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Prof. Dr. S.V. Zagraevsky


The apology of Rostov Chronicler

(to the question of date of Jury Dolgorukys temples)




Published in Russian: .. ( ). . .: , .. (19 2004 .). , 2004. . 15-26.





The scientific study offered readers examines in thesis form the questions of the date of the temples built by Yuri Dolgoruky, confirmes the fidelity of the chronicle message about the construction of all these five temples in 1152. The main source of Dolgorukys architecture the Imperial Cathedral in the German city of Speyer (Speyer) is defined.




The following text was translated from the Russian original by the computer program

and has not yet been edited.

So it can be used only for general introduction.





"At the same time, George Duke in Suzdal be, and wtvyrz him God razumniy eyes on the Church building, and many of the Church of postavila on Suzdalskoe the country and placed the Church of stone on the Nerl, the Holy Martyr Boris and Gleb, and the Holy Saviour in Suzdal, and of the Holy St George in Volodimira stone, and Pereaslavl hail transferred from Klemania, and founded a large hail, and the stone Church in it there the Holy Saviour, and do Yu books and mommy wondrous saints, and Gergev founded the castle and the Church there the stone Holy Martyr St George"1.

This is the famous message Printing record under 1152 (M.D. priselkov has shown that the chronicler lived in Rostov during the Dolgoruky2for the first time questioned Voronin, suggesting that the chronicler "summarized" built Yuri Dolgoruky built at 1152 by 11573. M. ioannisyan believes that the first construction of these built in 1148 (St. George's Cathedral in Yuryev-Polish4).

Arguments against Rostov chronicler may be briefly expressed as follows: on the 1140-1150-ies Dolgoruky came to the team of Galich, up to 1110-ies worked in lesser Poland. This team in the Suzdal region was the only one, and 1152 she would not have been able to build so many churches5.

"Galician version of" justified by the similarity of construction equipment and decoration of Suzdal, Galician and lesser temples6.

The logical consequence of this position is that Dolgoruky could only build the temple in the year - more than one gang would not have succeeded. Already in the works of N.N. Voronin7 and M. ioannisyan8 there is a tendency of such a method of Dating churches listed Rostov chronicler, and there is no doubt that future researchers will become still more evenly distribute Dating five churches (including the Church of our Saviour in Suzdal9between 1148 and 1157 years. The number of possible variants of such distribution in the hundreds.

Of course, this is fertile ground for every researcher pre-Mongol Vladimir-Suzdal architecture could put forward its own version of the Dating temples Yuri. But is such a position legitimate?



Section I


Here are the main arguments against the Galician version" (i.e. actually we are starting to Express arguments in favor of the Rostov chronicler).


1. Building of white stone was ten times more expensive brick (the calculations are given in the book "Yuri Dolgoruky and the old white-stone architecture"10). Deposits of white stone ("myachkovsky horizon deposits Carboniferous period") by a semicircle cover Moscow from the South-West (Fig. 1), never going to Vladimir closer than 200-250 km in a straight line (and rivers, respectively, 400-500 km). Accordingly, the transport component of the cost of white stone building is very high. But even if we exclude from the calculation of the transport component, the construction of white stone was still twice as expensive brick.



Fig. 1. The scheme of distribution of the middle sediments in the suburbs.


And why, even if the jury had its collective farm and had to invite a team of Galich, his descendants continued building of white stone, three hundred years, and not passed on to the brick at the first opportunity?


2. Galic was far from Western edge (Fig. 2)and the Prince of the Vladimir Volodarevych - representative branches "princes rogue", besides, he was a generation younger than Dolgoruky. Therefore, the possibility of its influence on Yuri - legitimate Challenger Kyiv table, - and even more for the next Suzdal and Moscow princes, who continued to build in white stone for three hundred years, is void.



Fig. 2. Principality of pre-Mongol Russia.


3. Plans and sizes of Galician churches of the first half of XII century absolutely different (Fig. 3). Lesser churches do not belong to a cross type.



Fig. 3. Plans Galician and Vladimir-Suzdal churches (Omiani):

1 - the Church of St. John in Przemysl;

2 - the Church in Zvenigorod Galitsky;

3 - the Church of our Saviour in Galich;

4 - the Church on the "Winterised";

5 - Transfiguration Cathedral in Pereslavl;

6 - the Church of Boris and Gleb in Kideksha;

7 - the Church of St. George in Vladimir;

8 - the Church of deposition of the robe on the Golden gate in Vladimir.


