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Prof. Dr. S.V. Zagraevsky

To the question of motivation of large-scale construction

by Yuri Dolgoruky in 1152 and Andrey Bogolyubsky in 1158

 

Moscow,2017.

S. V. Zagraevsky (C) 2017

 

Annotation

 

Prof. S.V. Zagraevsky shows in this scientific work that the unprecedented scale of temple and fortress construction by Yuri Dolgoruky in 1152 and Andrey Bogolyubsky in 1158 was motivated not only by political aspirations and personal ambitions of the princes, but also by the expectations of the Doomsday in 6660 and 6666 according to Byzantine chronology.

 

 

Attention!

The following text was translated from the Russian original by the computer program

and has not yet been edited.

So it can be used only for general introduction.

 RUSSIAN VERSION

 

According to the Typographical annals1, Yury Dolgoruky in 1152 had built the five churches: the Holy Transfiguration Cathedral Pereslavl-Zalessky, the Church of Boris and Gleb in Kideksha, St. George's Cathedral in Yuriev-Polsky, the Church of St. George in Vladimir and the Church Of the Saviour in Suzdal2. In special scientific work3 the author showed that the message of the chronicler trustworthy, and Dating all these white stone churches 1152 is adequate. Any work (laying of flooring, covering of the dome with lead and (or) gold-painted temples, entire there of icons and Church utensils, etc.) could continue in the next few years, but overall the temples can be considered erected in 1152. That's not counting built in the same year of Pereslavl and Yuriev fortresses, which also tells the chronicle4.

Such a large-scale the temple construction within one year Ancient Russia previously did not know.

Six years later, in 1158, more extensive white-stone construction began Andrei Bogolyubskii. Was fully (or almost fully) built Church of the Intercession on the Nerl and the Nativity of the virgin in the hierarchy (the Dating of these the temples devoted to special study of the author5) initiated construction of the assumption Cathedral in Vladimir,6 and probably the Golden gate with the Church of deposition of the robeon them7. That's not counting the unprecedented in Russia white stone fortresses the city hierarchy8 and the Pokrovsky monastery on the Nerl9 and fortifications of Vladimir: as it is likely that all these fortification work also began this year10.

We see that about the amount of construction works 1158 can say the same what we said above about 1152: large-scale construction within one year Ancient Russia previously did not know 1158 comparable only to the works mentioned above 1152.

Comparative calculation of objemozameshchate and materialsafety works 1152 and 1158 years is beyond the scope of this study. In any case, we see two years, which were held on an unprecedented scale work. We emphasize that the construction was of white stone, which cost much more expensive plinthite or mixed technology, which was built in the vast majority of other Russian principalities11.

Therefore, the question of motivation Prince construction works 1152 and 1158 years in North-Eastern Russia deserves special consideration and is the subject of this study.

Let's start with General motivation the temple construction of Andrei Bogolyubsky, as it considers in detail in the scientific works of N. N. Voronin. The researcher formulated "ideological and political tasks"12, which was solved by Andrew Bogolyubsky and his masters, as follows:

the struggle for the strengthening of the Vladimir-Suzdal Principality13;

the desire for "the sovereignty of the Principality, already cherished as the new center of Russia"14;

the desire to enter North-East Russia as an equal state in the family of Nations of Western Europe, which at that time dominated by the Romanesque architectural style15.

strengthening in Russia of the cult Virgin16;

personal ambitions Andrew17.

In addition, the researcher noted that the construction of the Bogolyubskybecame possible by improvements in building technology and development of related art18.

With all of the above claims N. N. Voronin could not agree more. But recall that this applies only to General characteristics of the construction Bogolyubsky. Special scope of work is 1158, the researcher does not observed, although and took this year as a "low date" of construction and Vladimir Cathedral of the assumption and the Bogoliubov Church of the Nativity Virgin, and fortifications of Bogolyubovo and Vladimir19.

