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Prof. Dr. S.V. Zagraevsky

 

Assumption Cathedral in Vladimir: some issues of architectural history

 

 

Published in Russian: .. : . .: . . . , 2009. . 95114. 

 

 

Annotation

 

The architectural history of Assumption Cathedral of Andrei Bogolyubsky in Vladimir is considered. The main reason for its rigging by high galleries in the times of Vsevolod the Big Nest is defined: the emergency condition due to insufficient structural reliability. On the basis of architectural, archaeological and annalistic data the being of initial five domes on Bogolyubsky's cathedral is confirmed.

 

Attention!

The following text was translated from the Russian original by the computer program

and has not yet been edited.

So it can be used only for general introduction.

 RUSSIAN VERSION

 

 

1. The Cathedral Of Andrei Bogolyubsky

 

Andrey Bogolyubsky began construction of the assumption Cathedral in Vladimir in 11581 and graduated in 11602. Already in 1161, the Cathedral was painted3.

According to Tatischev, "On making Bo him (Andrew - SZ) Dadi him God masters for the construction thereof, of the smart lands"; "stavshemu in Vladimir structure, and above the gate of the city, it is seen that the Architect was sufficient... the Masters were sent from the Emperor Frederick the First, with which Andrew was in friendship as below will be"4.

In favor of the fidelity of this message shows the desire of Andrei Bogolyubsky to Express in his construction of state power and Imperial ideology more brightly than they were expressed in the architecture of his father Yuri Dolgoruky. Evidence - and increased in comparison with temples Dolgoruky the size of Assumption Cathedral in Vladimir, Rostov, and huge excess height (14 m) opening of the Vladimir Golden gate (for the purposes of fortification even had to hold over the gate wooden gallery, which significantly reduced the reliability of strengthening), and construction of "from scratch" Church of the Intercession on the Nerl, who played the role of Grand design bifurcation major waterways Klyazma and the Nerl and the Palace and the strengthening of Bogolyubovo, return%

However, it should be noted that a well-known stereotype associated with coming to Andrew "masters of all lands", applies only to work on the decoration of the assumption Cathedral: "That summer was given the established Church Holy mother of God in Volodimira noble and Bogolubsky Prince Andrew, and decorate W marvellous manifold icons, and dragon stone be-Wisla and vessels of the Church-Christ.5. According to the chronicle text, it is not about the builders, and about the icon-painters, jewelers and zolotisto.

In the second half of 1180-ies of Vsevolod the Big Nest built the temple high galleries with new apses and small heads, dismantling of the apse, part of the walls and small heads Andrew's Cathedral (cause rigging we'll explore in this article).

Assumption Cathedral was repeatedly repaired and restored. The most extensive was the restoration of 1888-1891 under the leadership IO karabutova6 when was arranged helmet floor chapters and vaulted roofs, were demolished buttresses, attached to the temple at the beginning of the XVIII century, their greater part of the walls was turned, portals were passed, a significant part of the decor column-type belt was replaced by the remakes (apparently, quite accurately mimicking the old forms7). But in General, the Cathedral, built with Andrew and rebuilt by Vsevolod, has retained its pre-Mongol appearance (Fig. 1).

 

The Cathedral of the assumption. General view.

 

Fig. 1. The Cathedral of the assumption. General view.

 

The Cathedral of 1158-1160 was six pillars, apses, and constructed of high quality white stone (stone temple Bogolyubsky was significantly higher than the stone galleries Vsevolod8).

Dome side of the square temple 1158-1160 about 6,4 m. Although the temple was six pillars, its quadrangular visually perceived almost cubic (length without apses about 22.5 m, width - about 17.5 m, the height is about 21 m), the proportions were quite fine (Fig. 9). And in the interior and in the exterior forms felt striving upward. Plan of the remaining parts of Andrew's Cathedral and additions Vsevolod shown in Fig. 29.

 

The Cathedral of the assumption. The plan of the existing building.

 

Fig. 2. The Cathedral of the assumption. The plan of the existing building.

 

And the walls, and cross-like pillars are relatively thin, the pillars are responsible blades, both internal and external (with pilasters crowned leafy capitals; profile blades above a column-type zone is complicated roller).

The transition from the arches to the Central 12-Windows drum shall not sail through, and by Tromp, and this construction can be considered unique to pre-Mongolian architecture of North-Eastern Russia.

