Prof. Dr. S.V. Zagraevsky
The Church of the Holy Trinity, now of the Intersession of the Holy Virgin, –
the first stone hipped roof
Published in Russian: Заграевский С.В. Троицкая, ныне Покровская, церковь в Александровской Слободе
– первый каменный шатровый храм Древней Руси. Новые исследования. Электронная публикация:
электронная научная библиотека «РусАрх»,
Generalized architectural, archaeological and annalistic evidences in favor of Dating hipped Trinity (now Intercession) church in Alexandrov Sloboda by 1510-s are provided. It is confirmed that this church was the first ancient stone hipped-roof temple.
The following text was translated from the Russian original by the computer program
and has not yet been edited.
So it can be used only for general introduction.
The monuments of ancient architecture of the Alexander Settlement attracted the attention of scientists throughout the twentieth century, and the most extensive and fruitful research on this unique the architectural complex of the XVI-XVII centuries are associated with the name kavelmahera1. In 1980-1990-ies he conducted a series of excavations and soundings revealed fundamental fact: in the Settlement during the reign of Vasily III, 1510-ies, in one building the period were erected following extant temples together with all the complex of Palace chambers:
- Pokrovsky, now Trinity Cathedral (Il. 1; in the future, we will without reservation to call it Pokrovsky);
Il. 1. Alexandrovskaya Sloboda. Pokrovsky (now Trinity) Cathedral.
Il. 2. Alexander Sloboda. Trinity (now intercession) Church.
Il. 3. Alexandrovskaya Sloboda.
Il. 4. Alexandrovskaya Sloboda. Crucifixion tower.
The basis for Dating these temples by Vasily III - the first
construction period Sloboda - was the message "Trinity chronicle, speaking
about the completion of the Grand-Ducal court: "Summer 7021 October
Kavelmaher, Dating all these temples Sloboda one construction period -
1510-mi years - noted materials (brick and white stone) similar conditions, homogeneous
binder, identical connecting iron, mixed masonry technique, proximity
stylistics the first temples of the Alexander Settlement to the style
italianicious the Kremlin cathedrals of Ivan III and Vasily III,4,
single italianicious "graphic" style of Russian court architecture
XVI century, with the use of the same, clearly unified, units and parts -
trough panels, sets of profiles plinths crowning rods and caps. Laying all the
temples were originally the open character is not painted and not bleached,
tinted white gesso only some made of brick elements. All speakers white stone
elements were bonded with the same type of brackets. All the temples (for with
the exception of the pillars of the
Reasoning Kavelmahera about the involvement of the construction of the
first temples Sloboda was fairly accepted by all researchers as a comprehensive6,
although the Dating of the first temples Sloboda
First, it is necessary to clarify some of the intercession Cathedral -
stone or wood - it is told in quoted message "Trinity chronicle. There
were four buildings (the gate of the fortress of Troitse-Sergieva Lavra, the
Church in the village Klementyev, gate the
Of course, just forget to make the necessary clarification to the building material princely temple the chronicler could hardly. Much more likely that such clarification and not required - the same as was required clarification with respect, for example, construction materials of the assumption Cathedral of Aristotle Fioravanti, Arkhangelsk Cathedral of Aleviz New or the Trinity Cathedral of the Trinity-Sergius Lavra. What the main Cathedral of the Grand-Ducal residence, the Alexander Settlement was stone, it was clear the "default". Thus, we are obliged to believe that the message "Trinity chronicle says about consecration in 1513 it stone of the Cathedral of intercession.
Secondly, held in 2005 author of the study of visual-tactile construction analysis the technique showed in the intercession Cathedral, Trinity and assumption churches, churches Metropolitan Alexei, we see the "soft", "warm" masonry, characteristic brick buildings of the Moscow Kremlin of the turn of the XV and XVI centuries, and the Cathedral of St. Peter the Metropolitan of vysokopetrovsky monastery (1514-1517 years). Typical mortar - with extremely high binding capacity, with a very low content of lime sand and other impurities. Numerous white stone ornaments and Settlement, and the Kremlin were carved so that it seems as if stone "breathes". In the Cathedral of St. Peter the Metropolitan brick decor, and Settlement, was covered with gesso "under the white stone".