As for the motivation of white stone construction of the temple of Yuri Dolgoruky (even General motivation, not to mention the "special" 1152 year), N. N. Voronin about it wrote nothing. We can assume that he believed these temples are simply "sacred jewelry" fortresses on large-scale construction of which during the whole time of the reign of Yuri, the researcher repeatedly mentioned20.

But indeed the overall scale of the temple building Dolgoruky and the pious are quite comparable: each of them has built a 6 stone21 Church buildings (of the Kiev-Pechersk Patericon22 called Dolgoruky and Builder plinthite The Nativity Cathedral of the beginning of XII century in Suzdal23, and Bogolyubsky built, besides the already mentioned temples Assumption Cathedral in Rostov and the Church of our Saviour in Vladimir).

Yuri Dolgoruky first started using in Suzdal Western romance the technique of construction of natural stone24. Ornamental decor "universal" Roman type, found in many churches of Western Europe, was already on the temples in Pereslavl and Kideksha. In the Church of Boris and Gleb in Kideksha we see a promising portal. (More on the Genesis of the so-called "Russian Romanesque" was considered by the author in a special study25).

In the book "Typological formation and the basic classification of the old Russian Church architecture"26 the author showed that:

type centric four-column temples of Yuri Dolgoruky was, if not unprecedented, previously used rarely and in other forms;

Byzantine cross-dome system, on the basis of which was created this type of temples, was radically creative recycled;

the combination in these temples the integrity of the plan with integrity and a towering the external appearance of precedents in the world had;

these temples were optimal combination of reliability criteria, required qualifications masters, area of the naos, the integrity of the external appearance and height.

The optimality of this type temples is confirmed by the fact that in the future it was in Ancient Rus the most mass. Centric four-column temples were built in large numbers in all ages, in all regions, this type are such masterpieces of Russian architecture, as the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl, Church of the Savior on Nereditsa, the Cathedral of the Annunciation Moscow Kremlin, assumption Cathedral in Dmitrov, Trinity Church in ChashnikovaCathedral Pafnuteva-Borowski monastery, the Church of Transfiguration in Bolshye Vyazemy, a Large Cathedral of the Donskoy monastery and many others.Dr.

Note also that Yuri Dolgoruky made exploration and primary (most time-consuming27) development of quarries in Suzdal.

In this regard, we may assume that the overall motivation the temple construction Yuri was similar to that which brought N. N. Voronin for the construction of Andrew.

In 2001, the author wrote the book "Yuri Dolgoruky and ancient Russian white stone architecture": "Not afraid to say that the significance for the culture and politics of Russia (unfortunately, in the burden on the economy) construction of the five white stone temples Dolgoruky quite comparable to the Foundation of St. Petersburg"28. New studies in the number given in this work not only confirm this view, but given more and more material for the "architectural rehabilitation" Yuri Dolgoruky, whose role in the history of Russian architecture in the Soviet era unnecessarily humiliated the29.

But neither political aspirations nor personal ambitions of Yuri and Andrei Yurevich not explain why most of them Ramsdaleactivities came exclusively to 1152 and 1158. And Vsevolod the Big Nest, and all other the Russian princes also had to realize the political aspirations and personal ambitions, but such a large-scale construction within one year more than one of them did not.

In the work "AndPology Rostov chronicler (to the question about the Dating temples Yuri Dolgoruky)" the author of this study explained large white-stone building in 1152 as follows: "After nearly two years in Kiev Yuri was not short of funds not for nothing Kiev treated him as covetous. Undoubtedly, the departure from Kiev in 1151 (without hope of return who could have foreseen the almost simultaneous death of Izyaslav mstislavovitch and Vyacheslav Vladimirovich?), Yuri "seized" the entire Treasury. Perhaps his squad robbed citizens (this is confirmed by the fact that after the death of Yuri Kiev rushed to beat him came from Suzdal). Consequently, Dolgoruky could build in Suzdal, several temples, and the money he was. And vacant land that could be awarded builders, in North-Eastern Russia was also plenty of... the jury returned to Suzdal from Kiev at the turn of 1151 and 1152 years, and nearly all 1152 was in Suzdal region. The funds he had, hopes to return to Kiev it was not, the deposits of white stone had already been explored, and the beginning of large-scale stone and construction of a fortress in 1152 has absolutely logical justification"30.

