Prof. Dr. S.V. Zagraevsky
To the question of motivation of large-scale construction
by Yuri Dolgoruky in 1152 and Andrey Bogolyubsky in 1158
S. V. Zagraevsky (C) 2017
Prof. S.V. Zagraevsky shows in this scientific work that the unprecedented scale of temple and fortress construction by Yuri Dolgoruky in 1152 and Andrey Bogolyubsky in 1158 was motivated not only by political aspirations and personal ambitions of the princes, but also by the expectations of the Doomsday in 6660 and 6666 according to Byzantine chronology.
The following text was translated from the Russian original by the computer program
and has not yet been edited.
So it can be used only for general introduction.
According to the Typographical annals1, Yury Dolgoruky in
1152 had built the five churches: the Holy Transfiguration
Cathedral Pereslavl-Zalessky, the
Such a large-scale the temple construction within one year Ancient Russia previously did not know.
Six years later, in 1158, more extensive white-stone construction began
Andrei Bogolyubskii. Was fully (or almost fully)
built Church of the Intercession on the Nerl and the Nativity of the virgin in
the hierarchy (the Dating of these the temples devoted to special study of the
author5) initiated construction of the assumption Cathedral in
Vladimir,6 and probably the Golden gate with the Church of deposition of the robeon them7. That's not
counting the unprecedented in
We see that about the amount of construction works 1158 can say the same what we said above about 1152: large-scale construction within one year Ancient Russia previously did not know 1158 comparable only to the works mentioned above 1152.
Comparative calculation of objemozameshchate and materialsafety works 1152 and 1158 years is beyond the scope of this study. In any case, we see two years, which were held on an unprecedented scale work. We emphasize that the construction was of white stone, which cost much more expensive plinthite or mixed technology, which was built in the vast majority of other Russian principalities11.
Therefore, the question of motivation Prince construction works 1152 and 1158 years in North-Eastern Russia deserves special consideration and is the subject of this study.
Let's start with General motivation the temple construction of Andrei Bogolyubsky, as it considers in detail in the scientific works of N. N. Voronin. The researcher formulated "ideological and political tasks"12, which was solved by Andrew Bogolyubsky and his masters, as follows:
– the struggle for the strengthening of the Vladimir-Suzdal Principality13;
– the desire for "the sovereignty of the Principality, already
cherished as the new center of
– the desire to enter North-East Russia as an equal state in the family of Nations of Western Europe, which at that time dominated by the Romanesque architectural style15.
– strengthening in
– personal ambitions Andrew17.
In addition, the researcher noted that the construction of the Bogolyubskybecame possible by improvements in building technology and development of related art18.
With all of the above claims N. N. Voronin could not agree more. But recall that this applies only to General characteristics of the construction Bogolyubsky. Special scope of work is 1158, the researcher does not observed, although and took this year as a "low date" of construction and Vladimir Cathedral of the assumption and the Bogoliubov Church of the Nativity Virgin, and fortifications of Bogolyubovo and Vladimir19.
As for the motivation of white stone construction of the temple of Yuri Dolgoruky (even General motivation, not to mention the "special" 1152 year), N. N. Voronin about it wrote nothing. We can assume that he believed these temples are simply "sacred jewelry" fortresses on large-scale construction of which during the whole time of the reign of Yuri, the researcher repeatedly mentioned20.
But indeed the overall scale of the temple building Dolgoruky and the pious are quite comparable: each of them has built a 6 stone21 Church buildings (of the Kiev-Pechersk Patericon22 called Dolgoruky and Builder plinthite The Nativity Cathedral of the beginning of XII century in Suzdal23, and Bogolyubsky built, besides the already mentioned temples Assumption Cathedral in Rostov and the Church of our Saviour in Vladimir).
Yuri Dolgoruky first started using in Suzdal Western romance the
technique of construction of natural stone24. Ornamental decor
"universal" Roman type, found in many churches of
In the book "Typological formation and the basic classification of
– type centric four-column temples of Yuri Dolgoruky was, if not unprecedented, previously used rarely and in other forms;
– Byzantine cross-dome system, on the basis of which was created this type of temples, was radically creative recycled;
the combination in these temples the integrity of the plan with integrity and a towering the external appearance of precedents in the world had;
– these temples were optimal combination of reliability criteria, required qualifications masters, area of the naos, the integrity of the external appearance and height.