Therefore, a single logic of a hypothetical Polish-Galicia-Suzdal cooperative been observed.


4. Even if we assume that in lesser Poland, Galicia and Suzdal one and the same hypothetical team, then do a half-century (1110-e-1150-e) it has not appeared any competitors? And is it not strange that the work of such "superarteli" was not reflected in the Chronicles? The invitation of skilled craftsmen was an extraordinary event (remember masters of all lands and from Frederick Barbarossa" Andrei Bogolyubsky, as well as an important reservation vsevolodova chronicler of that Big Nest was not looking for "painters from the German")11.


5. The construction team consisted of no less than 80 people (with their wives and children - more than 200 people)12and transfer of so many people (Gypsies or merchants, and most valuable of construction personnel) of Galich in Suzdal on distance more 1300 km (straight and rivers more 2500 km) in a few hostile principalities extremely unlikely. Any Prince or Governor could stop the gang and get to work on yourself. Or even destroy, to prevent the enemy to build temples and fortresses.


6. In the book "Yuri Dolgoruky and the old white-stone architecture"13 the author has established a philosophy: where the requirements for the timing and quality of construction allowed to use the local people, the princes, as a rule, preferred this option. Naturally, we are talking primarily about the "ordinary" builders (i.e. the vast majority artel). Architects, painters, jewelers and other unique and highly specialized professionals to go from Prince to Prince and from town to town as often as you wish.

But when orders for the construction was not, local craftsmen were engaged in any handicraft (first of all carpenters), and even peasant labour. Moreover, the construction could not be their primary qualification. They were and remain urban artisans or peasants, and work on the construction gave them the opportunity to earn money and (or) to receive an allotment.

With regard to the qualification of "ordinary" construction, any Russian peasant and nowadays is able to perform construction work on a very wide profile, especially under the guidance of highly skilled craftsmen. And about the most difficult part of construction - erection of arches and drums - known that this work was carried out on the wooden wheel and formwork. Consequently, the main work was provided carpenter, and the experience of such work in the ubiquitous wooden building in the XII century was enormous.

And let's not forget that in every city, in addition to temples and fortifications were built a lot of wooden and often brick constructions of a civil nature, so that the need for professional Builder to move from city to city, and even of the Principality in the Principality, has arisen not as a rule, and as an exception.


7. The stocks of white stone in Suzdal was impossible to explore within a year or two.

Naturally, Yuri Dolgoruky was not interested in transporting stone for a few hundred kilometers, and where the deposits end Carboniferous period, Suzdal in the XII century could not know. You can imagine how many hundreds of test excavation was made. Stone certainly looking and subject to Pereslavl, and near Rostov and Suzdal, Vladimir and under, and very slowly got to the distant suburbs of Moscow. And not for nothing that all the ancient quarries are located on the edges "myachkovsky horizon" on the part of Vladimir, moved "geologists.

Consequently, the "spontaneity" stone building, which allegedly forced George to invite Galicia, also cannot be an argument against Rostov chronicle - in the case of "spontaneity" the Prince would not have had white stone.

If Dolgorukiy "spontaneously" decided to build something, he could only lead brick building. For example, it could invite the masters from its ally Svyatoslav Olgovich Chernihiv (standing, unlike vladimirka Galician, on the top "of the Prince's ladder"), and to build instead of five white stone churches fifty brick (i.e. build, at least, in the Novgorod and Smolensk).


8. Galich, deposits of limestone various types, suitable for construction, are almost everywhere and come to the surface in many places (for example, along the Dniester river). Immediate neighbors were Galic Western European States - Poland and Hungary. Therefore, the architecture of Galich chronologically romanik previously interpreted the Suzdal for objective reasons, not because of the presence in the first half of XII century masters in Galicia and their absence in Suzdal.


9. If we accept the version M. ioannisyan construction (or at least the inception) St. George's Cathedral in Yuryev-Polsky in 1148, we will be forced to move away, respectively, and the inception of Yuryev fortress, desafuero thus the message of Rostov chronicler not only the churches, but also in respect of fortresses.

Suppose that the chronicler "summarized" and fortress built Dolgoruky. But why is it then not included in the "sum" of the fortress in Moscow and Dmitrov? The list would be much more convincing.


