which leads the hatch in the floor of the Dormition Cathedral. But these stories can be considered no more than urban legend, as they are not confirmed by any archaeological data surveys or other in situ studies of the Cathedral, conducted by including the author of this study.

65. The Russian Chronicles. Vol. 12. Laurentian chronicle. Ryazan, 2001. S. 440.

66. Ibid.

67. The Russian Chronicles. Vol. 5. Lviv chronicle. Ryazan, 1999. S. 204.

68. Voronin N. N. Architecture... Vol. 1. S. 91-92.

69. Lemons J. A. Vladimir-Suzdal Rus. Essays socio-political history. L., 1987. S. 20.

70. Voronin N. N. Architecture... Vol. 1. S. 200.

71. The Russian Chronicles. Vol. 12. Laurentian chronicle. Ryazan, 2001. S. 330.

72. Voronin N. N. Architecture... Vol. 1. S. 128.

73. The Russian Chronicles. Vol. 12. Laurentian chronicle. Ryazan, 2001. S. 334.

74. Voronin N. N. Architecture... Vol. 1. S. 128.

75. Nikolaev B. P. Decree. withPTS. P. 162. Details this version of the Explorer we considered in the note. 43.

76. PSRL, vol. IX. Chronicle the collection, referred to as Patriarchal or Nikon chronicle. Ed. 3-E. M., 2000.S. 211.

77. The Russian Chronicles. T. 11. Ipatiev chronicle. Ryazan, 2001. S. 395.

78. The Russian Chronicles. Vol. 12. Laurentian chronicle. Ryazan, 2001. S. 334.

79. Glazov, V. P., In the summer 6616-e... P. 38. Researcher cites the following sources: extract from the census books Vladimir 1646 about the courts and the lands of the Cathedral in the city, suburbs and settlements. The Message K. Tikhonravov. HBV, 1878, No. 7; the ArtlebenN. And. The Vladimir Kremlin-city opinoi book 1626, IWGSC, 1878.

80. RGADA. F. 1209. Op. 1. Part 2. KN. 12611. L. 76-76 about.

81. Voronin N. N. Architecture... Vol. 1. S. 515.

82. The Russian Chronicles. T. 11. Ipatiev chronicle. Ryazan, 2001. S. 395.

83. On "parade" to the status of the Golden gate Bogolyubsky detail cm.: Zagraevsky C. V. To the refinement of the reconstruction of Golden gate in Vladimir. M., 2008. Article is on the web-site http://zagraevsky.com/goldengates.htm.

84. Read more cm.: Zagraevsky S. V. Architect Frederick Barbarossa // "Glory decent..." Andrey Bogolyubsky in Russian history and culture. International scientific conference. Vladimir, 5-6 July 2011. Vladimir, 2013. P. 184-195.

85. Ants A. N. Lives of the saints of the Russian Church, also Iverand Slavic, St. Petersburg, 1859.

86. For example, the author of this the study showed a number of inconsistencies with earlier sources in the Life of Andrei Bogolyubsky" in the following scientific works: Zagraevsky C. V. To the question on the reconstruction and Dating of the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl // regional Materials the regional conference (April 20-21 2007.). Vladimir, 2008. Vol. 2. P. 3-12; Zagraevsky C. V. To the question about the origin of the nickname of Prince Andrei Bogolyubskyand the name of the city Bogolyubov // proceedings of the XVIII international studies conference (April 19 2013.). Vladimir, 2014.

87. Voronin N. N. Architecture... Vol. 1. S. 515.

88. Glazov, V. P., In the summer 6616-e... P. 36; Dudorova L. V. New data about the location of the ancient gates in the ancient city of Vladimir // Soviet Archaeology. 1980. No. 4. S. 282.

89. V. P. Glazov (Glazov, V. P. In the summer 6616-e... P. 32) and L. V. Dudarova (Dudorova L. V. New data about the location ancient gates... P. 282), for unknown reasons, given the same plan pre-Mongol Vladimir without reference to the author, so we conventionally believe its owned by both researchers.