But all remains the question why such a large scale was exactly gramodaya 1152 why the jury could not "stretch" the construction of their temples on a few years? Indeed, such short-term tension of all forces and resources the Principality has established a number of internal political problems, the most acute of which it was engaging and the imminent dismissal of a large number of builders.

The same questions arise regarding the construction of Andrew in 1158. Even if he is leaving Vyshgorod to Vladimir, "captured" not only the icon of the virgin, but also a significant funds, even if he needed the maximum load work arrived from Frederick Barbarossa architect31, all the same scale construction 1158 too much different from the scale of construction subsequent years.

In order, to answer these questions, remember that 1152 in force in Russia of the Byzantine chronology32 6660, and 1158 6666.

I guess these ominous from the perspective of the eschatological expectations of date 6660 (three sixes in a row33) and the 6666 (four sixes, followed soon after did not materialize standby end of the world in 6660 year) could not pay the attention of many readers ancient Chronicles in the XVIII and XIX, and in The XX century. But in the scientific works of this "eschatological motivation", as far as we you know, never met, and for the first time about it wrote the author of this study in 2004 in the article "andpology Rostov chronicler" in relation to the construction Andrei Bogolyubsky in 1158. However, the author then touched on this topic briefly, and only in the note to article34.

More detail (though, to unfortunately, without references the scientific work of the author of this article) "eschatological motivation" construction Bogolyubsky researched N. And. The sun35. This Nizhny Novgorod historian believed in the midst of expectations of the end of the world Andrew in 1152 decided to turn North-Eastern Russia in the "New Jerusalem", during his lifetime his father built those churches are Printing record attributes Dolgoruky, and then in 1158 continued construction of the "New Jerusalem" as the sole ruler36.

But to fully embrace position N. And. Solntseva is impossible for several reasons.

First, the researcher believed that in 1152 built temples not Yuri, and Andrew, not on the basis of of any of its own reasoning, but only with reference to the position on this issue N.N. Voronin37. But in fact the position N. N. Voronin consisted of the following: because Yuri Dolgoruky in 1156-1157 the years was Kiev, his son Andrew were able at this time to build a fortress in Moscow to finish The Church of St. George in Vladimir,38. But in 1152 Yuri was in Suzdal land39 and we have no reason to believe that he is entrusting the supervision of design and construction of their temples to Andrew or anyone else.

In the second place, the statement N. And. Solntseva about the fact that Andrew Bogolyubsky erected in their possessions "the New Jerusalem" no more than an assumption. Probably the courtier had indeed used such expressions (for example, quite common was to compare princes with king Solomon40), but architectural hypothetical "New Jerusalem" in the North-Eastern Russia in any way was not expressed, in contrast to built five centuries later the Istra river by Patriarch Nikon. We may therefore follow N. N. Voronin to speak only about personal ambitions Andrew's41, not specifying what they consisted of.

Some doubts arise in relation to the idea of when large-scale construction of 1152 and 1158 years with eschatological expectations (for this reason the author of this article, first writing on the possibility of such a connection in 2004 and in the future gathering material for this special study for many years).

First, the years with the "three sixes" at 6660 6669 repeatedly meet in the old the Chronicles, but about any doomsday preppers this the time period chroniclers are not reported.

Second, the same can be applied to the chroniclers of Byzantium, in the calendar, which was also 6660-e years.

Third, no intensive temple construction in the years of Byzantium were not observed. Only in 1152 the Church was built Panagia Kosmosoteira in the Thracian town of Vira (now Feres).