According to archaeological research, 1951-1952, the assumption Cathedral Bogolyubsky had three porch10. The base was a simple non-profiled ebb, as in the Church of Yuri Dolgoruky. The walls crossed column-type belt (part of it is preserved in situ on the Northern wall), above it - the " porebrik". The capitals of columns close to the Romanesque "cubic" form, in databases - canted console. The spaces between the columns were plastered and decorated with frescoes11.

The Foundation of the temple of 1158-1160 is the cobblestones, shed no solution at all depths, but only the top two rows. They were brought to a small white stone bottles, and then the walls were erected. Archaeological research has revealed under the foundations of the Northern wall of the Northern rabbet ledge - large wood logs12but it is more likely that the ledge belonged to the Northern wall vsevolodova galleries (see item 2). The depth, width and form the Foundation of the Cathedral Bogolyubsky still unknown (perhaps it is a tape as the assumption Cathedral in Rostov13).

The temple 1158-1160 was decorated with sculptures zooantropomorfnogo type. The decor in the building of the Cathedral galleries in the second half of 1180-ies was not preserved in situ, but N.N. Voronin reasonably believed that the fragments of the decor on the walls vsevolodova galleries14 (Fig. 3). VI Dobrokhotov saw stones with traces of downed reliefs in the laying of the base of the altar apses Vsevolod15. We must agree with N.N. Voronin that the total zooantropomorfnogo decor of the assumption Cathedral 1158-1160 roughly correspond to the size of the decoration of the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl (Fig. 9).

 

Fragments downed decor on the walls vsevolodova galleries.

 

Fig. 3. Fragments downed decor on the walls vsevolodova galleries.

 

The question of the original form of the Cathedral of 1158-1160 requires special consideration.

"Stereotypical" option in its reconstruction until recently was contained in the fundamental work Voronin16 (Fig. 4, 5). But in this reconstruction is immediately striking discrepancy axonometric (Fig. 4) and plan (Fig. 5) Cathedral. In the axonometric drawings are not given the arches and stair tower for the entrance to the gallery shows the two-volume (combined with hypothetical "Bishop's room" and a "house"17 - they see below). But on the plan shown and the arches, and one stair-tower.

 

The Cathedral of the assumption of 1158-1160. Reconstruction Voronin. Axonometric view.

 

Fig. 4. The Cathedral of the assumption of 1158-1160. Reconstruction Voronin. Axonometric view.

 

The Cathedral of the assumption of 1158-1160. Reconstruction Voronin. The plan.

 

Fig. 5. The Cathedral of the assumption of 1158-1160. Reconstruction Voronin. The plan.

 

The presence of such an obvious contradiction in terms and axonometry, albeit briefly stated N.N. Voronin (axonometric represents "the initial experience of reconstruction"18: probably the new axonometric drawings, corresponding to the plan, did not have time to prepare before delivery of the manuscript into print), creates considerable confusion. For example, in a modern textbook on the history of Russian architecture19 reconstruction Voronin, in which the perspective geometry does not match the plan, given without any reservations.

So, our reconstruction of the Cathedral of 1158-1160, with its basis reconstruction Voronin, first of all obliged to take into account the arches and the single stair tower. It is one of the tower - North, and it can show.

First, the presence of the North tower archaeological data confirmed and southern - no20.

Secondly, in the Western part of the Northern wall of the Cathedral Bogolyubsky (at the junction of the North tower) has never been column-type belt, and on the appropriate part of the southern wall he was21.

Third, contained in the fundamental work Voronin image of the XVI century22 (Fig. 6) is an artistic generalization, and it is impossible to determine what the temple is on them is a single - domed with two symmetrical towers or five-domed without towers. Accordingly, to involve them as at least indirect evidence of the symmetry of extensions to the Cathedral (as did Voronin23) illegal.

 

The Cathedral of the assumption. Thumbnails Personal chronicle of the XVI century.

 

Fig. 6. The Cathedral of the assumption. Thumbnails of the illuminated Chronicles of the XVI century.