The optimality of this type temples is confirmed by the fact that in the future it was in Ancient Rus the most mass. Centric four-column temples were built in large numbers in all ages, in all regions, this type are such masterpieces of Russian architecture, as the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl, Church of the Savior on Nereditsa, the Cathedral of the Annunciation Moscow Kremlin, assumption Cathedral in Dmitrov, Trinity Church in ChashnikovaCathedral Pafnuteva-Borowski monastery, the Church of Transfiguration in Bolshye Vyazemy, a Large Cathedral of the Donskoy monastery and many others.Dr.
Note also that Yuri Dolgoruky made exploration and primary (most time-consuming27) development of quarries in Suzdal.
In this regard, we may assume that the overall motivation the temple construction Yuri was similar to that which brought N. N. Voronin for the construction of Andrew.
In 2001, the author wrote the book "Yuri Dolgoruky and ancient
Russian white stone architecture": "Not afraid to say that the
significance for the culture and politics of
But neither political aspirations nor personal ambitions of Yuri and Andrei Yurevich not explain why most of them Ramsdaleactivities came exclusively to 1152 and 1158. And Vsevolod the Big Nest, and all other the Russian princes also had to realize the political aspirations and personal ambitions, but such a large-scale construction within one year more than one of them did not.
In the work "AndPology
Rostov chronicler (to the question about the Dating temples Yuri
Dolgoruky)" the author of this study explained large white-stone building
in 1152 as follows: "After nearly two years in Kiev Yuri was not short of
funds – not for nothing Kiev treated him as covetous. Undoubtedly, the
But all remains the question why such a large scale was exactly gramodaya 1152 why the jury could not "stretch" the construction of their temples on a few years? Indeed, such short-term tension of all forces and resources the Principality has established a number of internal political problems, the most acute of which it was engaging and the imminent dismissal of a large number of builders.
The same questions arise regarding the construction of Andrew in 1158.
Even if he is leaving Vyshgorod to
In order, to answer these
questions, remember that 1152 in force in
I guess these ominous from the perspective of the eschatological expectations of date – 6660 (three sixes in a row33) and the 6666 (four sixes, followed soon after did not materialize standby end of the world in 6660 year) could not pay the attention of many readers ancient Chronicles in the XVIII and XIX, and in The XX century. But in the scientific works of this "eschatological motivation", as far as we you know, never met, and for the first time about it wrote the author of this study in 2004 in the article "andpology Rostov chronicler" in relation to the construction Andrei Bogolyubsky in 1158. However, the author then touched on this topic briefly, and only in the note to article34.
More detail (though, to unfortunately, without references the scientific
work of the author of this article) "eschatological motivation"
construction Bogolyubsky researched
But to fully embrace position N. And. Solntseva is impossible for several reasons.
First, the researcher believed that in 1152 built temples not Yuri, and Andrew, not on the basis of of any of its own reasoning, but only with reference to the position on this issue N.N. Voronin37. But in fact the position N. N. Voronin consisted of the following: because Yuri Dolgoruky in 1156-1157 the years was Kiev, his son Andrew were able at this time to build a fortress in Moscow to finish The Church of St. George in Vladimir,38. But in 1152 Yuri was in Suzdal land39 and we have no reason to believe that he is entrusting the supervision of design and construction of their temples to Andrew or anyone else.
In the second place, the statement N. And. Solntseva about the fact that Andrew Bogolyubsky erected in their possessions "the New Jerusalem" – no more than an assumption. Probably the courtier had indeed used such expressions (for example, quite common was to compare princes with king Solomon40), but architectural hypothetical "New Jerusalem" in the North-Eastern Russia in any way was not expressed, in contrast to built five centuries later the Istra river by Patriarch Nikon. We may therefore follow N. N. Voronin to speak only about personal ambitions Andrew's41, not specifying what they consisted of.
Some doubts arise in relation to the idea of when large-scale construction of 1152 and 1158 years with eschatological expectations (for this reason the author of this article, first writing on the possibility of such a connection in 2004 and in the future gathering material for this special study for many years).
First, the years with the "three sixes" – at 6660 6669 repeatedly meet in the old the Chronicles, but about any doomsday preppers this the time period chroniclers are not reported.