Fourth, in the XII century in Byzantium and could be a little bit serious and high-profile (in least, approved of secular and ecclesiastical authorities) eschatological expectations, Byzantine theocratic thinking was based on a kind of the "realized eschatology", as if the Kingdom of God has already come in force and if the Empire is a manifestation of this force in the world and in history42. The strongest eschatological expectations the Byzantine Church was associated only with a 7000 year "from the creation of the world" (1492 from the birth of Christ), as the Greek Paschal was calculated only up to this date, and in the end they often talked about the approaching end of the world, associated with disasters that threaten Constantinople: the raids of the barbarians, earthquakes, epidemics, crop failures, etc.43. But before 1492 (when the peak eschatological expectations were not only conquered by the Turks Byzantium, but in Russia44), 1150-ies was far away.

Fifth, in Russia not it is a proven precedents eschatological expectations of earlier 1150-ies.

N. And. Solntsev mentioned the construction of Yaroslav the Wise in Kiev in 1037 (when was built St. Sophia Cathedral and the Golden gates45) as "the preparation the end of the world"46. But even if these two monuments of architecture and was built (or at least begun) in this year of47, all same as global output N. And. Solntseva about the "preparing for doomsday" seems questionable. The reasons for this are the following:

according to the accepted in Russia the Byzantine calendar at this time was not 1037, 6545 year;

even if the end of the world when Yaroslav the Wise was expected by Western calendar, still the peak of eschatological expectations in the Catholic world fell not at 1037, and the 1000-year48. Following a hectic year was 1033, since, according to a widely well-known apocryphal writing , the IV century the "Revelation of Methodius Piterskogo"49, a thousand years it was necessary to count not from the birth of Christ, from his crucifixion, that is it turned out that the Antichrist was to come in the year 1033. Then, the idea is that in for three and a half years (forty two months50) after the hypothetical arrival of the Antichrist was to last for his Kingdom. But the 1033 year came, and with 1037 the West has no global eschatological expectations are not linked, and we have no reason to assume that suddenly, for no reason, no reason at all such expectations were raised in Russia.

In 1038, was the place Kyriopascha the coincidence of Easter and of the Annunciation, and N. And. Sun believed that it was "fueled the expectation of the end of the world"51. But if the global eschatological expectations are not justified neither in 1000 nor in 1033 years, we have no right to believe that they suddenly originated in the year 1038 because of this relatively frequent (occurring in on average, twice a century) phenomenon, as Kyriopascha.

In addition this, N. And. Solntsev mentioned52 as a possible precedent eschatological expectations 1152 and 1158 years that under 6600 (1092) year the chronicle mentions in Polotsk numerous "signs" in the form of luminous celestial circles, of burning swamps of dying people rushing to the city of demons and T. p.53. But such "signs" in the annals found repeatedly in a variety of years, and without any further evidence (which do not exist) to link the Chronicles with eschatology, we can not. Yes and the figure of 6600 two, not three sixes.

And most importantly, either in 1092 or in 1037 or 1038 in the years, in contrast to the 1152 and 1158, we do not see in Russia any the exceptional extent of ramosmania.

But all the same we can not consider large-scale construction 1152 and 1158 years a coincidence.

And in order to quite to understand his motivation, we need to recall that eschatological expectations were in The XII century is widely common in Western Europe. Unjustified predictions of the end of the world in 1000 and 1033 years by that time already forgotten, and began to appear new.

For example, according to the teachings Italian theologian Joachim ploskogo (1132-1202), after the 1260 years must come to an end "the second period of New Testament the Kingdom of the Son of God," and will begin a period of "the third Testament the Kingdom The Holy spirit", when "the wicked shall be wiped from the face of the Earth" and will come "the ideal era of the Holy spirit, the Kingdom of peace and truth on Earth." Soon the "Kingdom of the Holy spirit" on Earth was awaiting the members religious-social movements , amlericanin France and the Apostolic brethren in Italy (XIIXIV century)54.