 

Fourth, in times of Bogolyubovo complex of buildings adjacent to the Church, could be "Bishop" (Episcopal), but not the Prince: the main residence of the Prince was Bogolubovo and Vladimir Andrei inherited a great fortified courtyard with a white-stone Church of St. George from his father - Dolgoruky, and it is unlikely he was the need to close with their "old" yard of the former courtyard of the jury) to build a new - near Cathedral of the assumption to the existing Church of our Saviour24.

Fifth, mentioned in the annals of "Bishop's room" and "Terem"25 - most likely, the same complex of buildings that various chroniclers called differently (and not different buildings, adjacent to the Cathedral from the North and South, as I thought Voronin25). This is confirmed by the fact that in the fire of 1185 "Terem" burned it the Church books and utensils27.

Sixth, for a hypothetical South of the complex of buildings is simply not enough space - break starts around 10 metres from the South wall of the Cathedral, and between the temple and the cliff was to be fortified walls and a must for any of the current fortress vacant space between the walls and the nearest buildings.

Thus, we have shown that the Uspensky Cathedral 1158-1160 had only one complex of buildings, located on the North side of the temple. This complex was connected with the Cathedral, the "pillar"28, which Voronin rightly spoken of as a "stair pillar", i.e. as to the stairwell29. In principle, it is possible that the "Bishop's room", "house" and "pillar" were one and the same building that played a role and stair towers and utility room.

We can now turn to the question about the number of heads of the Cathedral of 1158-1160.

Ipatiev chronicle clearly and repeatedly (under 1158, 1175 and 1183 years) suggests the Cathedral Bogolyubsky as the five-domed: Andrey "make this same Church,% D,30). Voronin, who thought the single-domed temple, very sharply called the message "an error chronicler"31 (though noting and discussions that took place on this subject at the end of XIX-beginning of XX century - in particular, the EE golubinski on the five-domed Cathedral32).

As evidence of odnopolie Cathedral NN Voronin brought the message record Avraamki about United verse"33 and the above mentioned image of the XVI century, and the researcher made the unlikely situation that at this time "to preserve the memory of the one-domed Cathedral Andrew".

In recent times the message Ipatiev chronicle of the "five summit" for the first time drew attention to TP Timofeeva34. The researcher was contemplating the fairness of these messages based on the analysis of this and other Chronicles, on the grounds that the five-domed Cathedral was in line with Grand ambitions of Andrei Bogolyubsky, and also proposed by the author of this article "engineering" arguments35.

We believe that the position of E.E. Golubinsky and TP Timofeeva, which adhered to and the author of this article36absolutely justified.

First of all, the Ipatiev chronicle as the source, directly included Vladimir Grand-Ducal vault37, deserves much more confidence than any later Chronicles.

E.E. Golubinsky not acknowledge the obvious fact of rigging Cathedral galleries Vsevolod38 and, apparently, it is misleading the researcher has led to the fact that all his other thoughts on the assumption Cathedral in the future are not taken seriously. This situation is regrettable, as E.E. Golubinsky absolutely rightly believed that later in the Chronicles (including in the annals Avraamki - SZ) erroneous%239. However, as the researcher noted, as in the Ipatievskaya Chronicles under the year 116140 - SZ) shows the same text, and there is written "and covered her poslati".

The conclusion is that in the Laurentian chronicle, also using the Vladimir the great arch41could be wrong in the correspondence. In the Ipatiev chronicle of this error could be: as we have seen, the "five summit" they say repeatedly42.

About the ambiguity of interpretation of the images of the XVI century (Fig. 6) we have already mentioned above: it is impossible to determine what the Church is one dome with two symmetrical towers or five-domed without towers.

In favor of the five-domed Cathedral 1158-1160 shows architectural and archaeological data, and "engineering" argument.

N.N. Voronin believed that in the fire of 1185 burned down the wooden context of the assumption Cathedral, the Church fell into disrepair, and in this regard, Vsevolod had strengthened its high galleries, played the role of buttresses43. However, no evidence of an emergency condition of the Cathedral Bogolyubsky researcher did not cause.

