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Prof. Dr. S.V. Zagraevsky


To the problems of the capitals of North-Eastern Russia:

Pereslavl-Zalessky in the times of Yuri Dolgoruky, Bogolyubovo in the times of Andrey Bogolyubsky


Published in Russian: Заграевский С.В. К вопросу о столицах Северо-Восточной Руси: Переславль-Залесский при Юрии Долгоруком, Боголюбово при Андрее Боголюбском. Электронная публикация: электронная научная библиотека «РусАрх», 2015 г.




Historical and architectural evidence indicates that Yuri Dolgoruky founded in 1152 the city of Pereslavl-Zalessky as his future capital, and in the times of Andrei Yurievich Bogolyubsky in 1158-1174 the city of Bogolyubovo was the capital of North-Eastern Russia.




The following text was translated from the Russian original by the computer program

and has not yet been edited.

So it can be used only for general introduction.




1. Pereslavl-Zalesskiy


First of all it is necessary to clarify the terms "North-Eastern Russia" and "capital".

Northeast Russia is the term used in historiography to refer to the Russian principalities between the Volga and Oka IX-XV centuries. In historiography, along with the name "North-Eastern Russia" the following terms are used: for the IX-XI centuries Rostov land, for XI - XII mid century - Rostov-Suzdal Principality, with the middle of the XII century until the Mongol conquest - Vladimir-Suzdal great the Principality.

Under the capital we will understand the administrative and political center of the Principality, which the permanent seat of the Duke, and, accordingly, the Supreme bodies public administration (such centralization characteristic of the Middle ages). The capital of the Principality could not coincide with the main city of the diocese and in General case, and especially in the context of this article (and the Yuri Dolgoruky, and Andrew Bogolyubsky were significant problems in relationships and with Rostov bishops, and with the Kyiv metropolitans1).

Yuri Vladimirovich Dolgoruky (1090-s-1157, Grand Prince of Kiev from 1155) reigned in North-Eastern Russia with 1113 (perhaps even with 10962) years. In 1146 after the death of Grand Prince of Kiev Vsevolod II of Kiev in Russia civil war began. The heads of the belligerents were, on the one hand, Izyaslav Mstislavich, who in violation of the specific-lestvice system took Kyiv table, and on the other hand, Yuri Dolgoruky. In fact, even starting not with 1146, and 1139, when Kyiv table to bypass Monomakh Jr. captured Vsevolod II of Kiev, North-Eastern Russia under the leadership Dolgoruky turned into quite separate state formation, leading fully independent foreign and internal policy.

According to Chronicles references to determine the capital of North-Eastern Russia and Dolgoruky, and when his immediate descendants of the impossible: during the pre-Mongolian time chroniclers often traditionally referred to the entire region of Suzdal (Sujalam), sometimes the Woods, and the Novgorod chronicle - Lower ground. This North-Eastern Russia differs from most of the Russian principalities, where the definition of the capital of any complexity is not (the Principality of Smolensk - Smolensk, Chernihiv - Chernigov, Polotsk Polotsk, Galicia - Halych, Ryazan - Ryazan, etc.).

In connection with this question of capital Yury Dolgoruky is of considerable interest and has attracted the attention of researchers. The term "Rostov-Suzdal land" in historiography Apple's QuickTime: Rostov and Suzdal are two of the oldest cities in North-Eastern Russia, each of which could at one time or another to be the capital of the Principality of Yuri Vladimirovich.

But controversial3 the question of the relationship of Metropolitan functions of Rostov and Suzdal (and possibly Vladimir) before the Foundation of Pereslavl-Zalessky we see it not as principal. In case that Yuri Dolgoruky, when Kiev reigned his older brothers, unequivocally considered himself a future Grand Prince of Kyiv and waited for the queue the ladder, after the capture of Kiev Vsevolod II of Kiev in 1139, was preparing for the war for Kyiv table, and 1146 of the year - the death of Vsevolod - waged this war. Accordingly, all the while Dolgoruky, actively obustraivalis North-Eastern Russia, hardly belonged to any city of this region asto his permanent residence, and hardly gave a stable capital functions Rostov or Suzdal, especially because he had the yards and in other cities (known such yards in Vladimir and Kideksha4, but could be others).