10. The famous "corporal" of Novgorod Nikolo-Nicholas Cathedral, the speaker of the consecration of the Novgorod Archbishop Nifont certain "the altar of St. George in 1148, has a very dubious authenticity. This issue is devoted to a special study of the author14here it makes sense to list only the main arguments.

First, it is striking not quite typical of the Church documents, the wording: "consecrated by Archbishop Nifont of Novgorod by the command of the Rostov Bishop Nestor". Even if it was the priests who were directly subordinated to each other, would be more appropriate word "blessing". And then the Bishop of one of the region "commands" to consecrate the Church of the Bishop of another region, not subordinate to him, neither nominal nor actually consecrated much earlier.

Secondly, the Archbishop of Novgorod was founded only in 1165 (in this study the author examined this issue in detail), and the text on the Board of the Hermitage Nifont named Archbishop.

Third, in 1148 Bishop Nifont came to Yuri Dolgoruky. Chronicle describes in detail all of what the Bishop of Novgorod did during your stay in Suzdal15but no consecration of the Church of St. George (and the more of such exceptional importance, as St. George's Cathedral in Yuriev-Polsky) here there is no speech.

Fourth, there are signs of exposure to the document "artificial ageing".

In this study the author has put forward the version of the origin of this document. It can be briefly summarized as follows: there is no doubt that in the XIII-XV centuries of Vladimir-Suzdal, and then the Grand princes of Moscow has repeatedly demanded that "show Novgorod its place." One of such actions and could be writing a document, proving that the Bishop Nestor "commanded" the Archbishop Nifont Holy temple. Dated this document was quite logical: 1148 - known date of arrival Nifont in Suzdal. In this case, it becomes easy to understand and answer the question of how the cards finally came to Novgorod: it was made specifically to be brought there with some of Vladimir and Moscow Embassy.

Hence, the document is stored in the State Hermitage, not a sign of consecration of a Bishop Nifont in 1148 any of the throne of St. George, and we can not rely on this text in the analysis of the historical situation, research on Church history and Dating of a Church or chapel.


11. The origin of the Galician version" refers to the end of the XIX century, when in accordance with the tenet of "Orthodoxy, nationality, autocracy," it was possible to recognize the influence of anyone, but not in Western Europe. A "version of the Transcaucasian influence", is also acceptable from the point of view of this dogma, even less justified than "Galician" (this is convincingly demonstrated V.N. Lazarev16).

Under Stalin, Galicia became part of the Soviet Union, and the Galician version received additional political weight. Therefore we can assume that the commitment Voronin and V.N. Lazarev exactly this version was largely involuntary (for example, end-of-life - in the 1970-ies - V.N. Lazarev already wrote that Galician architecture played only a "mediating role between Western Europe and Suzdal17).



Section II


Here are some additional arguments in favor of the Rostov chronicler.


1. If Dolgoruky came not cooperative, and architect and a few skilled craftsmen (BA Ognev called them "building a team"18), they could organize building in several neighboring towns (Pereslavl, Suzdal, Yuriev, Kideksha, Vladimir).


2. Note that in fact the jury did not even have "construction squad". In the book "Yuri Dolgoruky and the old white-stone architecture"19 the author shows that there has been a direct impact on Dolgoruky "Holy Roman Empire", not a distant suburbs Galich, and through the nearest neighbor of Suzdal - Novgorod.

In this book were put forward only version of a possible internship Suzdal masters in Western Europe20but now, the author is ready as a direct analog of temples Yuri Dolgoruky not be called Galicia and Malopolska building and the Imperial Cathedral of Speyer (this traditional writing; more modern - Speyer). The Cathedral was built in 1029-1106 years (Fig. 9).

All the arguments that can be cited as justification for similarities lesser Poland, Galician and Suzdal churches (masonry walls and foundations, the blind arcades - see Fig. 4-8), is fully applicable to the Imperial Cathedral (Fig. 10). In the crypt of the Cathedral in Speyer author of this thesis was able to detect even specific ornamental carving (Fig. 11), which O.M. ioannisian wrote21 that it is not found anywhere except Pereslavl (Fig. 5) and lesser temples (Fig. 6). Rubble foundations of the Cathedral in Speyer keystone in the section and significantly wider walls, as in Galicia, and in Suzdal. At the Imperial Cathedral, we see the curb, its walls taper upwards with the ledge (as in the temples Dolgoruky), and in the crypt even implemented a cross-scheme with a groin pillars (Fig. 12).