Second, the same can be applied to the chroniclers of
Third, no intensive temple construction in the years of
Fourth, in the XII century in Byzantium and could be a little bit serious and high-profile (in least, approved of secular and ecclesiastical authorities) eschatological expectations, Byzantine theocratic thinking was based on a kind of the "realized eschatology", as if the Kingdom of God has already come in force and if the Empire is a manifestation of this force in the world and in history42. The strongest eschatological expectations the Byzantine Church was associated only with a 7000 year "from the creation of the world" (1492 from the birth of Christ), as the Greek Paschal was calculated only up to this date, and in the end they often talked about the approaching end of the world, associated with disasters that threaten Constantinople: the raids of the barbarians, earthquakes, epidemics, crop failures, etc.43. But before 1492 (when the peak eschatological expectations were not only conquered by the Turks Byzantium, but in Russia44), 1150-ies was far away.
N. And. Solntsev mentioned the construction of Yaroslav the Wise in
– according to the accepted in
– even if the end of the world when Yaroslav the Wise was expected by Western calendar, still the peak of eschatological expectations in the Catholic world fell not at 1037, and the 1000-year48. Following a hectic year was 1033, since, according to a widely well-known apocryphal writing , the IV century – the "Revelation of Methodius Piterskogo"49, a thousand years it was necessary to count not from the birth of Christ, from his crucifixion, that is it turned out that the Antichrist was to come in the year 1033. Then, the idea is that in for three and a half years (forty two months50) after the hypothetical arrival of the Antichrist was to last for his Kingdom. But the 1033 year came, and with 1037 the West has no global eschatological expectations are not linked, and we have no reason to assume that suddenly, for no reason, no reason at all such expectations were raised in Russia.
In 1038, was the place Kyriopascha – the
coincidence of Easter and of the Annunciation, and
In addition this, N. And. Solntsev mentioned52 as a possible precedent eschatological expectations 1152 and 1158 years that under 6600 (1092) year the chronicle mentions in Polotsk numerous "signs" in the form of luminous celestial circles, of burning swamps of dying people rushing to the city of demons and T. p.53. But such "signs" in the annals found repeatedly in a variety of years, and without any further evidence (which do not exist) to link the Chronicles with eschatology, we can not. Yes and the figure of 6600 two, not three sixes.
And most importantly, either in 1092 or in 1037 or 1038 in the years, in
contrast to the 1152 and 1158, we do not see in
But all the same we can not consider large-scale construction 1152 and 1158 years a coincidence.
And in order to quite to understand his motivation, we need to recall
that eschatological expectations were in The XII century is widely common in
For example, according to the teachings Italian theologian Joachim ploskogo (1132-1202),
after the 1260 years must come to an end "the second period of New
Testament – the Kingdom of the Son of God," and will begin a period of
"the third Testament – the Kingdom The Holy spirit", when "the
wicked shall be wiped from the face of the Earth" and will come "the
ideal era of the Holy spirit, the Kingdom of peace and truth on Earth."
Soon the "Kingdom of the Holy spirit" on Earth was awaiting the
members religious-social movements , amlericanin
And since, as we shown above, Dolgoruky and Bogolyubskii
tried to make North-Eastern Russia a full-fledged European country, mid - XII century
was marked by a broad contacts of
These expectations, of course, was not so massive and resonant, like 1000 or 1492, or they would have found place in the ancient Chronicles. But, apparently, the unprecedented scale of the construction of the temple of Yuri and Andrei in 1152 and 1158 years and did not aim to reassure a worried nation. Soon on the contrary – citing opportunity to close the end of the world, the princes could more efficiently and cheaply to bring gramodaya construction personnel, and then, after the end of the world failed, their safely and easily to dismiss.
Managed Dolgoruky and Bogolyubsky in this troubled Church-dogmatic point view time you to solve a number of problems in relations with the Orthodox Church for example, in 1152 to receive the blessing of temple building from the Romanesque material – natural stone, in 1158, the blessing device to the temples Romanesque zooantroponosessculpture decor55.
Perhaps in these years was is it easier to get builders and fortresses as graduata the function of the latter was seen not only in the physical, but in the spiritual sense56. Therefore, in 1152 and 1158 years we see ambitious fortress construction.
