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Dr. Sergey V. Zagraevsky


To the problem of the origin of the sobriquet of Prince Andrey Bogolyubsky

and the name of Bogolyubovo town


Published in Russian: Заграевский С.В. К вопросу о происхождении прозвища князя Андрея Боголюбского и названия города Боголюбова. В кн.: Материалы XVIII международной краеведческой конференции (19 апреля 2013 г.). Владимир, 2014.





Professor S. V. Zagraevsky offers to the readers the explanation of the origin of the name of the city Bogolyubovo from the nickname of its founder – Grand Prince Andrey Bogolyubsky.




The following text was translated from Russian original by the computer program

and has not yet been edited.

So it can be used only for general introduction.




The origin of the nickname of Prince Andrei Bogolyubsky and the name of the city hierarchy - the question is, at first glance seemingly been solved long ago. Variants of origin only two or Prince got his nickname after the town or city in honor of the Prince, and the first option is clearly recognized in the literature. This unambiguity set the message "the life of the Saint and blessed Prince and the passion-bearer Andrei Bogolyubsky Georgievich": "And for this cause glorious and miraculous mother of God phenomena Grand Prince Andrey adverbs place that Bogolyubova; thence himself of Prosveta Bogolyubsky. Then the castle building and the yard of his princely near new Christmas we blessed virgin Church built, and velmi place it sublease, and Iwase Tu"1. The same position is expressed in closely related to the "Life" of "the Annals of the monastery hierarchy", made in 1760-ies hegumen of this monastery Aristarchus2.

This version (let's call her "Prince after the city) nowadays is stereotypical, and no research has not put forward against it any arguments3.

But because "the Life of Andrei Bogolyubsky" written in 1701, after almost five and a half centuries after the Foundation of the Bogolyubov, and has a number of internal contradictions4, we have to appreciate his message on the rights is not a historical source, and one of the possible points of view, require such evidence as any other point of view. Therefore, in this study we will consider the issue again with the involvement of the entire set of historical data.

And we start with a review of the message of the early sources which mention the city Bogolyubov.

The first Novgorod chronicle: "In the summer of 6663. Come from Kiev smerenie and hristolyubivyh Prince Velikii Andrea Yurievich without otca povolenia, whose deceit of podjecia Cuckovic, and postavila hail Bogolubova, promised and sweatey the Holy mother of God jivotnoe... and placed unit (virgin - SZ) temple in Rotz Klyazma, 2 stone Church in the name of the Holy mother of God, and sylvari hail and adverbs his name: behold there is a place Bogolubova"5.

 Novgorod IV chronicle: "Year 6666... and founded the castle-Loving"6.

 Vladimir chronicler: "In the summer 6666... These same Prince Andrei Bogolubskii hail debris, and set, built the stone Church of the Christmas we sweatey of the Holy virgin on Klyazma Rotz... and called monastery"7.

Brief Vladimir chronicler, "I come from Kiev Andrei Yurievich and store Bogolubsky castle and debris, and set, and placed two churches kameny, and the stone gate, and the house"8.

Russian chronicler: "In the summer 6666... And then there came from Kiev Andrea Yurievich and store Bogolubskyi castle and debris, and set, and placed the Church two and the stone gate, and the house"9.

Ipatiev chronicle: "Created the same base the Crimea city of stone, the name Bogolyubov, roofing far as Vyshegorod from Kiev, tacos and Bogolyubov from Volodimira"10.

Ibid: "O Holy and pious Prince Andrew upodobania king Solimano, for the house of the Lord God and the Church of Presevo the Holy mother of God of Christmas we amidst the city Kamen creating Bogoljub and surprise Yu pace all tserkvei... and store this Church in memory of the Crimea"11.

"The prayer of Daniel the exile": "Zane, Lord, who is Loving, and I mount fierce"12.