Fig. 4. Blind arcades and the curb on the Church of Boris and Gleb in Kideksha.



Fig. 5. Arcature, curb and carved shaft at the Holy Transfiguration Cathedral in Pereslavl.



Fig. 6. Carved cornice of the nave on the collegiate Church of St. Martin Opatov (photo M. ioannisyan).



Fig. 7. John the Baptist Catholic Church in Prandolini. Fragment of the Western facade (photo M. ioannisyan).



Fig. 8. The Church Andrzej in Krakow. A part of the Eastern facade (photo M. ioannisyan).



Fig. 9. The Imperial Cathedral of Speyer. General view.



Fig. 10. Cathedral of Speyer. A part of the Eastern facade.



Fig. 11. Cathedral of Speyer. Carved tree above pledged internal window in the crypt.



Fig. 12. Cathedral of Speyer. The plan.


Excellent pan-European significance of the Imperial Cathedral of Speyer and its chronological primacy on the temples of Malopolska, Galich and Suzdal say that the similarity of architecture all these Slavic principalities has absolutely convincing rationale - shared origins.


3. The author of this thesis showed22 that the only building opportunities masters Dolgoruky has rigidly set an upper limit on the sizes of the Suzdal churches (and all the subsequent history of old Russian architecture has confirmed that exceed the "maximum security" white stone cross structures defined in the middle of the XII century, leads to accidents).

And if the jury came worthy of the princely level of Western European masters, then this "limit" would be incomparably more (for example, in the Cathedral of Speyer span arches - 14 mand in Worms Cathedral - 10 m).

Therefore, the arrival of Western European masters to Yuri unlikely, and there is only one option that caring Prince of reflection in Suzdal architecture of state power and ideology (this concern is confirmed by the fact of transition to expensive, but the "Imperial" white-stone construction): the temples Dolgoruky built by local craftsmen under the supervision of the local architects, who have undergone training (internship) in Western Europe.

And this is all the more possible to conduct simultaneous construction in any number of cities - only to have the necessary resources.


4. After nearly two years in Kiev Yuri was not short of money - not for nothing Kiev treated him as greedy. Undoubtedly, in the care of Kiev in 1151 (without hope of return - who could have foreseen almost simultaneous death Izyaslav Mstislavich and Vyacheslav Vladimirovich?), Yuri "seized" the entire Treasury. Perhaps his squad robbed citizens (this is confirmed by the fact that after the death of Yuri Kyiv residents rushed to beat come with him Suzdal).

Therefore, Dolgoruky could build in Suzdal multiple temples, and the money he had on it were. And free land, which could be awarded builders in the North-Eastern Russia, too, was enough.


5. Rostov chronicler makes sense accent on the date of the buildings - at the same time. Indeed, Yuri returned to Suzdal from Kiev at the turn of 1151 and 1152 years, and almost all of 1152 was in Suzdal region. Means he had hopes for a return to Kiev there was a Deposit of white stone had already been explored, and the beginning of a massive stone fortress construction in 1152 has absolutely logical justification.



Section III


So, we can fully trust Rostov chronicler and confirm the traditional date - 1152 - as a reasonable base all five temples Dating Dolgoruky.

But the question arises: is the date just laying temples, or all the temples in the course of this year were completely built? Did Dolgoruky see their Church completed?


1. Rostov chronicler clearly shows all the churches Dolgoruky as fully built in 1152. On the temples in Kideksha and Yuriev-Polsky Chronicles give no other information.


2. The construction of the Transfiguration Cathedral in Pereslavl in the life of Yuri confirms the book: "...Decorate W marvellous chudnoy signature and Holy icons..."23.

Under 1157 there are a number of chronicle reports that Andrei "the Church she, W is the baie been founded before his father with the Holy Saviour Kamen...". N.N. Voronin believed that we are talking about Pereslavl. If this is true (although we could go and on the Church of our Saviour in Suzdal), then 1157 could be arranged majolica floors, gilded head, and carried out other work, defined as the repair. Therefore, we have no right to question the message of Rostov chronicler of the full construction of the Transfiguration Cathedral (and the Church of our Saviour in Suzdal) in 1152.