Thus, in North-Eastern
1. PSRL. Vol. 24. The chronicle for Printing the list. Ed. 1. PG., 1921. P. 77.
2. N. N. Voronin
believed that the Church of our Saviour in the city of Suzdal, mentioned in the
message Printing Chronicles the construction of Yuri Dolgoruky in 1152 (PSRL. T
24... p. 77), the chapel of the
The author of this book, there is reason to believe that the Church of the Saviour was located on the courtyard of Dolgoruky of Suzdal inside the city walls, near the ramparts from the river (just like the temples in Pereslavl, Kideksha and Yuriev-Polsky). The fact that the altars the vast majority of Russian churches of the XVIII century focused almost exactly East (90 degrees). And only the altars of the Church of the assumption, standing just beyond the ramparts to the right of the entrance to the Kremlin, focused on 60 degrees – exactly the same as the altars of the pre-Mongol Cathedral of the Nativity of the virgin.
construction period of the Church The assumption with some degree of certainty
is the end of the XVII century, and in 1617 year this place was a wooden Church
(Varganov A. D. Suzdal.
satisfactory explanation of this situation is: Church of the assumption was
built on the site (maybe even on foundations) pre-Mongol
temple, i.e. the Church of the Savior in the city of
But, of course,
confirm the author's hypothesis about the location of the Church of the Saviour
in the city of
3. Zagraevsky S. V. AndPology
Rostov chronicler (to the question about the Dating temples Yuri Dolgoruky).
Abstracts. In the book: Materials regional conference dedicated to the
centenary of the birth N. N. Voronin (19 APR2004 g.).
4. PSRL. T 24... P. 77.
5. Zagraevsky S. V. To the
question of reconstruction and date Church of the Intercession on the Nerl. In
the book: The materials of the regional conference (20-21 April2007.).
6. PSRL. Vol. 1. The Laurentian Codex. L., 1926-1928. S. 348.
7. N. N. Voronin took 1158 as "lower date"
the construction of the Golden gate (Voronin N. N. The architecture of
North-Eastern Russia XII–XV centuries. M., 1961-1962. Vol. 1. P.128). Because of the assumption Cathedral
and the Golden gates were built one the same architect (see: ZagraevskyS. V. The Architect Frederick Barbarossa. In the collection: "worthy of
Praises...". Andrey Bogolyubsky in Russian history and culture. International a
8. Zagraevsky S. V. Bogolyubov the architectural ensemble of the end of 1150 x – beginning 1170-ies...
9. Zagraevsky S. V. the early history of the Pokrovsky monastery on The Nerl. M., 2016. The material is on the website http://rusarch.ru/zagraevsky50.htm.
10. Voronin N. N. Architecture North-Eastern Russia XII–XV centuries. M., 1961-1962. Vol. 1. C. 128.
11. Zagraevsky S. V. Yuri Dolgoruky and ancient Russian white stone architecture. M., 2001. Appendix: Comparative calculation of the notional value of construction of white stone and brick in terms of complexity (man-days).
12. Voronin N. N. The Architecture Of North-Eastern
13. Ibid. S. 302.
14. Ibid. P.122.
15. Voronin N. N. Monuments Of Vladimir-Suzdal architecture of XI–XIII centuries. M.; L., 1945. P. 47.
16. Voronin N. N. The Architecture Of North-Eastern
17. N. N. Voronin
(ibid., 315, 339) cited the words of the chronicler: "Son
the pious and Christ-loving Prince Andrew upodobania
king of Solomono, like a house God and the Church preslava the Holy virgin of Rozhestva in the middle of the city Kamen created by Bogoljub and surprise Yu pace vsih Church... and after the
great target this Church in memory of sobe"
(PSRL. Vol. 2. The Ipatiev chronicle.
18. Voronin N. N. The Architecture Of North-Eastern
19. Ibid. C. 128, 149, 201.
20. Ibid. S. 102.
21. The definition of "stone" we are here upotrebom in a broad sense to denote a the construction not only of natural stone, but also from time or in mixed media.
22. The Paterik of Kiev-Pechersky monastery. SPb, 1911. P.9.
23. Even if Yuri
yet was too young and a real Builder of the Cathedral was his father Vladimir
Monomakh (thought N.N. Voronin: Voronin N. N. The Architecture Of North-Eastern
24. The vast
majority of the Romanesque cathedrals and castles in the heart of the Holy
Roman Empire –
25. Zagraevsky S. V. the Beginning of "Russian Romanesque": Yuri Dolgoruky or Andrey Bogolyubsky? M., 2005. The material is on the website http://rusarch.ru/zagraevsky2.htm.
26. Read more cm.: Zagraevsky S. V. Typological formation and the underlying
classification of the
27. In order, to find need sort of stone, often had to punch in a stone layer hundreds of meters galleries. Accordingly, the complexity of developing a stone was increased in dozens of times regarding the calculation given in the book: Zagraevsky S. V. Yuri Dolgoruky and old white-stone architecture...