Unlike above-mentioned buildings, Crucifixion tower built of "dry", "overheated" bricks, crumbling easily a solution with a high admixture of sand. Similar brick at a similar solution, built the Cathedral of the Intercession on the Moat. White stone decor Crucifixion bell also carved, as at the Cathedral of the Intercession on the Moat, - hard, geometric, "dry".
And Crucifixion the bell tower and the Cathedral of the Intercession on the Moat builders used along with iron bonds of wood. In the churches of the Intercession, Trinity, assumption and Metropolitan Alexei Alexandrovskaya Sloboda all connections made entirely of iron high quality9.
Thirdly, the bell tower Alexander Settlement, as we have noted, was built for two construction periods. This is proved by the following provisions:
and style, and the performance of the decoration, and masonry, and
mortar of the
- examination of the author this study in 2005, the second tier of the
- familiarization with the soundings V. Kagelmacher made in places of an adjunction of pylons Crucifixion the bell tower of the facades of the Church of Metropolitan Alexei, shows that at the moment building pillars of the Church of Metropolitan Alexei was time to "grow into the ground about half a meter. Theoretically it could happen within a relatively short time (in the case of targeted sprinklings of ground), but in this the case is extremely unlikely, as we will see below that about the same the cultural layer had time to rise and around Trinity Church by the time of its construction Western extension;
- soundings V. Kagelmacher inside stair projection Crucifixion bell is seen that the junction of walls and pylons Crucifixion the bell tower on uncovered by probing the fragments of white stone plinth and obliviscence brick decor of the Church of Metropolitan Alexei traces weathering, which could not manage to appear in a decade or two.
Of the above it follows that between the erection of the
Fourthly, after the construction of the Trinity Church to its Western facade was added additional new section, which consisted, like the preceding, from the chamber, Podkrepa and the basement (house was completely rebuilt in 168010). Kavelmaher led convincing arguments in favor of the fact that these additions were built much later (not less than a few decades) after Trinity temple:
- unlike the two old sectional volumes, a new section was given a different planned decision (square, blocked in the direction North-South torispherical arch cellar; dual, split longitudinal wall of the basement) and a different interpretation of the volumes;
- seliga dismantled in 1680 vault chamber reached the Church of the cornice and cut into it;
- a new section was laid on other than
- extension belonged to lower culture construction11.
Consequently, there is the situation is similar to that discussed above in connection with the restructuring of the Church of Alexei Metropolitan: we are obliged to refer the building West of the house with cellar and the basement to the second construction period Sloboda, and the construction of the Trinity the Church is to first construction period, i.e. 1510 years.
Thus, we have independent documentary, architectural and archaeological
data on the construction in 1510-ies of the Pokrovsky Cathedral,
Let's not forget the fact, V. V. Kavelmaher regardless of all the
above data showed that the temples Cover Trinity of Metropolitan Alexei and the
assumption were built in one construction period. This argument, unlike all
previous ones, cannot be called self-sufficient, but unambiguous Dating
All of the above gives us the right to believe that the Dating of the
first temples Sloboda
S. S. podjapolsky wrote that Dating monuments of Alexandrov Sloboda
1510-ies "is contrary to established the views on the development of
architecture of Moscow Russia of the XVI century"12,
"negates almost all of the existing views on the development of
architectural types and stylistics of Russian architecture of the XVI
century"13. Perhaps approval
In addition to subject review the local theory and the history of
ancient architecture (unusual for the beginning of the XVI century Cathedral with
two adjacent chapels, the device portals with curved side walls in the form
deployed scrolls, panels with a characteristic angular wedges, primitive
classic profiles, no descrepancy cornice pilasters, etc.)14, there
is one global question about the first ancient stone Terem temple. The
first Church marquee in
A later date the Church Ascension compared to
To quote what I wrote about
It is the "archaeological" the argument and was in recent
years put forward by the supporters of the "classical" theory the
Genesis of the old Russian tent-roofed architecture. According to this argument,
the main volume of
However, we called this the argument that appeared in the twentieth century, "archaeological" only conditionally: no any architectural and archaeological research is not based. For the first time this possibility was admitted (at least not excluded) by V. Kavelmaherom in one of his earliest works, however, in the future the researcher clearly were in favor of the simultaneous construction monument:
" researchers realized that the
incompatibility of the "late" tent with enough obvious signs of
"early" and even "very early" architecture. As a result
scientists began to make cautious assumptions about possible two construction
stages in the life of the monument. The latter, who for some time was divided
this point of view, was the author of this article, printing and speaking out
about the likely lay a tent in the oprichnina period of Settlement18.