So, in 1158 Prince Andrei built at the confluence of the Nerl river into the Klyazma river city13 and gave him the name. To the question why the name was exactly the version of the "Vita" ("Prince after the city") is responsible as follows:

"IDY same Grand Duke Andrei predpriyatiem his way and being in Vladimir, where with great honour setosa it with miraculous Holy Theotokos way all citizens, young and old. And Paide from Vladimir to Rostov, and achievements down Rotz Klyazma of the place, where now stands Bogolyubov monastery, and in the place formerly, under the miraculous Holy virgin by the way, the horses of the stash and not at all from the place of postupila. 14.

But there are a number of reasons why we can't accept this version of the "Vita".

First, the alleged stop horses is no more than a legend. It is easy to show, not even touching on the General questions of admissibility of the use of descriptions of the wonders of the modern historical science. As follows from the "Vita", the icon was brought from Vladimir to Rostov not by rivers, and land. 10 kilometers. In the end, if the horses are not followed, could continue to carry the icon in his arms.

Secondly, the appearance of the virgin Mary could explain the origin of the name associated with it, but the name "Bogolyubov" is connected with God (perhaps not with God the Father and God the Son, but in any case it is quite a different cult than the cult of the virgin).

Third, the city Bogolyubov were exclusively advantageous location and in strategic and economic terms (the intersection of major trade routes along the Klyazma river and the Nerl), and it was sufficient for him laying there. It was and extra - symbolic - Foundation made an impression on his contemporaries15: Bogolyubov was the same distance from Vladimir, as Vyshgorod near Kiev.

Fourth, even if we abstract from the legendary stop the horses and assume that with the future place of the city hierarchy were associated with any religious experience, then this assumption is similar to that name was simply invented by the Prince or any of his servants (at the level of our knowledge of the XII century almost the same), then there was a creative act that from the historical point of view is accidental.

Fourth, if we accept the version of the creative act, it will be obliged to recognize that  the source of inspiration could be not only a religious experience, and generally any random Association16.

The task of this study is to determine the historical implications of the city name and nicknames of the Prince.

For the North-Eastern Russia XII-XV centuries random choice of the name for the new cities are rare. It is difficult and often impossible to establish the motivation only names that appeared previously occurred in X-XI centuries of Russian colonization of Silesia (as Rostov, Suzdal, Murom)17, variants of the same motivation names of new cities was not so much:

- "old Russian": plays the titles of ancient Russian cities (Vladimir, St. George, Galich, Pereslavl, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia, Zvenigorod, Przemysl, Mikulin, Starodub and others);

- "gidronimicheskaya": names of rivers (Moscow, Tver, Ruza, Mozhaysk, Kostroma, Vyazma, and others);

- the names of the princes of Vladimir Yuriev - in addition to "old Russian" motivation, Yaroslavl, Mstislavl, Dmitrov and others);

- natural features (Hill and several Vyshgorod - in addition to "old Russian" motivation, Borovsk Berezuevsk, Kaluga, Staritsa and others);

- economic features (Volokolamsk - in addition to "gidronimicheskaya" motivation, Vyshniy Volochek, Torzhok, Medyn, TESEV, Khotkovo, and others);

- any "special features" (Vereya, Kolomna, Teeth and other);

- just the fortifications, giving the settlement of the status of the city (Gorodets - in addition to "old Russian" motivation, Settlement, Town, Gorodnya, Gorodesk and others).

And if on the subject of this study to take the first version - Prince after the city", the name of the city hierarchy does not fit in any of the listed grounds. Any special, unique motif (including "a place loved by God") has no analogues, and, therefore, can only be considered as a creative act, i.e. an accident (this is what we discussed above). If we take the second version (let's call it "the city in honor of the Prince"), then there are many analogues - Yaroslavl, Vladimir, and other Dmitrov

When making a version of "the city in honor of the Duke," a reasonable question arises about the origin of the nickname of Prince Andrew.

But on this question the answer is much simpler than on the question of the origin of the city name when making a version of "the Prince after the city". The vast majority of known princes received their established nicknames in accordance with personal traits or merit, as, for example, Yaroslav Osmomysl, Vsevolod the Big Nest, Mstislav Bozoki, semen Proud, Ivan Red, Dmitry Donskoy, Vasily the Dark and others in order to Eat and examples unflattering nicknames received on the same principles as Svyatopolk the Accursed, Dmitry Shemyaka. 18.