90. The scheme of the battle, see the Internet site http://.p/shemy/istorija/beskrovnyi-l-g-atlas-kart-i-shem-po-ruskoi-voenoi-istori-1946-g/71.html.

91. The measurements were conducted using a computer the program "Google Earth".

92. For Example, T. P. Timofeeva (T. P. Timofeeva Architecture of the time of Andrey Bogolyubsky // To The Memory Of Andrei Bogolyubsky. Sat. articles. Moscow Vladimir, 2009. P. 18) notice that, in the opinion the local historian of the XIX century N. Astrovtsova (Of Astroverb N. Historical description of the Bogolyubov monastery. Vladimir, 1875. P. 47-50) in Suzdal from Vladimir in ancient times went through the East gate, only after Bogolyubov turning to the North. Not based on the Assembly and archaeological information, the opinion of the historian of the XIX century about pre-Mongol time can not be a little bit of convincing, but can be used as an additional illustration shows us the instability of ancient road network.

93. N. N. Voronin wrote that wooden constructii in Vladimir shafts absent (Voronin N. N. Architecture... Vol.1. P. 131), but research V. P. Glazov identified a large the number of the Gorodnya inside shafts (Glazov, V. P., In summer 6616-e... P. 31-33).

94. Glazov, V. P., In the summer 6616-e... P. 36.

95. Dudorova L. V. New data about the location ancient gates... P. 282.

96. Mazur , L. D. Russian city XIXVIII centuries the land of Vladimir. M., 2008. S. 30, 75.

97. K. Tikhonravov City of Vladimir in the early eighteenth century. HBV, 1871. No. 15; The Artleben N. Vladimir the Kremlin is a city in opinoi book 1626 g. Yearbook of Vladimir gubernia statistics Committee. T. II. Vladimir, 1878.

98. Voronin N. N. Architecture... Vol. 1. S. 41.

99. Ibid. S. 515.

100. Cm. Website http://russian-church.ru/viewpage.php?cat=vladimir&page=101.

101. V. P. Glazov (Glazov, V. P., In the summer 6616-e... P. 41) described the remnants of Vladimir fortifications in the late nineteenth century by P. A. Subbotin (Subbotin A. P. Provincial Vladimir city in 1877. HBV, No. 46, 1881): "The ancient monuments mostly religious, then the ramparts surrounding the actual the city for hundreds of miles; these shafts in height from 15 to 20 feet ( of the city)... the biggest shaft of goats, or cows, 1 des. 575 fathoms, there is an arc to the right, adjacent Galaski the shaft 300 square meter. On Kozlova shaft in 1868 installed tank urban water, separated from him closer to Klyazma the bridge shaft (premostovali) in 440 fathoms. Theatrical shaft in 1273 square sagenes. andchildren from left The Golden gate to the passage against the 2nd Nikolskaya street, at its sole sheltered the house and the pond, in the old days he proceeded to the convent, but the second half razed (600 square fathoms.) in the late 60-ies, and in the place something is arranged like square. Next is upland shaft (300 square fathoms.) about the convent in the Kremlin from the fountain, the Trinity the shaft (1 des. 565 sq soot.) in two of the ledge; it caught the stones from the old tower; from him wraps along Lybid Lubezki the shaft (420 square sagenes.), and then Filthy, just Filthy pond, from which to the South Ivanovo shaft 1585 square sagenes. dabout Nativity monastery, these ramparts encircle Trinity street); for Ivanovo the bridge remained two shafts to the North of Sakuteiki(1056 square sagenes.), the slope of the Varvarinskoye the street and to the South Theological shaft".

102. Voronin N. N. Architecture... Vol. 1. S. 128.

103. The Russian Chronicles. Vol. 12. Laurentian chronicle. Ryazan, 2001. S. 440.

104. The Russian Chronicles. Vol. 5. Lviv chronicle. Ryazan, 1999. S. 204. Observation on the possible identity Copper and Ironing gates has made it even N. N. Voronin (Voronin N. N. Architecture... Vol.1. S. 515), that did not stop him to reconstruct these gates separately (see. Il. 1).