After the Cathedral in 2003 examined the author of this article, we may assume that such evidence exists. The author managed to find the slope of the Central chapters of the assumption Cathedral at 2.5 degrees to the East. In itself this does not prove anything (in theory, this tilt head could get and later XII century), but consider other facts:

- in galleries Vsevolod no corner compartments from the North-East and South-East, although they could substantially increase the altar part of the Cathedral;

- small Eastern heads that could stand on the corner compartments, to form a centrally symmetric composition and contribute to the coverage of the altar, moved to the West;

- small Eastern chapters

- the walls of galleries Vsevolod the thick walls of the Cathedral Bogolyubsky (average 1.75 m against 1.2 m);

- the walls of the Cathedral of 1158-1160 during the construction of galleries were strengthened by additional pylons, between them and galleries on the level of the choir were built arched bridge, which played the role of arc (see Fig. 12).

All this could not be a mere coincidence or a whim of Vsevolod the Big Nest.

The situation is seen as follows: the Cathedral Bogolyubsky in 1180-ies came in emergency state, and its vaults with domes and arches "moved" to the Eastern side (West strengthen choruses). In connection with this master Vsevolod obstraivaya temple galleries, buttresses, constructing additional pylons and jumpers-arc-boutants, were forced to abandon the Eastern corner of the compartments and extinguish raspor Central drum in the North-East and South-East exceptionally rugged construction, each of which consisted of two perpendicular walls.

In the East raspor further extinguished semicircular apses, in the West - choirs, North and South - arched bridge (and partly also the choir), and because such a substantial strengthening of the Cathedral well preserved to our days.

All the above testifies to the fact that the Cathedral Bogolyubsky in the second half of 1180-ies was built the galleries buttresses, precisely because of the arrival of an emergency condition (shift codes and the slope of the Central chapters to the East).

And now let's remember that the Cathedral 1158-1160 came in emergency condition very quickly - a quarter century after the construction (and possibly earlier). Even though the temple exceeded a limit of reliability", defined for white stone buildings (naos - up 200 square meters, the side of the omphalos - up to 6 m44), this time for the temple built under the leadership of the Western%

The master Vsevolod in the second half of 1180-ies were forced to dismantle these chapters. The demolition was forced: if there was the slightest chance to save these chapters Andrew's Cathedral, the master Vsevolod it would have benefited. Nine-domed Cathedral looked even more spectacular, and the internal space would be much better lit.

The dismantling of four small heads meant of the vaults of the relevant compartments. Until recently, the fact that the relaying of codes has not been confirmed by the architectural and archaeological data. External examination zakomaras and vaults of the Cathedral, conducted by the author of this article in 2004, with the kind assistance of TP Timofeeva, gave no results, as in the restoration of 1888%E

However, in 2006 the author of this article found traces the transformation of the vaults in the drawings IO karabutova "West side of St. Andrew's arches to the restoration and South side of St. Andrew's arch before restoration45 (Fig. 7, 8).

In these drawings depicted the stones of external lining of the Gables. And as in the pre-Mongolian architecture form the upper ranks of the external cladding is usually repeated the form located behind them arches, according to these ranks external cladding, combined with the sight of the interior of the temple we can judge the form of codes.

 

"West side of St. Andrew's arch before restoration. Drawing IO Karabutova.

 

Fig. 7. "West side of St. Andrew's arch before restoration. Drawing IO Karabutova.

 

 

Fig. 8. "The South side of St. Andrew's arch before restoration. Drawing IO Karabutova.

 

In the drawings IO karabutova immediately draws attention to the contrast between the relatively correct form arches Korobov (except one, indicated in Fig. 8 letter "A"), and poor condition of masonry under them (Fig. 7 and 8 we see that the lining of significantly deviates from the horizontal). This situation can be explained only by the fact that Vsevolod new codes were put on the old wall blocks with the violation of rowing. And under the firmament from subsided abutments, indicated in Fig. 8 letter "A", well you can see stones left by previous code.

In connection with the foregoing, we believe the five-domed assumption Cathedral 1158-1160 proved.

Accordingly, we have developed on the basis of reconstruction Voronin its variant of reconstruction axonometric (Fig. 9) and plan (Fig. 10) the assumption Cathedral of Andrei Bogolyubsky: with five domes, one stair-tower (pillar) in the North and porches from the South, North and West.

 

"Western%

 

Fig. 9. "West side of St. Andrew's arch before restoration. Drawing IO Karabutova.

 

The Cathedral of the assumption of 1158-1160. Reconstruction of the author. The plan.

 

Fig. 10. The Cathedral of the assumption of 1158-1160. Reconstruction of the author. The plan.