Similar the situation in the times of Yuri Dolgoruky took place in the Holy Roman Empire, where no cities with strong capital functions: Rome was only nominal capital, in the Cathedral of Speyer was burying the dead emperors, and with worms his Cathedral was the center of a diocese. And how in the Holy Roman Empire elusive nominal capital from Rome prevented the emergence of any other the capital and North-Eastern Russia prevented the giving of any town Metropolitan status is difficult to achieve nominal capital - Kiev.

Dolgoruky twice in 1149 and 1150 was briefly captured Kiev, and, finally, suffered in may June 1151 crushing defeat at Rute and withdrew to the North-East Russia and its southern allies were one by one defeated Izyaslav Mstislavich. And, returning to the North-East, Yuri (probably capturing significant in Kiev funds) began an unprecedented construction program under the year 1152 Typographical chronicle reports:

"Then Prince George in Suzdal be, and othersl him God razumnee eyes on the Church building, and many churches postavili on Suzdalskoy the country, and the Church built a stone on the Nerl, saints Martyr Boris and Gleb, and of the Holy Saviour in Suzdal, the Holy one of Georgia in Volodimer the stone, and Pereiaslavl grad moved from Klemania, and place the great castle, and a Church of stone in it dope of the Holy Saviour, and fill th books and mommy saints marvelous, and Gergev hail and lay in it the Church gospe the stone of the Holy the Martyr of Georgia"5.

Like probably already guessed the attentive reader, we believe that Yuri in 1152 laid Pereslavl-Zalessky as its new capital. Direct and clear documentary evidence for this no, but it is proved by the totality of the following arguments.

The argument first. Izyaslav Mstislavich and Vyacheslav Vladimirovich, expelling Yuri from Kiev, has created a duumvirate, in which nephew Dolgoruky Izyaslav was a real leader (and judging by the image of Izyaslav in the Kiev chronicle, the darling of Kiev), and Vyacheslav, senior brother of George, was made credible by the Board in accordance princely ladder. Previously Yuri tried twice to capture Kiev and was twice expelled. To anticipate in 1151 almost simultaneous death of Izyaslav and Vyacheslav, followed the end 1154, it was impossible. Yes, and the jury was already in very advanced age (perhaps he it was already about sixty). Accordingly, the chances of returning to Kiev in Dolgoruky were ghostly, and it appeared the motive for the complete separation of its North-Eastern Russia from Kiev and construction of the new capital has already his own, and undoubtedly completely owned by him.

Desire Dolgoruky, like any medieval ruler, reign own the capital their state is the second argument, as in Rostov, Suzdal and Vladimir was traditionally highly popular Assembly, and in the near future Andrew Bogolyubsky had at his vokkarane to obtain the approval of the Assembly of these the largest and oldest cities of the Principality of6.

The Plenum of ownership Dolgoruky Pereslavl-Zalessky and its surroundings is confirmed by the message Typographical annals: "Pereslavl grad moved from Klemania". In order within a year or two to relocate if not all, then most of the inhabitants of the city another place (even relatively recent), it was necessary to have a truly unlimited power.

Confirmed the unlimited power of the jury over the surrounding area of Pereslavl-Zalessky and the enormous scale of construction work on the construction of shafts and ramparts (ill. 1) huge length of about 2,5 km (not to mention the construction of the Transfiguration Cathedral, for which they had to carry a white stone quarries from Moscow on the rivers for a distance of approximately 400 km7). In parallel, the Prince led almost as large-scale construction works in another city Yuryev-Polsky, where the length of the shaft though less Pereslavl, but not by much (about 2 km). To attract a huge number of unskilled workers for construction land, timber harvesting and transportation of white stone, and qualified for actual construction work, it was necessary to have very significant power resource.