And since, as we shown above, Dolgoruky and Bogolyubskii tried to make North-Eastern Russia a full-fledged European country, mid - XII century was marked by a broad contacts of Russia with Western Europe. We may assume that the consequence of these contact was the arrival on Russia, not only masters, but also eschatological expectations.

These expectations, of course, was not so massive and resonant, like 1000 or 1492, or they would have found place in the ancient Chronicles. But, apparently, the unprecedented scale of the construction of the temple of Yuri and Andrei in 1152 and 1158 years and did not aim to reassure a worried nation. Soon on the contrary citing opportunity to close the end of the world, the princes could more efficiently and cheaply to bring gramodaya construction personnel, and then, after the end of the world failed, their safely and easily to dismiss.

Managed Dolgoruky and Bogolyubsky in this troubled Church-dogmatic point view time you to solve a number of problems in relations with the Orthodox Church for example, in 1152 to receive the blessing of temple building from the Romanesque material natural stone, in 1158, the blessing device to the temples Romanesque zooantroponosessculpture decor55.

Perhaps in these years was is it easier to get builders and fortresses as graduata the function of the latter was seen not only in the physical, but in the spiritual sense56. Therefore, in 1152 and 1158 years we see ambitious fortress construction.

Thus, in North-Eastern Russia in the 1150 years from the West came not only romanica. Together withlast onewas accepted and eschatological expectations, overlapping on the Byzantine calendar as well as the Romanesque architectural style the Byzantine cross-dome system.

 

NOTES

 

1. PSRL. Vol. 24. The chronicle for Printing the list. Ed. 1. PG., 1921. P. 77.

2. N. N. Voronin believed that the Church of our Saviour in the city of Suzdal, mentioned in the message Printing Chronicles the construction of Yuri Dolgoruky in 1152 (PSRL. T 24... p. 77), the chapel of the temple Monomakh (Voronin N. N. Architecture North-Eastern Russia XIIXV centuries. M., 1961-1962. Vol. 1. P.64). The assumption that the Church of our Saviour was on the court of Yuri Dolgoruky, and this yard was on the site of the Spaso-evfimiev monastery, was nominated O. M. Ioanninon (communicated to the author by O. M. Ioanninon in 2002). But it seems unlikely as of Saint Euthymius the monastery of the Kremlin too far (almost 2 km). In the role of the "far" princely court rather could act as a fortress in Kideksha (near5 km).

The author of this book, there is reason to believe that the Church of the Saviour was located on the courtyard of Dolgoruky of Suzdal inside the city walls, near the ramparts from the river (just like the temples in Pereslavl, Kideksha and Yuriev-Polsky). The fact that the altars the vast majority of Russian churches of the XVIII century focused almost exactly East (90 degrees). And only the altars of the Church of the assumption, standing just beyond the ramparts to the right of the entrance to the Kremlin, focused on 60 degrees exactly the same as the altars of the pre-Mongol Cathedral of the Nativity of the virgin.

The first construction period of the Church The assumption with some degree of certainty is the end of the XVII century, and in 1617 year this place was a wooden Church (Varganov A. D. Suzdal. Yaroslavl, 1971. P.133).But the same deviation of the altars and churches of the assumption and Cathedral of the Nativity of the virgin can hardly be considered a coincidence after all, wooden Church XVIXVII centuries was preceded by the temples of the XVIII century altars which is oriented exactly 90 degrees.

The most satisfactory explanation of this situation is: Church of the assumption was built on the site (maybe even on foundations) pre-Mongol temple, i.e. the Church of the Savior in the city of Suzdal. Indeed, the distance from the Church to the shaft about10 mto rivers about20 m and this is the highest point of the Kremlin. In the second half of the XV century on this place was the court of Ivan III (Varganov A. D. Decree. withPTS., p. 133), and this is an additional argument in that there was a yard of Yuri Dolgoruky. See Church of the Saviour could be renamed in the assumption at any time between the XII and XV centuries. May was the transfer of the throne of the Transfiguration of our Saviour in founded in 1350 by the Prince of the Spaso-evfimiev monastery. And the pre-Mongol the Church (not of the Saviour, and the assumption) could collapse, for example, in the Troubled time (as constructed simultaneously with the Church of Boris and Gleb in Kideksha), and in 1617 could be "temporary" a wooden Church, which was mentioned in the inventory.