28. Zagraevsky S. V. Yuri Dolgoruky and ancient Russian white stone the architecture... p. 139.
29. Read more cm.: Zagraevsky S. V. the Beginning of "Russian Romanesque"...
30. Zagraevsky S. V. AndPology Rostov chronicler...
31. Read more cm.: Zagraevsky S. V. About The Architect Friedrich Barbarossa...
32. In the Byzantine year began on 1 Sep, but here we for simplicity, we unspecified to compare Western European chronology with Byzantinewith amendment of 5508 years.
33. Open. 13:18.
34. Zagraevsky S. V. AndPology Rostov chronicler... Approx. 32. About eschatological expectations in these years, the author of this study wrote in historical novels: "a Poor knight of the Temple" (M., 2013. P. 178) and "Architect of his Majesty" (M., 2014. P. 122).
Solntsev N. And. The Concept Of "New Jerusalem" in the construction
the initiative of Andrei Bogolyubsky. In sat: Vestnik
Nizhegorodskogo universiteta im.
36. Solntsev N. And. To the question of the justification of the reasons for the creation of the architectural complex in Vladimir-on-Klyazma... P. 88.
Solntsev N. And. Decree. withPTS., p. 87, citing the book: Voronin N. N. The Architecture Of North-Eastern
38. Voronin N. N. Ibid.
39. PSRL. T 24... P. 77.
About the comparison of Andrew Bogolyubsky with
Solomon (PSRL. T. 2... P. 581-582) we have mentioned above, and Metropolitan Hilarion "sermon on law and grace" compared with
Yaroslav the Wise Solomon: "a Good and faithful witness – your son
(Vladimir the Baptist – Sz) George (Christian name of Yaroslav – S. Z.), whom
the Lord created the successor to your rule: do not violate your statutes, but
the approver; not detracting from your stores of true belief,
but multiplying; not in words, but (in fact) driving to the end that thee pokonchenoSolomon (case) David. He created the House of
God, great and Holy The wisdom of (His) Holiness and sanctification of your
castle and decorated it all beauty: gold and silver, and expensive stones, and
vessels of the sacred – this Church is a marvelous and glorious among all the
neighboring peoples that the other (like this) not be found throughout polynomi of the earth, from East to West. And a glorious
Voronin N. N. The Architecture Of
43. Alekseev A. I. Under the sign of the end times. Essays Russian religiousness. SPb, 2002. P. 54.
44. For example, this year Russian pPravoslavnaia the Church did not count Paschal next, 1493-the year, and farmers almost ceased to sow the fields, next year led to famine (podrobno see: Borisov N. With. Daily life medieval Russia on the eve of the end of the world. M., 2005. C. 8-17).
45. About this building mentions and Metropolitan Hilarion "sermon on law and grace" (cm. above).
46. Solntsev N.
And. To the question of the justification of the reasons create an
architectural complex in
IOAnna The Evangelist" says: "And I saw an angel come down from
heaven, having the key from the bottomless pit and a great chain in his hand.
He seized the dragon, that serpent the ancient, who is the
devil and Satan, and bound him for a thousand years, and cast him into
the abyss, and bound him, and put on him printing, so as not to deceive already
the Nations until the thousand years; after the this he must be released for a
short time" (Apoc. 20:1-4). Accordingly, in the
year 1000 panic was such that the dignitaries gave away his possessions to the
churches and left in the convent, merchants by the end of the 999 year emptied
their warehouses, and the peasants were thrown the farm was built of boards
from the coffins and placed in them (Hillel Schwartz. Century's
End: A Cultural History of the Fin de Siècle from the 990s
through the 1990s.
49. Estrin V. M. the Revelation of Methodius Piterskogo and the apocryphal visions of Daniel in Byzantine and Slavo-Russian literature. M., 1897. P. 46.
50. Open. 13:5.
51. Solntsev N. And. To the question of the justification of the reasons
create an architectural complex in
52. Ibid., with reference to A. I. Alekseev (Alekseev A. I. Eschatological experiences in the Western Europe and Russia in the IX–XV centuries (Simultaneously occurring processes or topological similarity). In the book: Research on Russian history and culture. Collection articles on the 70th anniversary of Professor Igor Yakovlevich Froyanova. M., 2006).
53. PSRL. T 24... P. 70.
54. Bogoslovsky M. M. Unresolved issues of Christianity. In Sib. "Neva", No. 11, 2000.
55. Read more cm.: Zagraevsky S. V. Yuri Dolgoruky and ancient Russian white stone the architecture... GL. 5.
Likhachev D. S. Graduata semantics Assumption
© Sergey Zagraevsky