Il. 1. Strengthening Of Pereslavl-Zalessky. Plan (N. N. Voronin)


Already we noted the huge length of the shafts of Pereslavl-Zalessky - about 2.5 km - is the third argument. Cities, larger in size than the Pereslavl, in North-Eastern Russia was not. Comparable only Vladimir (perimeter fortifications Monomahova, or Pachernegg, the city is also about 2,5 km). The perimeter of the fortifications of Yuriev-Polskiy, as we have already told, less 2 km. In Suzdal even less 1.4 km. Probably the fortifications of Rostov were not more Suzdal (today the exact shape is unknown). In Dmitrov (based a little later Pereslavl - in 1154), Yaroslavl (log town) and Przemysl Moscow - about 1 km, in Zvenigorod Moscow (fortress 1156) - about 800 m8, in Mstislavl and Kleshin - about 500 m.

Pereslavl-Zalesskiy was a very large city by the standards of all of Russia, not only the North-East. More were only Kiev (the perimeter of the fortifications of the city of Yaroslav - about 3.5 km) and Smolensk (city Rostislav about 3,5 km). The perimeter of the fortifications of Pereyaslavl-Russian (now Pereyaslav-Khmelnitsky) was much smaller - about 1.5 kmNovgorod and Old Ryazan (now the town of Pereslavl-Ryazan) - about 1.4 km.

The fourth argument. Yuri Dolgoruky was laid Pereslavl not on the mountain, and the plain, despite the fact that the surrounding hills it was possible to find space to accommodate enough large fortresses (for example, the length of the wall of Goritsky monastery is almost 1 km). This suggests that Prince foresaw further growth of Pereslavl, and sacrificed for the sake of it the defensive functions of the city (substantially in the case of increasing find on a hill).

The fifth argument is closely related to the fourth. Not far from Pereslavl-Zalessky (strategic scales at almost the same place) on a high hill was located perfectly strengthened and nature, and ramparts, and walls of the fortress city - kleshin. And this the city, as we saw above, had sizes comparable with the size of other cities and North-East, and the rest of Russia. Yuri's had in the city the swale on unreliable marshy ground near Pleshcheevo lake that required enormous effort and it was not meant to be significant improve military-strategic situation in the area, which is already was securely guarded Klishina.

Characteristically, after the base of Pereslavl-Zalessky kleshin still continued to exist enough for a long time: he is mentioned among the "Zalessky grad" in a compound in The fourteenth century "the List of Russian cities, far and near"10. Probably Kleschin in Pereslavl Prince moved far from all inhabitants, besides many of them could return to his hometown after the death of Dolgoruky.

Therefore, Dolgoruky built Pereslavl-Zalessky is not to improve the military-strategic situation in the Principality.

The sixth argument is the presence of in Pereslavl princes court, the existence of which is reasonably assumed N.N. Voronin9. Dolgoruky, as we have said above were the yards and in several other cities of North-Eastern Russia, so this the argument in favor of capital functions of Pereslavl is not self-sufficient (as and any other from the us), but in light of all the others is important.

The seventh argument is that the Pereslavl-Zalessky was located almost in the center possessions of Yuri Dolgoruky. If we think of the latter as the quadrilateral with vertices in Moscow (South-West corner), Tver (North-West), Yaroslavl (North-East) and Vladimir (South-East), the distance from these cities to Pereslavl straight respectively 140, 180, 140 and 120 km.

This Central the location of Pereslavl and symbolic, and practical from the point of view of the device capital. Usability is confirmed by the fact that this town was straight river the path and into the upper reaches of the Volga - the Nerl Volga (and further through Tver to Novgorod), and in St. George, Suzdal and Vladimir on the Nerl Klyazma (and further through Moscow in Southern Russia), and in Rostov - on Sarah, the upper parts of which come close to the headwaters The Nerl Klyazma (and from Rostov - Yaroslavl).

The eighth argument is the choice Yuri Dolgoruky names of Pereslavl-Zalessky. His ancestral chronicle name - Pereyaslavl, and was called the southern Russian city (now Pereyaslav-Khmelnitsky), where 1094 at 1113 his father was Prince Dolgoruky - Vladimir Monomakh, and where the jury, most likely, grew up (and probably born). In other words, Pereyaslavl-Russian even if not formally, then in fact was hometown Dolgoruky. And even if the Centre was not Russian associated childhood Yuri, still it was one of the most ancient Russian princely cities (along with Kiev and Chernigov). All it shows what a great the value Dolgoruky gave the Pereslavl-Zaleski.

