Prof. Dr. S.V. Zagraevsky
What an architectural monument we are losing in Arbat
The following text was translated from the Russian original by the computer program
and has not yet been edited.
So it can be used only for general introduction.
For many years in Moscow, the Bolshoi Afanasyevsky pereulok VL. 24) is a ruin. This is the oldest surviving in the Arbat area of buildings constructed at the end of the XVII century and known as the "house Zinoviev" (by the name of the builders and the first owners) and "house Behrs" (by the name of the court-physician Andrei behrs and his descendants - the owners of a building in the XIX century). In the future we will see that this house with a large degree of probability can be assigned, and much more "loud" name, so for brevity we will call it simply the House.
In the first half of the XIX century, the House was partially rebuilt and acquired features of the Empire style mansion with an attic, in the 1860-ies was again partially rebuilt in the form of eclecticism, by the end of the century was built on the third floor. The decor of the facades also changed several times. However, the main volume is a two - storey house of the late XVII century - preserved quite well. These chambers are laid out from the typical for the time of a brick, on the second floor on all sides of them encircled partially preserved the principal cornice is composed of three zones curb and roll under them. Facades broke down into the flat blades above which the projecting cornice. Between floors passed another ledge with a simple profile, now cut down. Through the arch on the first floor led to the courtyard. The interior had enfilade lay-out of premises.
After the builders and the first owners - Zinoviev - the House passed to Yusupov, then to the Saltykov, then to Rimsky-Korsakov, Cherkasy, Lviv... the Owners changed very often, until the XIX century masters of the house is not bers, which we discuss in detail later.
Empty House since the 1980's, when it revealed as a monument of architecture, resettled residents and began to prepare for restoration. Then the USSR collapsed, the money for restoration is not found, and the building stood empty until the end of the 1990s, when there was the investor of new construction in the protective zone of the monument (the law does not forbid) - CJSC Constel".
Generally speaking, private ownership of monuments of architecture, history and culture of compliance with all requirements of the protection regime - a practice common to all civilized countries.
Firm "Kostel" perfectly illustrate this situation: immediately after the entry into ownership of occupied House area it is proposed to exclude the building from the list of protected objects and carry. The Department of protection of monuments of Moscow is not allowed: the violation of the legislation would be too blatant. Then the company was forced to order the research and project-restoration works, which were implemented by the Centre of historical and urban studies in 2003.
Restoration work began in parallel with the research, and the parts that
were supposed to disassemble, dismantled quickly, removed from the facade
plaster and built to House temporary roofing (i.e. at least made a partial
conservation). But to continue the restoration failed: in 2003 to replace CJSC
Constel" came to the company "PIK-invest", and all the works
were stopped. True, yet managed to carry adjacent to the chambers of an
apartment house ¹ 26, built in
In the yard, i.e. in the protection zone of the monument, the new owner started building huge (by the standards and scope of Arbat lanes) 7-8-storey residential complex "Athanasian". Renovated House had become a "visiting card" of the latter (it was even coined the slogan "the Charm of the old Arbat). The combination of architectural styles of Houses and new residential complex eclectic to the extreme, but without the proximity of the monument architectural plastic "Afanasyevsky", developed by Mosproject-2 im. M.V. Posokhin under the guidance of M.M.
But since the beginning of the construction of several years, and PIK-invest" is in no hurry to fulfill their responsibilities for the conservation and restoration of the monument. Now, in 2009, the complex "Athanasian" has laid the foundations, and the House continues to stand quietly abandoned and destroyed. Temporary roof long ago broke, and in the cellars of water. On the walls sprouted trees (and this is our time, and it is in the center of Moscow!). Wooden struts, buttresses, sooner or later will rot, and then the wall is likely to collapse.
And in General this ruin, still serving two meters behind the red line of the building up of a Large Afanasyevsky pereulok, has such a dismal impression that one wonders: and not prepares whether the developer public opinion to the fact that the House was finally demolished? At least, turned into a dummy or with preservation of old forms, if any, in the form of a stylized architectural decoration on the walls of a new residential complex?