 

On the capitals, pilasters crowning blades Cathedral 1158-1160, for a "beast" white stone water cannons46 (Fig. 11). For unknown reasons, N.N. Voronin did not include them in its reconstruction (Fig. 4), but they are present in our reconstruction of the temple (Fig. 9).

 

"Beast" white stone fountain of the assumption Cathedral. Reconstruction Bagnava.

 

Fig. 11. "Beast" white stone fountain of the assumption Cathedral. Reconstruction Bagnava.

 

 

2. Reconstruction of the Cathedral of Vsevolod the Big Nest

 

The building up high galleries assumption Cathedral 1158-1160, which was in poor condition after the fire of 1185 - the first stone construction of Vsevolod the Big Nest. In paragraph (1 we showed that it was not only the building galleries and the construction of new apses, and relining the vaults of the old Cathedral in the dismantling of four small heads. In this regard, we see more correct to speak not about the building, and the restructuring of the Cathedral.

According to the chronicle data, this restructuring was completed in 118947. N.N. Voronin believed that it started in 1185 - immediately after the great fire of Vladimir, which took place on 13 April48. But the beginning of construction in the year of the fire is unlikely since before laying galleries needed to explore the damaged Church, to take a decision on its restructuring, to find the masters and spend a large amount of design work. It was hardly possible success%

The gallery was built of white stone of average quality (yellow and porous). The foundations of different types: the depth of 4 to 8 rows of stone, there are both large and small blocks of varying degrees of treatment, and limestone slabs and cobble-stones, and wood ledge49.

The plan of the assumption Cathedral in the restructuring 1186-1189 is shown in Fig. 2. This is its apses, five-domed temple in length (with apses) about 37.5 m, width about 30 m. Width of Vsevolod's galleries - average 5.5 m.

The partitioning walls of the galleries Vsevolod repeated division of the walls of the Cathedral of 1158-1160. The Gables of the galleries are slightly lower zakomaras Andrew's Cathedral, which gave the Church in restructuring 1186-1189 some "jagged". New apse were made to the East of the old ones. In paragraph 1, we noted that in the galleries Vsevolod no corner compartments from the North-East and South-East Jerusalem.%

In the walls of the Cathedral of Andrey Bogolyubsky in restructuring were open additional arch to ensure the unity of the internal space of the temple. However, the interior still was zatesnennym and dark (but, otherwise, while maintaining such a large volume of old walls and replacement of small heads of the Cathedral of 1158-1160 arches deaf could not be).

The choirs of the Cathedral after the restructuring merged with the choirs of the Cathedral Andrew, forming a single space large area. It is very likely that arched bridge, which connected on the level of the choir gallery 1186-1189 with the walls of the Cathedral of 1158-1160 (Fig. 12), played a dual role:

additionally strengthened the temple, playing the role of the arc-boutants between galleries, buttresses and walls of Andrew's Cathedral;

- in ancient times they could carry a wooden deck, extended choir to the entire area of the galleries. Such a hypothesis for the Western gallery was advanced Voronin50 noting that the data for its confirmation no. But actually, this hypothesis still have confirmation - the upper edges of the jumper-arc-boutants horizontal and removed all the galleries at the same height. It hardly could be mere coincidence.

 

Arched bridges between the walls of the Cathedral Andrew and galleries Vsevolod.

 

Fig. 12. Arched bridges between the walls of the Cathedral Andrew and galleries Vsevolod.

 

Accordingly, the entrance to the choir of the Cathedral in the restructuring of Vsevolod could be arranged in a simple wooden stairs inside the building (though likely and the entrance is from the North, from the "Bishop's hall", - through the door, later incorporated to the present time is not detected architectural and archaeological research).

Blades galleries 1186-1189 decorated polyol the%B35 cm against 45 cm), and this allowed N.N. Voronin's fair to say that in the galleries Vsevolod seen "craving for fractional parts"51. Arch zakomaras galleries broaden to the castle, as in the Cathedral of 1158-1160.

Portals galleries preserved in the relaying of 1888-1891. If to trust the accuracy held at the time of the restoration, the portals with carved arch vaults, the curb and columns, decorated with leafy capitals, were considerably elongated in width, which is in harmony with the total longitudinal orientation of facades, but reduces the "grandeur" of registration of entrance to the temple.