The ninth argument is the word Printing the annals of the Cathedral of the Transfiguration: "Grant books and mommy Holy wonder" show a special attitude of the jury for the main and only at that time the temple of Pereslavl-Zalessky, and hence to the the city. After all, about the other temples mentioned in the same message of the chronicler, nothing nothing is being said.

The tenth argument of the word the same chronicle: "Founded great hail". In this case, the word "great" can mean not only "great", but "home" (by analogy with linguistic "great Prince"). After all about Yuryev-Polish chronicler in the same message, nothing like said, even though the St. George area slightly area of Pereslavl and much more other cities of North-Eastern Russia (the dimensions we gave above).

So, Yuri Dolgoruky in 1151 left the hostile state - Kievan Rus - next year began an unprecedented construction in the state North-Eastern Russia. In this construction program will be staking huge new city - in the heart of the princely possessions, with the Ducal Palace and especially revered Cathedral. In this city the Prince reigned Supreme and was shown to he get special treatment, including in choosing the name. And given ten our arguments are not self-sufficient (each of them can to question), but in together they say that this city is Pereslavl-Zalessky - was to become the capital of North-Eastern Russia.

Did this city the capital not only in the plans, but in reality, did Dolgoruky to live in it and to move at least a portion of the administrative functions? We believe that done. Yuri, laying in 1152 (most likely in the spring or in the beginning of the summer) all my new cities and temples, at the end of the year (the winter road) went to an unsuccessful trip to Chernigov. At the turn of 1152 and 1153 of years he returned to North-Eastern Russia. In early 1154, he again went camping, summer, likely back, and in the late autumn of this year has gone in a new campaign to Chernigov, then at the beginning of the year 1155 took Kiev and died there in 1157.

So Yuri could see their cities and temples in 1153 and 1154, and at the same time to come (maybe even live) in his new capital. In 1153 Pereslavl wooden Prince the Palace and the Cathedral of the Transfiguration already, most likely, were almost fully built (one year was a common term for wood construction buildings and temples of this magnitude11). The temple was even painted in the life of Yuri, as evidenced by the book of degrees: "...decorated the car to increase Yu wonderfully chudnoy signature and Holy icons..."12. The growth of Pereslavl was stopped only after 1155 year - after the departure of the Prince in Kiev (on the cessation of growth is thin the cultural layer of this era)13.

A. Karpov Yu. in his biographical book about Yuri Dolgoruky wrote: "Very soon Pereslavl-Zalessky will become one of the major cities of Suzdal land will be equal to the "old" cities of Rostov and Suzdal. Turning to stormy events subsequent history related to the war of succession of Prince Andrew Yurievich Bogolyubsky, we will see that the "pereiaslavy" will participate in the decision the most important Affairs of the Central part of the earth equally with the "Rostov" and "sedulcni". Obviously on the status of Pereyaslavl, have impacted the fact that he was perceived not so much as a "new" city, but as "old", but moved to a new place"14. To the said A. Y. Karpov, you can add that on the status of Pereslavl-Zalessky was supposed to have a positive affect and its original the purpose is to be the capital of North-Eastern Russia.

In the book "Yuri Dolgoruky and the old white-stone architecture" the author of this the article noted that the significance of culture and politics, and labor costs and the burden on the economy of Russia construction Dolgoruky five cathedrals it is comparable to the Foundation of St.-Petersburg15. Now we have the right to extend this comparison in respect of ground Yuri Vladimirovich in 1152 year of its new capital - "from nowhere", on marshy ground, not only Gulf of Finland, and the Pleshcheyevo lake. And the fact that Peter I built my first fleet on this lake is very symbolic.

As for the son of Yuri Dolgoruky - Andrei Bogolyubsky, one (perhaps the main) reason he did not make his capital Pereslavl-Zalessky and settled in Vladimir, and then founded and built by him Bogolyubovo16, see next: when in 1155 Dolgoruky became Grand Prince of Kiev, and Andrey came to reign in North-Eastern Russia against the will of his father17, take belonging to the city father Andrew had neither the right nor the ability. About the capital Andrew will be discussed in the next section of our article.