And this number becomes Andrei Bogolyubsky is not given in the "Life" sense "Andrew, who founded the city Bogolyubov and lived in it, and in a much more General - "Andrew, loving God" or "Andrew, loved by God".

Will show why the second interpretation is preferable to the first.

It may seem that in favor of the first - life - interpretation indicates the very wording nicknames Andrey - "Bogolyubskii," sort of meaning or origin from city hierarchy, or reign in it.

But the old Russian tradition nicknames princes never been affiliated with their places of birth, places reign. Sometimes the names of the princes for their discernment was added designated princedoms, but sustainable nicknames they became very rare and late (as Daniel R. Galician, Daniil Alexandrovich Moscow and Mikhail Yaroslavich of Tver; the same goal difference from many other Mstislavu pursued, for example, is the honorary nickname Mstislav Vladimirovich - the Great)19. Apparently, the consolidation of the princes of their princedoms as sustainable nicknames prevented frequent changes of these places. And in any case Bogolyubov was not an independent Principality, and Andrew on such a principle would have to be called Vladimir and Suzdal.

And most importantly - do not forget about the "floating" grammar of the old Russian language and remember earlier in our study chronicle reports of Bogolyubovo: they are writing "Bogoljubovsky", "Bogolyubov", "Loving" ("God-Loving"), "Bogolubsky" ("Bogolubovo"), and, for example, in the first Novgorod chronicle - simultaneously two different writing (see above). The God-Loving, Bogolyubsky was called and is still called and originating from this city of the Theotokos.

Consequently, we may assume that the definition of"Bogolyubsky", "Loving" and "Bogolubsky" in Ancient Russia were almost identical. And so that nickname, sounding just as "Bogolyubsky, no earlier source is not mentioned (for the first time it appears next to the name of the Prince in XVI-XVII centuries21)does not testifies in favor of the primacy of the city name: similar titles of "loving" or "Bogolubsky" (as "Christian", and "Christology"that in everyday life the XII century almost one and the same) are frequently used in many Russian princes, including Andrei. Here are a few examples.

"And lovers of God the Prince of Domont not sterpe Obidimo be land and home svyatye Trinity from napadenie nasty Germans..."22.

"And so predast his Holy blessed Duchy in the hands of the Lord, the great Christ-loving Prince Michael Yaroslavich"23.

"In the year 6933. Died blessed and religous Grand Prince of all Russia Vasily Dmitrievich twenty-seventh of February Tuesday in three hours of the night"24.

 "God-loving Prince Yaroslav loved Berestov and the former, there is the Church of saints Apostolov, and many Popov contained in it"25.

"At the instigation of the evil of the devil have any discord between the princes, brothers in blood, and expelled from the capital city two brothers of the third - eldest brother, Christ-loving Prince Izyaslav"26.

 "Save those who will work at this place for the sake of God, who is the prayers of the all-merciful God to pray about pious pious princes"27.

"Oh God-loving Prince, the second Vsevolod. Evil denounced, kind loved living fed. On Milosevic who can sing of thy goodness"28.

"Bogolubsky and merciful Prince Vsevolod..."29.

"Rejoice in a fair assumption of the Holy father Abraham, christalluria and protected by God kings and princes and judges..."30.

 "Married and pious christallurii Sovereign Tsar and Grand Prince Fedor Ivanovich..."31.

"The son of God, the great Prince George Dolgorukiy of Vladimirovich Manamas"32.

And finally, in respect of Prince Andrew:

 "O Holy and pious Prince Andrew upodobania king Solimano, for the house of the Lord God and the Church of Presevo the Holy mother of God of Christmas we amidst the city Kamen creating Bogoljub..."33.

From all these quotations that "Loving", "Bogolubsky", "Christian" or "Christology" (respectively, and "Bogolyubsky") - it is quite normal honorary titles of princes in Ancient Russia. In some cases it could be episodic, some of them permanent, but the main thing - it was usual and customary. And when Andrew had committed such an impressive act as the Foundation for one 1158 of the city, two churches of the Nativity and the Intercession on the Nerl)34 and the assumption Cathedral in Vladimir, hardly contemporaries could do without such titles.