Profile cap galleries is simple, low tide, except for the cap apses (where profile attic). The galleries are decorated column-type zone to the curb. Belt of the southern wall of the gallery is very different from other zones of the walls and apses: he buried into the walls and columns are "worth" at low tide (Fig. 13; on the other walls column freely "hang").

 

Uspensky with%

 

Fig. 13. The Cathedral of the assumption. The southern wall.

 

N.N. Voronin showed that the gallery Vsevolod had almost no "own" the sculptural decoration: few zooantropomorphous reliefs were brought there from the walls of the Cathedral Andrew52 (Fig. 3). "Own" sculptures zooantropomorfnogo type present in the galleries are only a few consoles column-type belt53. The spaces between the columns were painted galleries, as in the Cathedral of 1158-116054.

Open galleries Vsevolod heterogeneous:

- in the first tier are severe and deprived profiling;

- in the second tier, they are richly profiled, decorated with rosettes and "burdocks";

- in the apse and side parts of the Eastern wall they have a profile that corresponds to the profile of the Windows of the Cathedral Bogolyubsky.

After perestroika 1186-1189 Cathedral of the assumption lost "towering" and acquired the proportions, stretched horizontally. The architectural forms of the rebuilt Cathedral became extremely powerful. Apparently, in this regard, N.N. Voronin believed rebuilt temple Vsevolod independent architectural work and wrote that the assumption Cathedral was "the biggest case of Vladimir architects Vsevolod"55.

A.I. Komech not only agreed with N.N. Voronin that the Cathedral in the rebuilding 1186-1189 was independent architectural work56but believed that in 1186-1189 as at the turn of 1150 x and 1160-ies, on the assumption Cathedral worked German architect57. The researcher is justified by the fact that the form of Vladimir Church in restructuring Vsevolod close to the forms of the Cathedral in worms (the second half of XII century, Fig. 14), these temples are similar window profiling and the perspective of deepening walls58.

 

The Cathedral in worms. Fragment of the General form (the Western part).

 

Fig. 14. The Cathedral in worms. Fragment of the General form (the Western part).

 

Note that the membership of the pre-Mongol Vladimir-Suzdal architecture of the late Romanesque there is no doubt59. The similarity of some architectural details suggesting an overall architectural influence of the Cathedral in worms on the assumption Cathedral (as all the modern "landmark" worms temple Church%60) was a direct sample of the reconstructed Uspensky Cathedral, and especially against the fact that in Vladimir in the second half of 1180th years worked as the architect of Western Europe.

First, the perspective of deepening walls vsevolodova galleries are direct reminiscence promising recesses walls of the Cathedral of Andrei Bogolyubsky.

Secondly, the Windows in worms Soboh%D

 

The Cathedral in worms. The Eastern facade.

 

Fig. 15. The Cathedral in worms. The Eastern facade.

 

Third, except for window frames, similar to worms by profiling, in the galleries of Vsevolod there are Windows of other forms and profiles (see above).

Fourth, worms Cathedral completely different arcature, sculptures (Fig. 16).

 

The Cathedral in worms. The arches, columns, sculptures.

 

Fig. 16. The Cathedral in worms. The arches, columns, sculptures.

 

Fifth, worms Cathedral United by a common idea and common logic of construction of implementation. In the case of assumption Cathedral, we see layers of architectural thinking of two different eras - Andrew and Vsevolod.

Sixth, it is hardly worth inviting Western architect only to rebuild the Vladimir Cathedral, saving not only the walls and pillars, but even the Central Chapter of the old temple.

Seventh, the invitation Western architect was very long diplomatic procedure61. After the fire of 1185 by Vsevolod, it had very little time.

Eighth, the walls of galleries Vsevolod have different thickness (from 1.7 to 1.8 m), a breakdown of their articulation irregular, arched bridges have different width and distort the foundations of different types, they applied archaic Lezhnev62.

Ninth, column-type zone of the southern wall is below the belt the other walls. N.N. Voronin believed that this belt was calculated to be viewed from below (from the opposite Bank of the Klyazma)63but the logic in this case could only be the opposite - the lower part of the Cathedral was closed by the edge of the cliff and the walls, consequently, the belt would raise up. In this regard, we hold the view A.I. Nekrasov, who called this arrangement belt of the southern wall "major defect and architectural absurdity"64.