2. Bogolyubovo18


Andrey Yurievich (approx. 1111-1174, reigned in North-Eastern Russia with 1157) not only lived19 and died20 in the hierarchy, but went down in history as Andrey Bogolyubsky. Accordingly, the hypothesis that the city of Bogolyubovo was the capital of the Principality Andrew in the sense indicated by us at the beginning of this article (administrative and political center, which is the permanent residence Prince, and, accordingly, the Supreme bodies of state administration), literally arises, and to take it earlier researchers prevented only stereotypical the perception of Bogolyubov's not as "full" of the city, and as suburban Prince's castle, which can be called a city only in the broadest the terms of any fortified settlements. This stereotype, which was formed in the XIX century21, was so strong that it took22 even N. N. Voronin, who spent excavations23, revealed the true extent of the pre-Mongol Bogolyubov and affirming messages chronicle, speaking of him as "the stone city"24.

The outline of the Western part Bogolyubov well traced and the terrain, and plan N. N. Voronin (ill. 2). Southwest corner fortifications formed the Cape, North-West - bend shafts. With the North-West are also the remains of a moat. The center of the city, no doubt, was located where was the Prince's Palace, near the Church of the Nativity of the virgin. The border of the Eastern part of the city we can approximate, mentally continuing North line of the shafts in the direction of the ravine located to the East the modern monastery.



Il. 2. Plan the ancient part of the modern village of Bogolyubovo (N. N. Voronin).


Archaeological research 1954, conducted under the leadership of N. N. Voronin showed loyalty messages and chroniclers and explorers of the nineteenth century that the city of Bogolyubovo in the XII century around the perimeter had white stone walls. Studies have revealed the remains of such walls and in the southern corner the city and the West line of the shafts (these excavations are shown in ill. 2)25.

The length of these walls in depending on the shape of the North-Eastern part of the fortifications (to determine which no new archaeological research is not possible) is estimated about 1.2-1.5 km. This scale stone Bogolyubov has no fortifications equal in the pre-Mongolian architecture of Ancient Russia.

Research V. K. Emelina showed that in the city, except the Prince's castle, and was the citadel26(see Il. 3).



Il. 3. Plan of the city Bogolyubov in the XII century (reconstruction Emelina V. K.)


As we noted above, researchers have actually previously denied that Bogolyubovo was "full" town with a permanent population, government, Commerce, crafts, militia, Posada, etc.). But we cannot agree with this position. Let us give the following arguments in favor of the fact that Bogolyubovo was exactly in such a city.

The first argument is already we mentioned the size of Bogolyubov (perimeter walls is 1.2-1.5 km). In the first section of this article we cited the size of several ancient cities, and can to see that Bogolyubovo was comparable with Suzdal and Rostov, and was significantly more of Dmitrov, Moscow, Zvenigorod and all other cities North-Eastern Russia, except Vladimir, Pereslavl-Zalessky and Yuriev-Polsky.

The second argument is the presence of inside Bogolyubov fortified Grand-Ducal Palace (actually a castle - see Il. 4), and the citadel, which in itself excludes the status of the whole city as "the castle": history of architecture knows no locks, and internally has the citadel, and another castle.



Il. 4. Bogolyubovo. The fortified Palace of Andrei Bogolyubsky. Reconstruction of the author27.


A third argument. When Andrey Bogolubsky the scale of the construction activities were quite Bogolyubov comparable to the scale of works on arrangement of Vladimir. And in fact, and in another the city he erected two white-stone Church (Church respectively Nativity of the virgin Mary and the Intercession on the Nerl, the assumption Cathedral and the Church of our Saviour). The assumption Cathedral was bigger, but the Church of the Intercession was on an artificial hill, lined with white stone slabs. Strengthen in Vladimir was longer Bogolyubov (increment under Andrei - about 4.5 km), but Bogolyubov were white stone, and Vladimir - wood, stone there were built only Gold and Silver gate. In Vladimir stone the Prince's castle, and the citadel when Andrew was not, in the hierarchy they were.

The fourth argument is exceptionally favorable economic and strategic location Bogolyubov, evidenced by the fact that the crossroads of trade routes on the Klyazma and Nerl was so important that even his "appearance" Church of the Intercession on The Nerl.