We can also assume that both before and after 1158 such titles Andrew was more common than for other princes. Evidence few.

First, the author of "the Tale of the murder of Andrei Bogoliubsky"35 paid exceptional attention to the Christian deeds of the Prince, while not forgetting about its military feats and bringing realistic description of his murder. None of the pre-Mongol princes, even the most favorite chroniclers (as Vladimir Monomakh or Izyaslav Mstislavich), did not merit such a lengthy praise Christian virtues in texts that are not hagiographic.

Second, even usual for that time piety such famous and brave warrior, Andrew had to impress contemporaries.

Thirdly, the same impression could produce and export Prince in 1155 from Vyshgorod icon of the mother.

Fourth, Andrei during his reign paid considerable attention to issues of Church policy (attempts to establish in Suzdal separate from Kyiv Metropolitanate, large-scale ramosmania, the establishment of the feast of the Intercession of the virgin and the like). And whatever the vicissitudes of the relationship Prince with the Patriarch of Constantinople and Metropolitan of Kiev, contemporaries in Suzdal (those who primarily depended nicknamed the Prince and the name of the city) could not be perceived as active Church policy of the exaltation of his Principality, as "godliness".

Fifth, the naming of Prince Andrew exclusively Christian name at the time was a rarity. The vast majority of Russian princes pre-Mongolian time known to us, or only under pagan names (Vsevolod II of Kiev, Svyatoslav, Mstislav Yurievich Besiki and others), or under the Christian name in addition to the Gentile (Yaroslav the Wise, in baptism George; Vladimir Monomakh, baptized as Vassily; Izyaslav Mstislavich, in baptism Panteleimon; and others).

Sixth, military courage and luck Andrew could be the reason that the Prince was named not only "God", but "Bogolubsky" (such as "love of God" could be expressed in the fact that in 1150 Prince survived when in battle beneath him was killed by a horse36).

Seventh, successful aggressive foreign policy of the Prince (the victory over the Bulgars, the ruin of Kyiv, the subordination of Novgorod and the like) in accordance with the views of that time was seen as "the gift of God wins"that could also be interpreted as "love of God".

All the given set of considerations about the "godliness" Andrei (and, perhaps, about the "love of God") is an additional argument in favor of the version of the origin of the name of the city hierarchy from the honorary title of Prince - "Loving" or "Bogolubsky".

The question may arise why in such a "godliness" Prince Andrew, he was canonized as late at the beginning of the XVIII century, and only at the local, diocesan level37. In this regard, recall what we said above: the Prince was perceived as "loving" primarily for his Principality, at the elevation of which was forwarded to his Church politics. The relationship is Andrey and Patriarch and Metropolitan of Kiev were very tense.

The question remains, why, if the city was named in honor of Prince Andrew, its not called Andreev, or Andrapolis. The answer to this question is closely connected with real or ostentatious religious virtues Prince: becoming to a Christian modesty, and that the city was not named by the name of the Prince and his "loving" the title is quite natural.

The confirmation of our position can be found in the "Kiev synopsis" 1674 source albeit late, but still with an earlier date than "the Life". In the "Synopsis" States: "Then Prince Andrew Yurievich, at that time the Prince in Suzdal, seeing themselves to be above the other Princes blijaishego, according to his father, Prince Yuri, the Throne of Kiev, abIe gathering force militant great many Nasimi Russian Ambassador to Kiev son of Prince Mstislav, who ishna Mstislav II of Kiev from Kiev, and in it put Gleb Stryi her, Prince of Pereyaslavl; he himself refund to the father, Prince Andrei M., so before baptism marizarasa China, and in fact from the great jealousy and Sadouskaya the love of his servant to God, nicknamed was Bogolyubsky (my italics - SZ); much the same Churches and Monasteries postroi and decorate, and estates and any contentment wspomaga"38. Note also mentioned in this passage pagan name Andrei Yurievich - China similar sounding on known Polovtsian Khan's name - Kitan39 (Andrei's mother was Polovtsian Princess40). But more detailed considerations on this subject is beyond the scope of this study.