Examples of both in modern Moscow is more than enough. Let us recall the historical building at the Maly Golovin pereulok VL. 3), which survived only a memorial plaque transferred to the facade 6-7 storey eclectic remake (forms buildings of the XIX century in this remake only slightly veiled in the decoration of the first three floors). While on the Board as if nothing had happened emblazoned inscription: "a Monument of history. In this house in 1881-1885 lived and worked Anton Pavlovich Chekhov. Protected by the state". It looks like blatant mockery and history, and on Chekhov, and the state. Oh if he destroyed the monument, so ashamed to leave the Board. Or at least write on it: "Here was a monument of history"...
And the situation in the Bolshoi Afanasyevsky may adopt a similar nature, as the developer much easier under any pretext to destroy the House (or to prevent its destruction, which in this case is the same) and shrug, - they say, was not saved, than to spend time consuming, expensive and long lasting scientific restoration.
And the city will receive and fines, and leveled a red line in the Bolshoi Afanasyevsky pereulok. Hence, interference automobile movement will be less - so it's good too!
It turns out that all but a narrow circle of connoisseurs and defenders of architectural monuments and historical environment, the demolition of Houses will benefit. Is it any wonder mass destruction of Moscow's architectural monuments? And should there be a prophet to predict a quick death and Home?
What do we lose, lost his Home?
We will lose not "ordinary" monument of civil architecture of the XVII century (if monuments, especially of the XVII century, could ever be "ordinary"). We will lose the house, which can be called a prototype of the famous "house of Growth" in the novel of Leo Tolstoy's "War and peace", and called with no less likely than the mansion on Povarskaya street (the owner. 52), which is considered "the Rostov house" traditionally.
The stereotypical view that the "house of Rostov" is the estate of Prince Dolgoruky Chef, appeared in the XIX century (at least, in 1918, wrote confidently about Marina in the story "My services"). Sam LN. Tolstoy, on memoirs of contemporaries, did not call images of his literary heroes, and only smiled silently, as if it were called other. But there is no doubt that the stereotype about "home Rostov" is associated with the following words from the first volume of "War and peace":
"Soon after the evening Anna Pavlovna Anna Mikhaylovna returned to Moscow, straight to his rich relatives growth, which she stood in Moscow... the Rostovs were the birthday girl Natalie, mother and younger daughter. In the morning, still, drove up and drive trains, the delivery of congratulations to the great, known to all Moscow house of Countess Rostova-Chef.
A large and well-known to all Moscow house Chef street is, of course, the estate of Prince Dolgoruky (since 1859 - Baron M.K. Bode-Kolychev), an outstanding monument of Mature classicism in Moscow. The estate consists of a two-storey, with porticoes and a mezzanine floor of the main house and a spacious courtyard surrounded by galleries, residential wings and office buildings. When Bode-Kolychev to the house were added to house Church in pseudo-Russian style Lodge. The interiors are richly decorated manor carved wood, decorated with intricate staircases and passages.
The tradition of what this great city mansion on Povarskaya and "the house of the Rostov", so strong that in Soviet times the building have installed the appropriate memorial Board, and in the back put a monument to LEO. Tolstoy (probably, such special attention to the works of Lev Nikolaevich was due to the fact that the building housed the Union of Soviet writers).
But, reading "War and peace", you will immediately notice that the scale of "home Rostov" is much more "chamber"than the estate Dolgoruky. At last more like described in the novel the house of count earless, who held much higher social status than the count Rostov.
It is impossible not to notice that the "house of Rostov" is depicted with remarkable warmth and love. None of Dolgoruky or with Bode-Aliceville similar relationship of the writer did not connect.
Notice that the property level count Rostov did not meet the Chef's manor - one of the best in Moscow. For example, for the budget of the Dolgoruky princes loss forty-three thousand, most likely, would have been a nasty little thing (and in the novel Tolstoy Anatole Kuragin lost tens of thousands), and for the old count Rostov, as we remember, the loss of a son of this money was a terrible blow. Recall and "trade" with Berg about the dowry of his daughter: for the graph to give an extra 10-20 thousand was a serious problem.
Finally, ask the question: why the writer, having chosen for their characters various types, often collectively and in most cases not connected with their real names, suddenly decided with precision worthy of a local historian, to point to the street, which was located "Rostov house", - Cook?