But, of course, confirm the author's hypothesis about the location of the Church of the Saviour in the city of Suzdal can only archeological research.

3. Zagraevsky S. V. AndPology Rostov chronicler (to the question about the Dating temples Yuri Dolgoruky). Abstracts. In the book: Materials regional conference dedicated to the centenary of the birth N. N. Voronin (19 APR2004 g.). Vladimir, 2004. C. 15-26.

4. PSRL. T 24... P. 77.

5. Zagraevsky S. V. To the question of reconstruction and date Church of the Intercession on the Nerl. In the book: The materials of the regional conference (20-21 April2007.). Vladimir, 2008. Vol. 2. S. 3-12; Zagraevsky V. S. Bogolyubov the architectural ensemble of the end of 1150 x beginning 1170-ies: the history and reconstruction. In the book: To The Memory Of Andrei Bogolyubsky. SB. articles. Moscow Vladimir, 2009. P. 141-167.

6. PSRL. Vol. 1. The Laurentian Codex. L., 1926-1928. S. 348.

7. N. N. Voronin took 1158 as "lower date" the construction of the Golden gate (Voronin N. N. The architecture of North-Eastern Russia XIIXV centuries. M., 1961-1962. Vol. 1. P.128). Because of the assumption Cathedral and the Golden gates were built one the same architect (see: ZagraevskyS. V. The Architect Frederick Barbarossa. In the collection: "worthy of Praises...". Andrey Bogolyubsky in Russian history and culture. International a scientific conference. Vladimir, 5-6 July 2011. Vladimir, 2013. P. 184-195), we also take this year as the start date the construction of the Golden gate.

8. Zagraevsky S. V. Bogolyubov the architectural ensemble of the end of 1150 x beginning 1170-ies...

9. Zagraevsky S. V. the early history of the Pokrovsky monastery on The Nerl. M., 2016. The material is on the website http://rusarch.ru/zagraevsky50.htm.

10. Voronin N. N. Architecture North-Eastern Russia XIIXV centuries. M., 1961-1962. Vol. 1. C. 128.

11. Zagraevsky S. V. Yuri Dolgoruky and ancient Russian white stone architecture. M., 2001. Appendix: Comparative calculation of the notional value of construction of white stone and brick in terms of complexity (man-days).

12. Voronin N. N. The Architecture Of North-Eastern Russia... Vol. 1. S. 304.

13. Ibid. S. 302.

14. Ibid. P.122.

15. Voronin N. N. Monuments Of Vladimir-Suzdal architecture of XIXIII centuries. M.; L., 1945. P. 47.

16. Voronin N. N. The Architecture Of North-Eastern Russia... Vol. 1. S. 318.

17. N. N. Voronin (ibid., 315, 339) cited the words of the chronicler: "Son the pious and Christ-loving Prince Andrew upodobania king of Solomono, like a house God and the Church preslava the Holy virgin of Rozhestva in the middle of the city Kamen created by Bogoljub and surprise Yu pace vsih Church... and after the great target this Church in memory of sobe" (PSRL. Vol. 2. The Ipatiev chronicle. St. Petersburg, 1908. P. 581-582).

18. Voronin N. N. The Architecture Of North-Eastern Russia... Vol. 1. S. 306.

19. Ibid. C. 128, 149, 201.

20. Ibid. S. 102.

21. The definition of "stone" we are here upotrebom in a broad sense to denote a the construction not only of natural stone, but also from time or in mixed media.