However, in the study of the monument with scaffolding this hypothesis has
disappeared by itself:
But Kavelmaher in his works did not specify exactly how he identified denouement of the monument. This created an information gap to fill and which is intended the present study.
Theoretically, there are two options of what could be
Il. 6. The interior of
In 2011 the author of this research with the kind assistance of the management and staff the Museum "Alexandrovskaya Sloboda" held high the stairs Naturno examination of the upper part of the quadrangle and the tent of Trinity Church. This survey showed the following.
First, and above and below any of the three cornices crowning the square (octagonal top, below round, below again octagonal, see ill. 6) any signs of shifting no. Under the upper cornice of the only visible signs of specific construction of reception (in order to strengthen the octagon, a would to withstand the enormous weight of the tent, lintels of the Windows of the octagon were not made of brick and large white-stone blocks (ill. 7), and since the dimensions of these blocks did not correspond to the dimensions of the bricks, builders in some cases filled the void the same blocks and unevenly laid bricks - yl. 8).
Il. 7. The interior of Trinity Church. White stone lintel above the window of the octagon.
Il. 8. The interior of Trinity Church. White stone blocks under the eaves of the octagon.
Simple and rough (on C. S. Asa, "primitivization"20) profiles of all three eaves (ill. 6) so similar that it is impossible not to conclude that their belonging to the same masters. The walls themselves eaves is solid and in no way violated.
In order to ensure the correctness of these observations, the author roofs with Western Commerce held a additional examination of the outer masonry of the upper part of the quadrangle and of the octagon under the tent. This examination also revealed no traces of resurfacings. Technology of masonry and profiles of exterior cornices are fully consistent internal (ill. 9).
Il. 9. Trinity Church. Fragments of the upper part of the quadrangle, the kokoshnik and the octagon.
Secondly, in the interior Trinity Church was held visual-tactile analysis free of frescoes masonry tent and the octagon. Additionally, the interior was inspected masonry the lower parts of the quadrangle (in the polling kavelmahera, Il. 10), and the outside, from the roofs of the Western chamber, is the octagonal and the upper parts of the quadrangle.
Il. 10. Trinity Church. A fragment of the lower part of the quadrangle. Sondage Kavelmahera.
The analysis showed that tent, and octagon, and the quadrangle of Trinity Church and with internal and external the sides are folded in identical technique of masonry:
- brick in all these parts the temple is large, almost equal in size:
the average size of 7 x 12 x
- uneven masonry, often unsystematic (ill. 7 and 8);
- in all these bricks parts of the temple are very high quality, optimum firing;
- the solution in all these parts of the temple are very high quality, with high content of lime.
This technique of masonry completely identical to the masonry of the
Church of Metropolitan Alexei and the Pokrovsky Cathedral, analysis of masonry
which was conducted by the author in 2005 and 2011 (ill. 10, 11), the only
difference is the brick on the "front" of the West facade of the Cathedral
of intercession laid more systematically and more accurately sized (tolerance
does not exceed
Il. 11. The Church Of Metropolitan Alexei. A fragment of masonry.