Proceeding from all this, you understand that the choice of the street for "home Rostov" in the novel as random as the names of Growth (because that name existed in reality, but we are not looking for some types among its carriers!), and what a type of the "house of Growth" could be in any place of Moscow.
So, in search of this type we must not focus on a particular street and not on some architectural features of the building (which in the novel nothing to say, except that there, as in most aristocratic houses were courtyard, hall, lounge, children, sofa, flower, the back of the room etc), and on the kind of home could be for the writer's inspiration. It is a house, not a building - in fact, speaking of the first, we often mean and its inhabitants with the atmosphere of their life, and under a second anyway we understand only architectural structure.
And, analyzing the life of Leo Tolstoy in Moscow during the writing of the novel "War and peace", we can conclude: "the Rostov house" was there, which at that time was the heart and soul of the writer, and where he himself had been "whenever came to Moscow...and come as he pleased, day and night, and for dinner".
We quoted belong to the youngest daughter of the owner of this house, Andrew behrs - Tatyana Andreevna Kuzminskaya-bers. Her memoirs, "My life at home and in the Clear glade" became one of the main books of memoirs about the great Russian writer, and she is a prototype of Natasha. Regarding the last two opinions can not be: it was absolutely clear to all contemporaries and described in various memoirs, in every detail, down to belonging Kuzminskaya childhood dolls Mimi.
And where to live and grow "Natasha, Natasha" - Tatiana Andreevna bers, if not in the Rostov house " - house behrs?
And the eldest daughter AU bers, Sonia, was known to contemporaries and descendants as Sofia Andreyevna. And familiarity, and early communication, and love, and matchmaking Lev Nikolaevich and Sofia Andreevna was in the house Behrs and it was during the writing of "War and peace".
Hardly here is to describe the long history of relations L.N. Tolstoy and family Behrs, and with Tatiana Kuzminsky, and especially with Sofya Tolstoy, " this large literature. It is important for us that the search for "home Rostov" we can keep among the houses, in one way or another connected with the family Behrs.
During the writing of "War and peace" of such places in Moscow was a bit: this is a government apartment FDG-Medica AU bers in the Kremlin, house in Pokrovskoye-Streshneva and - probably - own house Behrs the Bolshoi Afanasyevsky pereulok, which in our article we just called Home. It is clear that neither government apartment, or a suburban Villa could be a type of "home Rostov. So, with high degree of probability it was a House in Afanasyevsky.
Answer two questions that may arise when comparing the literary "home Rostov" real "home behrs.
First, could Leo Tolstoy "project" house old Ducal family Rostov at home to some of the doctor?
Secondly, the novel States that "the Rostov house" was a "great" and "known to all Moscow. Could we say about the House in Afanasyevsky?
To answer the first question. AU bears were not "kind of doctor", and had the title of FDG-Medica (doctor of court) and titled "your Excellency", as was the actual state Councilor, that the "table of ranks" corresponded to major General. He was awarded many orders and medals and other insignia (including personally from king diamond ring) and belonged to an ancient noble family. The absence counts, princes or baronial title in such cases was of no importance: for example, A.S.
On the second question, the answer is: a House in Bolshoi Afanasyevsky
pereulok was by the standards before the fire of
And what could be the place known to all Moscow - in our time clearly difficult to say, but a lot of options. Perhaps, quite rare for the XVIII-XIX centuries change a large number of owners (we have already noted that to Behrs the House was owned Zinovieva, Yusupov, saltykovs, Rimsky-Korsakov, Cherkassy and Lviv). Perhaps the fact that AU bears, was a famous doctor (he has treated many Moscow aristocrats) and, in the words of the L.N. Tolstoy, "rare ladies ' man" (the latter probably were actively discussed in the salons of the time).
Thus, proceeding from the General principles for identification of types of literary heroes thick and quite exceptional role of the family and home Behrs in the life of Lev Nikolaevich just at the time of writing of "War and peace", we may assume that with a considerable degree of probability "Rostov house is close to the Arbat, the Bolshoi Afanasyevsky pereulok. It is still located. Perhaps soon we will be forced to say "was".
Here's a monument of architecture, we lose the Bolshoi Afanasyevsky.
SV Zagraevsky © 2009
© Sergey Zagraevsky