The fifth argument: the presence in The hierarchy of the residence of the great Prince could not contribute to its enhanced growth, which lasted from 1158 (date of inception) to 1174 (the death of Andrei The pious and the transfer of Vsevolod the Big Nest of the capital in Vladimir).

The sixth argument: the city Bogolyubovo was far enough from Vladimir (about 10 km), and was located to the East side is traditionally hostile to Russia of the Volga Bulgars. Accordingly, if Bogolyubovo was only a small fortified princely residence, the Prince could get it in a trap in the event of a sudden the attack of the enemy. After all, the upper town, situated at the same distance from Kiev, Vladimir, Bogolyubovo (which stressed the chronicler28), was "full-fledged" city29that existed since the X century and fell out more than once in the inheritance. Approximately the same situation was with the Kideksha, located in 5 km East of Suzdal and also, according to the research of the author of this article, which was not a princely castle, and "full-fledged" city30.

The seventh argument: after Andrey's death, migration Vsevolod the Big Nest of the capital to Vladimir, ruin Bogolyubov Gleb of Ryazan in 1177 and devices in the former the princely castle of the monastery of31 the city has not come to a complete desolation. In the beginning of the XIII century as a symbol of happiness and prosperity Daniel mentioned Sharpener ("Zane, the gentleman who Bogolubovo, and I mount a fierce"). On deserves some credit monastic legend, recorded in the eighteenth century by the Abbot of Aristarchus32, the city was besieged by the Mongols, which reflects its strategic importance. And much later, in the late XIV century, Bogolyubovo was mentioned in the "List of Russian cities far and near"33.

The eighth argument. As in any large and growing city, outside the city walls Bogolyubov was located a considerable trade and craft Posad, as evidenced the presence of between and Vladimir Bogolyubov Good old villages and ancient settlements over Angelevski ravine (which in the XII century became a town34), as well as elongation of the fortifications of Vladimir on the East35 (ill. 5)



Il. 5. The plan of Vladimir XII-XIII century (by N. N. Voronin).

The number mark: I - city Monomakh (Picerni city); II - Vetchinoy the city; III - New city; IV - the citadel; 1 - the Church of our Saviour; 2 - the Church of St. George; 3 - Cathedral of the assumption; 4 - Golden gate; 5 - Originy gate; 6 - Copper gate; 7 - Silver gate; 8 - Volga gate; 9 - Demetrius Cathedral; 10 - Ascension monastery; 11 - the monastery of the Nativity; 12 assumption (Center) the monastery; 13 - Trade gateway; 14 - Ivanovo gate; 15 - gate citadel; 16 - the Church of the exaltation on the marketplace.


Probably the Eastern part Vladimir and the Western part of the Bogolyubov Posada during the reign of Prince Andrew was always "drawn" to each other, and in the early 1170-ies Posada could actually to be integrated (including Good Posad village and town over Angelevski ravine).

All these arguments say that Bogolyubovo was a "full-fledged" city, 1160-1170 years on its size and significance is comparable to the Suzdal, Yuriev-Polsky or Dmitrova, and possibly exceeding them.

All the above does doesn't diminish the significance of Vladimir as the largest city in North-Eastern Russia during Andrei Yurievich (total perimeter of Vladimir fortifications, when extended Bogolyubsky, was 7 km), trade, economic and religious center of the Kingdom, that historiography quite rightly refers to Vladimir-Suzdal. But the capital of Andrei Yurevich in the sense indicated by us at the beginning of this article, was the city of Bogolyubovo, and characteristically, in the end, this Prince went down in history not as Andrei of Suzdal (as it is mostly called in the Chronicles36), not as Andrew Vladimir (although from all the towns of North-Eastern Russia at this time chronicle most often mention Vladimir), but as Andrey Bogolyubsky.

History knows many analogues of correlation functions and Vladimir Bogolyubov under Andrei Yurievich - how Aleksandrovskaya Sloboda and Moscow under Ivan IV, St. Petersburg and Moscow during the reign of Peter I, and in modern times - Washington and New York, Canberra and Sydney, Brasilia and Rio de Janeiro and many others. etc.

In conclusion, we will answer question, same as that set at the end of the first section of this article: why Vsevolod the Big Nest chose as their capital is not Bogolyubovo, and Vladimir?