22. The Paterik of Kiev-Pechersky monastery. SPb, 1911. P.9.

23. Even if Yuri yet was too young and a real Builder of the Cathedral was his father Vladimir Monomakh (thought N.N. Voronin: Voronin N. N. The Architecture Of North-Eastern Russia... Vol. 1. S. 28), still in construction Yuri could not participate, the more if the correct version of Y. A. Limonov that he reigned in Suzdal in 1096 year (Y. A. Limonov, Vladimiro-Suzdal Russia. Essays on the socio-political history. L., 1987. P.20).

24. The vast majority of the Romanesque cathedrals and castles in the heart of the Holy Roman Empire Germany was built from natural stone, of brick there at the time was built only minor construction of a civil nature and small provincial temples. In Northern Italy Romanesque churches generally were built of brick, but was covered with stone (the Cathedral in Modena), or such veneer is provided, but for various reasons have not been made (the Cathedral of San Ambrogio in Milan) or was not done completely (the Church San Michele in Pavia).

25. Zagraevsky S. V. the Beginning of "Russian Romanesque": Yuri Dolgoruky or Andrey Bogolyubsky? M., 2005. The material is on the website http://rusarch.ru/zagraevsky2.htm.

26. Read more cm.: Zagraevsky S. V. Typological formation and the underlying classification of the old Russian Church architecture. Saarbrücken, 2015. GL. 4.

27. In order, to find need sort of stone, often had to punch in a stone layer hundreds of meters galleries. Accordingly, the complexity of developing a stone was increased in dozens of times regarding the calculation given in the book: Zagraevsky S. V. Yuri Dolgoruky and old white-stone architecture...

28. Zagraevsky S. V. Yuri Dolgoruky and ancient Russian white stone the architecture... p. 139.

29. Read more cm.: Zagraevsky S. V. the Beginning of "Russian Romanesque"...

30. Zagraevsky S. V. AndPology Rostov chronicler...

31. Read more cm.: Zagraevsky S. V. About The Architect Friedrich Barbarossa...

32. In the Byzantine year began on 1 Sep, but here we for simplicity, we unspecified to compare Western European chronology with Byzantinewith amendment of 5508 years.

33. Open. 13:18.

34. Zagraevsky S. V. AndPology Rostov chronicler... Approx. 32. About eschatological expectations in these years, the author of this study wrote in historical novels: "a Poor knight of the Temple" (M., 2013. P. 178) and "Architect of his Majesty" (M., 2014. P. 122).

35. Solntsev N. And. The Concept Of "New Jerusalem" in the construction the initiative of Andrei Bogolyubsky. In sat: Vestnik Nizhegorodskogo universiteta im. N. And. Lobachevsky. No. 4(1), 2012. 175-281 S.; Solntsev N. And. To the question of the justification of the reasons for the creation of architectural complex in Vladimir-on-Klyazma. In sat: Vestnik Nizhegorodskogo universiteta im. N. And. Lobachevsky. No. 3, 2016. C. 86-92.

36. Solntsev N. And. To the question of the justification of the reasons for the creation of the architectural complex in Vladimir-on-Klyazma... P. 88.

37. Solntsev N. And. Decree. withPTS., p. 87, citing the book: Voronin N. N. The Architecture Of North-Eastern Russia... Vol.1. S. 92.