Tenth, in the walls and apses galleries different form of the cap.

Eleventh, the chronicle absolutely unequivocally asserts that Vsevolod "not looking for painters from the Germans, but used the wizards from the clergy of the Holy virgin and of his"65.

We can not accept without reservation and point of view Voronin and A.I. Komech that the Cathedral in the rebuilding 1186-1189 was an independent architectural work. This also has a number is%

First, in the galleries of Vsevolod virtually no "own" sculptures - although Andrew and temples, and all subsequent Vsevolod temples were decorated very rich.

Secondly, due to the fact that the master Vsevolod combined division galleries with the divisions Andrew's Cathedral, in the articulation of the Northern and southern walls of the temple in the rebuilding of 1186-1189 disappeared not only symmetry, but any logic in it.

Third, as we saw in paragraph 1, the replacement of old small heads and new location were dictated primarily by structural necessity.

Fourth, you%D

Fifth, about the diverse nature of architectural solutions walls, foundations, bases, architectural columnar zones galleries Vsevolod we have said above.

Sixthly, the inner space of the temple rebuilt, despite the construction of new light drums and punching in the old walls of the arches, was dark, narrow and labyrinthine, contrary to the basic principles of the nascent Gothic. The Cathedral has disappeared and towering "bringing churches of Yuri Dolgoruky, Andrei Bogolyubsky and subsequent churches Vsevolod with the architectural achievements of the early Gothic and Romanesque66.

Thus, in galleries Vsevolod not "own" architectural solutions in order to clearly assume the Cathedral in the rebuilding of 1186-1189 independent architectural work.

Formulate a different way: the rebuilding of 1186-1189 gave assumption Cathedral of Andrei Bogolyubsky fundamentally new look, not less unique than the appearance of the temple before perestroika. Randomness is in any case no. There has been a very good solution Vladimir two purely utilitarian objectives - to strengthen and expand the Church 1158-1160.

"Architectural pragmatism" Vsevolod often manifests itself in the building of temples "unsightly" galleries (Demetrius and the Cathedral of the Nativity), and in the "prestigious" red brick building (the assumption Cathedral of the Knyaginin monastery, part of the walls Vladimir citadel). In the case of the assumption Cathedral of the "architectural pragmatism" is reflected in the fact that the Big Nest did not demolish the temple Bogolyubsky and build in its place a new, but rather to expand and strengthen the old. Thanks to this solution Vsevolod until now remained walls, pillars and Central Chapter of the Cathedral of Andrei Bogolyubsky, allowing us with a sufficient degree of reliability to judge to what looked like a masterpiece of old Russian architecture - the Cathedral of the assumption of 1158-1160.

 

Notes

 

1. PSRL 1:348.

2. PSRL 1:351.

3. Ibid.

4. V.N.Tatischev. History Of Russia. M., 2005. So 2, S. 687.

5. PSRL 1:351.

6. More information about the repair and restoration of the temple, see: Voronin. The architecture of North-Eastern Russia XI-XV centuries. So 1. M., 1961. C. 355 to 360 above.

7. Ibid., C. 372.

8. In particular, in high quality stone Cathedral Bogolyubsky can be seen on the capitals, located in the exposition of the Vladimir-Suzdal Museum-C is

9. Voronin. The decree. cit., S. 151.

10. Ibid., C. 164.

11. Ibid., C. 170. According to the refinement TP Timofeeva, frescos were discovered and copied back in the 1880-ies of the iconographer Namsaraev.

12. Voronin. The decree. cit., S. 306.

13. M. Ioannisyan, Aehrenthal, P.L. Zykov, E. N. Torshin. Monuments of old Russian architecture of the XII-XIII centuries in Rostov Veliky. In the book. Proceedings of the VI International Congress on Slavonic archaeology. So 5. History and culture of ancient and medieval Slavs. M, 1999. C. 255.

14. Voronin. The decree. cit., S. 173, 177.

15. Ibid., C. 173.

16. Ibid., C. 168.

17. Ibid., C. 160.

18. Ibid., C. 168.

19. Vielamicy, AAC, Uschakov. History of Russian architecture. Leningrad, 1984. C. 137.

20. Voronin. The decree. cit., S. 162.

21. Ibid.

22. Ibid., C. 161, 163.

23. Ibid.

24. More support the presence of Vladimir yard Yuri Dolgoruky and the lack of "own" court of Andrei Bogolyubsky, see: SV zagraevsky. To clarify the date and status of the Church of our Saviour in Vladimir. M., 2007. The article is on the web-site www.zagraevsky.com.