3. With George's Church yard Dolgoruky in Vladimir, the situation is somewhat more complicated. Chronicle Avraamki contrary Printing, giving as the date of construction 115724. N.N. Voronin took this date25wanting to bring it to the beginning of construction of new fortification of Vladimir (1158), since, according to the researcher, the construction of the princely court outside the fortifications unlikely, and in 1157 new fortifications was "by design".

But Yuri, the Prince of Suzdal with 1113 (or even 109626) years, could not have a yard in Vladimir long before 1157. Nothing surprising in the location of the princely court outside "Pechenegi" (Monomachus) of the city there: the courtyard is situated in a very favourable from the point of view of natural protection site (over a cliff between two ravines), and short "floor" side yard certainly had its own fortifications.

And because of the Vladimir chronicle says about the building of the Church of St. George in 1153, and this date is not significantly different from the date of Rostov chronicler (we can talk about the intricacies of attributing the works of construction or finishing), we accept the Dating of the construction of the Church of 1152.


4. Yuri Dolgoruky, laying in 1152 (probably in spring or early summer), all their temples, at the end of the year ("winter road") went in the unsuccessful campaign to Chernigov. At the turn of 1152 and 1153 he returned to Suzdal. In early 1154 he again went on a campaign for the summer, probably come back late autumn of this year went to a new campaign to Chernigov, and then in early 1155 occupied Kiev and died there in 1157.

So, Yuri could see their churches in 1153 and 1154, respectively. In 1153 they were already almost fully built (one year was the usual term for the construction of temples such scale), and in 1154, perhaps even partially painted.





In parallel with the apology Rostov chronicler we are ready to become apologists and Yuri Dolgoruky - certainly not in respect of his personal or princely qualities, but only in the field of the history of architecture.

Currently, about coming to Andrei Bogolyubsky masters of this or that region of the "Holy Roman Empire" are quite controversial. But no matter where - from Germany (according to AI Komech27) or from Northern Italy (on Omiani28) - expected arrival masters, Friedrich Barbarossa29the researchers try the history of the so-called "Russian romanik not with George, and with Andrew. A similar position was held Voronin30.

But we, excluding significant "Galician influence" in Suzdal architecture and defining the Imperial Cathedral of Speyer as direct sources architecture Yuri, may say that the so-called "Russian romanik" (this concept is very relative, because Russian churches preserved Byzantine cross diagram) began from Dolgoruky, and architecture Bogolyubsky in any case cannot be considered outside the context of the architecture of his father.

Undoubtedly, the temples of Andrei more "Grand"than churches George, and the Assumption Cathedral in Vladimir and Rostov differ much greater size (adversely affecting reliability31). When Andrew was first introduced and zooantropomorfny sculptures32.

But the technique of construction, and General "towering"and decoration of churches Dolgoruky allow to speak about the direct influences of Romanesque, i.e. the "Russian romanik". As for the small size of temples Yuri and lack zooantropomorfnogo decor, in Western Europe was built many temples even smaller, and zooantropomorfny decoration on the Imperial Cathedral of Speyer extremely modest, fragmented and does not play any meaningful role in the formation of the external appearance of the temple. Besides the author of this thesis showed33 that in the middle of the XII century the Orthodox Church did not allow decoration Suzdal churches zooantropomorfnym decor.

The architecture of Galicia, although chronologically assumed earlier Romanesque Suzdal, in the pre-Mongolian time was only "side branch" of ancient architecture, and in XIV century Galich was "unimportant" a province of Poland and Russia never was a part (except for a short stay in the USSR).

A white-stone architecture of Yuri Dolgoruky not only marked the real beginning of the "Russian romanik, but also defined the main directions of development of the architecture of Vladimir-Suzdal land, Tver and Moscow great Principality and then the centralized Russian state.




1. PSRL 24:77.

2. M.Dpreshaw. History of Russian Chronicles of the XI-XV centuries, St. Petersburg, 1996. C. 120.

3. Voronin. The Architecture Of Vladimir-Suzdal Russia. In the book. "History of Russian art", M, 1953. So 1. C. 344;

4. M. ioannisyan. On the early development of the Galician architecture. - In the book: THE USSR ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. Short communications. No 164. Slavic-Russian archeology. M., 1981 (hereinafter - ioannisyan, 1981). C. 40.