It should be noted that after 1158 had the opposite effect: the presence founded by Prince Andrei of the city hierarchy (especially one in which for many years was the Prince's residence and which is even much later Daniil mentioned as a symbol of happiness and prosperity41) could not contribute to the fact that the honorary title of "Loving", "Bogolubsky" and, accordingly, "Bogolyubsky" turned into a nickname that stuck to the Prince for many centuries and was reflected in his "Life". But we considered the historical evidence suggests that the primary naming the city in honor of the Prince, and not Vice versa.




1. CIT. article: Sirenov A.V. the Life of Andrei Bogolyubsky. In the book: The Memory Of Andrei Bogolyubsky. Sat. articles. Moscow - Vladimir, 2009. C. 228. Electronic version:

2. Ibid. With 207-210.

3. For the sake of justice it is necessary to note, that in XIX century version of the "Vita" was questioned A.N. Muravyev (spiritual writer and historian of the Church, the Chamberlain of the Imperial court and honorary member of the Imperial Academy of Sciences), who wrote: "the name of the Bogolyubsky, which soak him through a number of centuries, not from any natural or created in the city, but from God-loving aspirations his soul to the heavenly, rather testifies, what was this great man of faith and intercessor for the Russian land" (Ants A.N. The life of Grand Prince Andrey Bogolyubsky. In the book: The lives of the saints of the Russian Church, also Iver and Slavic. SPb, 1859. C. 230). But any arguments to justify their position A.N. Ants did not.

4. Detail some internal contradictions in the Life"regarding reports about the construction of the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl, discussed in the book: Zagraevsky SV New study of architectural monuments of Vladimir-Suzdal Museum-reserve. M., 2008. C. 139.

5. The first Novgorod chronicle. In the book: The Russian Chronicles. So 10. Ryazan, 2001. C. 467.

6. PSRL. T. IV. SPb., 1848. C. 10.

7. PSRL. T. XXX. C. 68.

8. Tikhomirov, MN. Little-known chronicle monuments. In the book: Historical archive. So VII. M., 1951. C. 211.

9. Vinogradov A. I. History of the Cathedral of the assumption Cathedral in the lips. mountains. Vladimir. Vladimir, 1905. The app. C. 71.

10. PSRL. T. II. STB. 581.

11. Ibid. STB. 581-582.

12. Fishermen B.A. Daniil and Vladimir Chronicles of the end of XII century In the book: Archaeography Yearbook, 1970), 1971. C. 45.

13. Details on the status of the city hierarchy and its fortifications see: Zagraevsky SV New research... S. 108-122.

14. Sirenov A.V. Decree. back With. 228.

15. PSRL. T. II. STB. 581.

16. For example, accidentally came in the head to the Prince of the German name "Gottlieb," which translates as "love for God": this hypothetical situation described by the author of the historical novel "the Architect of his Majesty" (attention!. The architect of his Majesty (letters the Abbe Gottlieb-Johann von Rosenau, describing a trip to Russia by decree of Emperor Frederick Barbarossa in 1157-1161 years from the birth of Christ). M., 2012. Electronic version:

17. Around the names of the most ancient cities of North-Eastern Russia (Rostov, Murom, Suzdal and other) there are lot of legends, fueled by local local lore, but the task of identifying the true motivation of these names makes it almost impossible inability to precisely meet even the basic question is: did these names Slavic and Ugro-Finnish origin.

18. The exception to this General rule can be called only one thing - the nickname of Vladimir Monomakh, which the mother was the grandson of the Byzantine Emperor Constantine Monomachus. In the literature you can often find the version of the origin of the nickname of Prince John Berladnika from the Moldovan city of Berlade, but most likely, the Prince received this nickname indirectly: "berladnika" in Russia called rogue refugees, often nahoditsa shelter in Berlade (such was the fate of John).

19. Even if you believe that John Berladnika got his nickname directly from the city of Berlade (which, as we showed in the previous note, is unlikely), then he could not reign in this city, located on the territory of Russia, and Hungary. And in any case, the disputed fact (direct toponymic the origin of the nickname Berladnika) cannot be considered a confirmation of another disputable fact (toponymic the origin of the nickname Bogolyubsky).