25. PSRL 1:392; 2:630.

26. Voronin. The decree. cit., S. 160.

27. PSRL 1:392.

28. PSRL 2:582.

29. Voronin. The decree. cit., S. 160.

30. PSRL 2:349; 409; 439.

31. Voronin. The decree. cit., S. 518.

32. E.E. Golubinsky. The history of the Russian Church. So 1, ch. 1. M., 1901. So 1, part 2. M., 1904. Reprint ed. M., 1997. So 1, 2 hours, 113 S..

33. PSRL 16:310.

34. The idea of a possible five-domed assumption Cathedral Bogolyubsky was communicated TP Timofeeva author of this book, 2003. and was fully supported. The author considers it his duty to Express TP Timofeeva deep gratitude.

35. Tpemf2004. Vladimir, 2005. C. 27-34.

36. SV zagraevsky. Reconstruction of the Dormition Cathedral in 1158-1160 in Vladimir. In the journal. "Restavrator", 1(8)/2004, C. 118-122.

37. M.Dpreshaw. History of Russian Chronicles of the XI-XV centuries, St. Petersburg, 1996. C. 98.

38. E.E. Golubinsky. The decree. cit., 113 S..

39. PSRL 1:351.

40. PSRL 2:363.

41. M.Dpreshaw. The decree. cit., S. 166.

42. Detailed analysis of all known chronicle reports the number of heads of the assumption Cathedral are listed in the decree. cit. Tponomareva the

43. Voronin. The decree. cit., S. 150.

44. SV zagraevsky. Yuri Dolgoruky and old white-stone architecture. M., 2002. C. 78, 85.

45. Monuments of architecture in pre-revolutionary Russia: essays on the history of architectural restoration. M., 2002. C. 278.

46. Voronin. The decree. cit., S. 182.

47. PSRL 1:407.

48. PSRL 1:392.

49. For more information, see: Voronin. The decree. cit., S. 470-471.

50. Ibid., C. 375.

51. Ibid., C. 365.

52. Ibid., C. 362.

53. Ibid., C. 372.

54. Ibid.

55. Ibid., C. 374.

56. A.I. Komech. The architecture of Vladimir 1150-1180's. Artistic nature and Genesis of the "Russian romanik. In the book. Old Russian art. Russia and the countries of the Byzantine world. XII century. SPb, 2002. C. 249.

57. Ibid., C. 246.

58. Ibid, s 249.

59. For more information, see: SV zagraevsky. Yuri Dolgoruky and old white-stone architecture. M, 2002; SV Zagraevsky. The beginning of the "Russian romanik: Yuri Dolgoruky or Andrey Bogolyubsky? M., 2005. The article is on the web-site www.zagraevsky.com.

60. Grabar rightly argued: "Nowhere is it possible to meet a single Church, Cathedral, Palace or a building that could be taken as a sample Vladimir churches. You can only find particular, but can not find anything in the whole of identity" (CIT. in book.: Voronin. The decree. cit., S. 332).

61. For more information, see: SV zagraevsky. The beginning of the "Russian romanik: Yuri Dolgoruky or Andrey Bogolyubsky? M., 2005. The article is on the web-site www.zagraevsky.com.

62. Voronin. The decree. cit., S. 470.

63. Ibid., C. 370.

64. A.I. Nekrasov. From Suzdal-Vladimir impressions. In Ukr.: "Among collectors", 5-6, 1924. C. 33, 34.

65. PSRL 1:411.

66. We are not entitled to apply to architecture as an art, the word "regression" - an architectural work may be a masterpiece regardless applied in its design solutions. And the assumption Cathedral in the rebuilding of 1186-1189 eventually became a very magnificent building prevail over the city (though hardly more majestic than the five-domed "BA is%8 century dictated the principles of domination of internal space, and in this respect, the Cathedral, rebuilt by Vsevolod, was defined as "a step backward in comparison not only with Andrew's Cathedral, but also with the churches of Yuri Dolgoruky.

 

scow, 2007.

 

Sergey Zagraevsky

 

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