5. Ibid.

6. Ibid., C. 41-44.

7. Voronin. The architecture of North-Eastern Russia XII-XV centuries. M., 1961-1962 (hereinafter referred to Voronin, the Architecture of North-Eastern Russia). So 1, S. 68, 89, 91.

8. Ioannisyan, 1981. C. 41-44;

M. ioannisyan. Architecture of ancient Galich and architecture of Malopolska. - In the book: Acta Archaeologica Carpathica. 27. Krakow, 1988. C. 187.

9. The hypothesis about the location of the temple on the site of the existing Church of the assumption in the Suzdal Kremlin, the author expressed in kN.: SV zagraevsky. The architecture of North-Eastern Russia the end of the XIII-beginning of the XIV century. M., 2003. C. 126.

10. SV zagraevsky. Yuri Dolgoruky and old white-stone architecture. M., 2002. (Hereinafter Referred To Yuri Dolgoruky...). C. 141.

11. PSRL 1:351;

V.N.Tatischev. History Of Russia. M, L, 1964. So 3, C. 244, 253.

PSRL 1:411.

12. The calculation is given in the book: Yuri Dolgoruky..., S. 33.

13. Ibid., C. 38.

14. SV zagraevsky. "Corporal" of Nikolo-Nicholas Cathedral. M., 2004. Article posted on the Internet site

15. PSRL 3:107.

16. V.N. Lazarev. Byzantine and old Russian art. M., 1978. C. 246

17. Ibid.

18. BA Ognev. Some problems of the early Moscow architecture. In the book. Architectural heritage, so 12. M., 1960. C. 60.

19. Yuri Dolgoruky..., S. 55.

20. Ibid., C. 70.

21. M. ioannisyan. To the history of Polish-Russian relations in the architectural late XI - early XIII century - In the book. Old Russian art. Russia and the countries of the Byzantine world. XII century. SPb, 2002. C. 213.

22. Yuri Dolgoruky..., S. 62 and more.

23. A detailed analysis of these Chronicles of data given in the book.: Voronin, the Architecture of North-Eastern Russia, so 1, S. 87.23.

24. PSRL 16:45.

25. Voronin, the Architecture of North-Eastern Russia, so 1, 91 S..

26. Whalebones. Vladimir-Suzdal Rus. Essays on social and political history. Leningrad, 1987. C. 20.

27. A.I. Komech. The architecture of Vladimir 1150-1180's. Artistic nature and Genesis of the "Russian romanik. - In the book. Old Russian art. Russia and the countries of the Byzantine world. XII century. SPb, 2002. C. 231.

28. M. ioannisyan. Vladimir-Suzdal architecture and Lombard Romanesque. In the book: The 2000 anniversary of Christianity. The Byzantine world: the art of Constantinople and national traditions. Abstracts of the international conference. SPb, 2000. C. 19-23.

29. In no case does not deny the usefulness of debates on Tsentralnosibirsky or Northern Italian origin masters, Friedrich Barbarossa, the author of this thesis considers the fundamental question of solvability of this doubtful. The fact that the differences between the plasticity of architectural and construction of the cathedrals of Central Germany and Northern Italy are much less significant than the differences between them and the churches of Vladimir-Suzdal land. Very different among themselves Vladimir-Suzdal churches.

Some "hook" here may provide a method of historical and motivational model, in his time suggested by the author of this thesis (Yuri Dolgoruky..., S. 3): Tsentralnosibirsky architecture had pronounced "Imperial" character, and commercial North Italian cities are built with a certain "merchant" bias. In this regard, we can assume that for the Imperial ambitions Bogolyubsky was more likely the invitation of artists from Central Germany.

30. Voronin, the Architecture of North-Eastern Russia, so 1, S. 334.

31. See Yuri Dolgoruky..., S. 75-76, 85-86.

32. For more information, see ibid., C. 113-138. It is said in the decree. cit. must add that it is hardly a coincidence that the "divide" between the conservative decoration of churches George and lush decor zooantropomorfnym temples Andrew ran for 1158 - 6666 by chronology "from the creation of the world". Apparently, the rigid position of the Russian Church on sculpture - idols - could soften after the collapse of the eschatological expectations that have occurred this year.

33. Ibid., C. 120.

  Sergey Zagraevsky



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