20. N.M. Karamzin, for example, was called the Prince: "Andrew Suzdal, nicknamed Bogolyubsky (Karamzin N.M. history of the Russian state. M., 1991. So 2-3. C. 170).

 21. In "the Power of the book says: "Andrew Bogolubski receiver was given power to his brother his mihalko Georgievich" (About preslava great Prince Vsevolod Georgievich, named in Holy baptism Zmitser, Vladimirskom, sea Rosii. In the book: PSRL. So XXI. Edition 1-that is, half of the 1st. The book Power Royal degrees (1-10 degree faces). SPb., 1908. Electronic publication The Institute of Russian literature (Pushkin House) RAS:; V.I. Dobrokhotov leads Deposit account 1649, in which Bogolyubov the monastery is called the "pure honest and slavnogo Her Christmas and the Holy great Martyr Leontius, and of the Holy Nobleborn and the great Prince Andrei Georgievich Bogolyubsky (Dobrokhotov V.I. Ancient city of Bogolyubov and monastery with its surroundings. M., 1852. C. 50-51).

22. Okhotnikov V.I. the Story of Dovmont in the composition of the Pskov Chronicles (the question of the older version). In the book: A source study of the literature of ancient Russia. Leningrad, 1980. C. 210.

23. Okhotnikov V.I. Lengthy version of the Novel of Mikhail of Tver. In the book: Old Russian literacy: According to the materials of the Pushkin house. Sat. nauch. Works. Leningrad, 1985. C. 16-27.

24. Lurie AS Severnobacki chronicle 1472: Reconstruction of the text and comments. In the book: PLDR. The second half of the XV century Meters, 1982. C. 410-443.

25. Kyiv Pechersk Paterikon on drevniy manuscripts. In perelaz. on sovr. Rus. lang. Mari Viktorova. Kevy, 1893. C. 1-5.

26. The life of the monk our father Theodosius, Abbot of the caves. In the book: Biographies of notable people of the Russian land. X-XX centuries M, 1992. C. 153.

27. The life of the monk Dionysius Glushitskyy. In the book: Biographies of notable people of the Russian land. X-XX centuries M, 1992. C. 231.

28. Memorial inscription on the fresco of the Saviour Church at Nereditsa, dedicated to Prince Yaroslav Vsevolodovich.

29. Shakhmatov A.A. Study of Radzivill, or Konigsberg, chronicle. M., 1902. T. II. C. 18-19,

30. The Life Of Abraham Of Smolensk. In the book: Literary monuments of Ancient Russia. XIII century. M., 1981. C. 69.

31. The circular letter of Patriarch Job. In the book: Acts collected in libraries and archives of the Russian Empire by the archaeographic expedition of the Imperial Academy of Sciences. So 2. SPb., 1836. C. 346.

32. About preslava great Prince Vsevolod Georgievich, named in the Holy reshenii Zmitser, Vladimirskom, sea Rosii. In the book: PSRL, volume XXI. Edition 1-that is, half of the 1st. The book Power Royal degrees (1-10 degree faces). SPb., 1908. Electronic publication of the Russian literature Institute (Pushkin House) RAS:

33. PSRL. T. II. STB. 581-582.

34. Read more about the Dating of these temples see Zagraevsky SV New research... S. 140.

35. PSRL. T. II. STB. 581-582.

36. Karamzin N.M. history of the Russian state. M., 1991. So 2-3. C. 155.

37. Sirenov A.V. Decree. back With. 207.

38. Sapozhnikov OA, Sapozhnikova YOU the Dream of Russian unity. Kiev synopsis (1674). M., 2010. CH. 65. The author is grateful HE Popov for the link to this book.

39. Polovtsian Khan China is mentioned in Russian Chronicles (PSRL. T. II. STB. 246).

40. PSRL. T. II. STB. 282.

41. Referring to the already quoted us phrase: "Zane, Lord, who is Loving, and I mount fierce" (B.A. Rybakov Decree. back With. 45).


© Sergey Zagraevsky


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