Il. 12. Pokrovsky Cathedral. A fragment of the Western façade.
In General, studies 2011 year confirmed research findings 2005 that the laying of the first and subsequent construction periods of the Alexander Settlement differs greatly by period and almost identical within the same period. And masonry quadrangle, the octagon and the tent of Trinity Church unambiguously classifies them first construction period - the beginning of the XVI century.
Thus, new studies of the tent of Trinity Church in Alexandrov Sloboda showed that he modern its the main volume, built in 1510-ies. Therefore, based on the data architecture and archaeology is the fact that this Church - the first ancient stone tent-roofed Church, not subject to revision.
1. Detail see: kavelmaher Century Monuments of ancient Alexandrova Sloboda. A collection of articles. Vladimir, 1995; Kavelmaher Centuries Of Antiquity Alexandrova Sloboda. Collection of scientific works. M., 2008.
2. About the original view of the Church of Metropolitan Alexei details see: Zagraevsky SV To the question of reconstruction of the Church of Metropolitan Alexei 1510-ies in Alexandrov Sloboda. M., 2007. The material is on the website www.rusarch.ru.
3. PRS RSL. F. 304. Ed. Chr.
4. Kavelmaher Century Monuments of ancient Alexandrova Sloboda... S. 7, 17, 24-29; Kavelmaher Centuries Of Antiquity Alexandrova Sloboda... S. 26, 32, 59-64.
5. Kavelmaher V. Monuments of ancient Alexandrova Sloboda... Pp. 8-11; Kavelmaher Vladimir Antiquity Alexandrova Sloboda.... P. 26-30.
6. Podjapolsky S. On the Dating
sites Alexandrova Sloboda. In the book: Works The Central Museum of ancient
Russian culture and art named after Andrei Rublev. Art and culture of Moscow
and Moscow region XIV-early XX centuries. A collection of articles. T.
7. Podjapolsky S. On the Dating sites Alexandrova Sloboda S.... 163-180; A. L. Batalov Moscow stone architecture of the end of XVI century. M., 1996; A. L. Batalov The monuments of Alexandrov Sloboda in the context of development of Russian architecture of the XVI century. In the book: Zubovsky reading. Vol. 3. Strunino, 2005. P. 30-37.
8. Zagraevsky SV To the question of the Dating and authorship of the monuments of Alexandrov Sloboda. In the book: Zubovsky reading. Sat. articles. Vol. 3. Strunino, 2005. S. 69-96; Zagraevsky SV New study of architectural monuments of Alexandrov Sloboda. M., 2008.
9. Kavelmaher Century Monuments of ancient Alexandrova Sloboda... P. 8; Kavelmaher Centuries Of Antiquity Alexandrova Sloboda.... P. 26.
10. Kavelmaher Century Monuments of ancient Alexandrova Sloboda... P. 37; Kavelmaher Centuries Of Antiquity Alexandrova Sloboda.... P. 68.
11. Detail see ibid.
12. Podjapolsky S. On the Dating sites Alexandrova Sloboda... P.162.
13. Ibid. P. 180.
14. Detail see Zagraevsky SV To the question about the Dating and authorship of the monuments Alexander settlement...; Zagraevsky SV New study of architectural monuments architecture of Alexandrov Sloboda...
15. Kavelmaher Century Monuments of ancient Alexandrova Sloboda... P. 43, 70.
16. Ibid. S. 70.
17. For example, in a presentation
edition of "Alexander the Kremlin. To celebrate the 500th anniversary of
the Alexander Of the Kremlin. 1513-2013" (
18. Kavelmaher Century Monuments of
ancient Alexandrova Sloboda. In the book: Information courier of the
19. Kavelmaher Century Monuments of ancient Alexandrova Sloboda... P. 24.
20. Podjapolsky S. On the Dating sites Alexandrova Sloboda... P. 232.
21. For example, see http://www.tk-k.ru/content/3.
© Sergey Zagraevsky