105. Glazov, V. P., In the summer 6616-e... P. 38.

106. Ibid.

107. The measurements were conducted using a computer the program "Google Earth".

108. Reconstruction of the pre-Mongol form of these cities is given in the book.: Old Russian town planning P... 76-95.

109. The measurements were conducted using a computer the program "Google Earth".

110. V. P. Glazov assumed as arbitrarily: "we Can assume the place (Copper gate Sz) in the territory the Excavation of the city also from the North, but travel between Monastic and Borowiecki shafts, where the leaves on Gagarina street sarabetsu part of the city (formerly Tsaritsyn street). Asinine the gates stood, obviously near Copper gate, the output of Monastyrskaya street near Dormition of the Knyaginin monastery (now the street of Ilyich) via The Upper Living Room. Asinine the gates were probably small, wooden, and served for entry in Knyaginin monastery" (Glazov, V. P., In summer 6616-e... P.38).

111. For example, L. V. Dudorova wrote: "From modern Erofeev descent starts on the road Yuryev-Polsky. Here, undoubtedly, was also some kind of gate. All the researchers placed here Asinine gate (actually N. N. Voronin put here a Copper gate Sz). Where would be taken out of the Copper gate, if their post Nikita descent? No roads coming out outside of Vladimir, was never here. At the same time, in addition to the above roads, of Vladimir was one of Suzdal. Modern Suzdal street a small section of it, starting almost at Lybid. The nearest exit on it Ivanovo descent (now the street Asimov). It is highly possible that at the end of this descent and was a Copper gate. (Dudorova L. V. New data on the whereabouts of the ancient gates... P. 284). The confidence with which the researcher talks about the pre-Mongol the roads, has no basis.

112. We have already mentioned that, according to the local historian of the nineteenth century N. Astrovtsova (Of Astroverb N. Decree. withPTS.) in Suzdal from Vladimir in ancient times went through the East gate, only after Bogolyubov turning to the North.

113. Ancient urbanism... P.87.

114. Glazov, V. P., In the summer 6616-e... P. 38.

115. Mazur , L. D. Strengthen The Kremlin and Posada... P. 48.

116. L. D. Mazur assumed that this gate was located in the southern line of fortifications, and were to Klyazma one Epiphany churches. But the researcher herself was also pointed out that this is only assumptions, as the Epiphany of churches in Vladimir was a lot (Mazur , L. D. Strengthening the Kremlin and Posada... P.48).

117. Voronin N. N. Architecture... Vol. 1. S. 545.

118. Ibid. P.347.

119. The Russian Chronicles. Vol. 12. Laurentian chronicle. Ryazan, 2001. S. 334.

120. K. Tikhonravov City of Vladimir in the early eighteenth century. HBV, 1871. No. 15.

121. PSRL. T. I. Stlb. 441.

122. PSRL. T. X. S. 23, 29, 30; T. XX. P. 140; Vol XXIII. C. 56.

123. Voronin N. N. Architecture... Vol. 1. P. 448-454.

124. Ibid. S. 445.

125. Timofeeva T. P. Historical topography Vladimir citadel. Publ. in redundant. the form in the book: The Kremlin Of Russia. Materials and research. Abstracts of reports at the all-Russian Symposium "Kremlin of Russia (23-26 November 1999 of the year). M., 2003. Completely this article is posted on the Internet site http://rusarch.ru/timofeeva5.htm.

126. Baranov, Alexandr Andreevich. F. VOIE. D. 21824. About the Dating of the plan of cm.: Timofeeva T. P. Architectural appearance of the city of Vladimir on figure 1764. // The PCNL. M., 1994.

127. Timofeeva T. P. Historical topography Vladimir citadel...

128. Ibid.

 

Sergey Zagraevsky

 

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