38. Voronin N. N. Ibid.

39. PSRL. T 24... P. 77.

40. About the comparison of Andrew Bogolyubsky with Solomon (PSRL. T. 2... P. 581-582) we have mentioned above, and Metropolitan Hilarion "sermon on law and grace" compared with Yaroslav the Wise Solomon: "a Good and faithful witness your son (Vladimir the Baptist Sz) George (Christian name of Yaroslav S. Z.), whom the Lord created the successor to your rule: do not violate your statutes, but the approver; not detracting from your stores of true belief, but multiplying; not in words, but (in fact) driving to the end that thee pokonchenoSolomon (case) David. He created the House of God, great and Holy The wisdom of (His) Holiness and sanctification of your castle and decorated it all beauty: gold and silver, and expensive stones, and vessels of the sacred this Church is a marvelous and glorious among all the neighboring peoples that the other (like this) not be found throughout polynomi of the earth, from East to West. And a glorious city of Kiev, your Majesty, as a crown, surrounded, gave your people and hail an ambulance to help Christians with Vselennoy Holy Mother Of God. She and the Church on the Great gate was created in the name of the first of the Lord of the feast, of the Holy Annunciation" (CIT. with the simplification of spelling in the book: Rozov N. N. The Synodal list of works Metropolitan Hilarion a Russian writer of the XI century Prague, 1963. C. 2.). And Constantine Vsevolodovich, for example, the Laurentian chronicle (PSRL. Vol. 1...) likened "the wise Solomon" thrice under 1206, 1207 and 1218 years.

41. Voronin N. N. The Architecture Of North-Eastern Russia... Vol. 1. S. 315.

42. Meyendorff I., FR. Byzantine theology. Historical trends and doctrinal themes. Mn., 2001. P.154.

43. Alekseev A. I. Under the sign of the end times. Essays Russian religiousness. SPb, 2002. P. 54.

44. For example, this year Russian pPravoslavnaia the Church did not count Paschal next, 1493-the year, and farmers almost ceased to sow the fields, next year led to famine (podrobno see: Borisov N. With. Daily life medieval Russia on the eve of the end of the world. M., 2005. C. 8-17).

45. About this building mentions and Metropolitan Hilarion "sermon on law and grace" (cm. above).

46. Solntsev N. And. To the question of the justification of the reasons create an architectural complex in Vladimir-on-Klyazma... P. 86.

47. The date of construction of St. Sophia Cathedral in Kiev is ongoing controversy. For example, see: Nikitenko N. N., Kornienko V. V. Schodo materall round table "Zasnuvannya Sofiyskogo Cathedral in CIV: problems novih datwani" (7 Quine 2010, m. Kyiv).

48. "FrankAI IOAnna The Evangelist" says: "And I saw an angel come down from heaven, having the key from the bottomless pit and a great chain in his hand. He seized the dragon, that serpent the ancient, who is the devil and Satan, and bound him for a thousand years, and cast him into the abyss, and bound him, and put on him printing, so as not to deceive already the Nations until the thousand years; after the this he must be released for a short time" (Apoc. 20:1-4). Accordingly, in the year 1000 panic was such that the dignitaries gave away his possessions to the churches and left in the convent, merchants by the end of the 999 year emptied their warehouses, and the peasants were thrown the farm was built of boards from the coffins and placed in them (Hillel Schwartz. Century's End: A Cultural History of the Fin de Siècle from the 990s through the 1990s. New York, 1990. P. 395).

49. Estrin V. M. the Revelation of Methodius Piterskogo and the apocryphal visions of Daniel in Byzantine and Slavo-Russian literature. M., 1897. P. 46.

50. Open. 13:5.

51. Solntsev N. And. To the question of the justification of the reasons create an architectural complex in Vladimir-on-Klyazma... P. 86.

52. Ibid., with reference to A. I. Alekseev (Alekseev A. I. Eschatological experiences in the Western Europe and Russia in the IXXV centuries (Simultaneously occurring processes or topological similarity). In the book: Research on Russian history and culture. Collection articles on the 70th anniversary of Professor Igor Yakovlevich Froyanova. M., 2006).

53. PSRL. T 24... P. 70.

54. Bogoslovsky M. M. Unresolved issues of Christianity. In Sib. "Neva", No. 11, 2000.

55. Read more cm.: Zagraevsky S. V. Yuri Dolgoruky and ancient Russian white stone the architecture... GL. 5.

56. Likhachev D. S. Graduata semantics Assumption churches in Russia. In the book: The assumption Cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin. Materials and research. M 1985. S. 17-23.

 

Sergey Zagraevsky

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