The reasons for this could be many, but the main we see the following. We don't know what mistakes in domestic policy, Andrew caused it, but the majority of residents Bogolyubov hated his Prince, and this is proved by the fact that when Andrew Yu was killed by conspirators, his corpse lay there under the wall of the Palace - and it with that squad, and the townspeople knew about his death. Then the clergy were not allowed to bring his body to the Church, and it rolled up in a carpet, two days lay in the porch, and the citizens were robbed Prince's Palace37. The same Vladimir was taken to himself a body of Andrew, buried him with honors in The assumption Cathedral38 and executed the murderers of Prince39. Not surprisingly, after all this, Vsevolod Yuryevich chose as their capital Bogolyubovo, Vladimir.




1. See more: Shchapov Ya. The state and the Church in Ancient Rus X-XIII centuries M., 1989.

2. Lemons J. A. Vladimir-Suzdal Rus. Essays socio-political history. L., 1987. S. 20.

3. For example, in the encyclopedia contains a rather strange and not confirmed by the annals of information that in 1125 Yuri Dolgoruky moved the capital of his realm from Rostov to Suzdal ( The question of the relation between capital functions of Rostov and Suzdal researched and iiainoae (froyanov ij Ancient Russia IX-XIII centuries. The people's movement. Princely and Veche power. M., 2012), and A. Yu. Karpov (Karpov A. Y. Yuri Dolgoruky. M., 2006).

4. What Kideksha was "full-fledged" city with a Prince's court, the author of this article showed in the book: Zagraevsky SV New research Vladimir-Suzdal Museum-reserve. M., 2008. CH. 4.

5. PSRL 24:77.

6. For example, the Hypatian chronicle under the year 1158 reports: "Sumashi Rostove and Suzdaltsev, and vladimirci the CSIS poasa Andrew, son Dureva oldest, and pasadika and otine desktop Rostov and Suzdal, and Volodimir" (PSRL 2:464).

7. Enormous complexity of white stone construction details see: Zagraevsky SV Yuri Dolgoruky and old white-stone architecture. M., 2001.

8. Kuchkin A. In Moscow in XII - the first half of the XIII century. In Phys.: Native history. 1996. No. 1. S. 6

9. The First Novgorod chronicle senior and Junior harass. Moscow; Leningrad, 1950. S. 477.

10. Voronin N. N. The architecture of North-Eastern Russia XII-XV centuries. M., 1961-1962. Vol. 1. S. 102.

11. Zagraevsky SV New research Vladimir-Suzdal Museum-reserve... CH. 4.

12. Detailed analysis of these annalistic data given in kN.: Voronin N. N. The decree. CIT. P. 23, 87. Under 1157 year there are a number of Chronicles the reports that Andrei "the Church of sconce, s same the be first place of his father the Holy Saviour of the stone...". N. N. Voronin believed that it is Pereslavl. If so (although it could go on and referred to in quoted message Typographical annals of the Church of the Saviour in Suzdal), 1157 could be arranged majolica floors, gilded head and held other work defined as maintenance. Therefore, we are not entitled to put question the message Typographical annals and the book of degrees of full the construction of the Transfiguration Cathedral.

13. Kindly communicated to the author in 2002. O. M. Hovhannisyan, conducted excavations in Pereslavl-Zalessky (other results of these excavations see: O. M. ioannisyan Research in Yaroslavl and Pereslavl-Zalessky. In sat: Archaeological discoveries 1986. M., 1988. P. 59).

14. Karpov A. Y. Decree. Op.

15. Zagraevsky SV Decree. Op. Conclusion.

16. There were many interpretations of the name city - Bogolyubov (Voronin N. N. The decree. CIT. P. 201), Bogolyubova (Karamzin N. M. History of the Russian state. M., 1991. T. 2-3. S. 521), Bogalay (PSRL 2:580), God-loving (PSRL 4:10), Bogolubovo (the Prayer of Daniel Sharpener" - see website and etc., so we will to adhere to the modern name - Bogolyubovo.

17. "In the summer 6663 (1155 - Sz) come from Kiev to hail Volodimer Prince Veliky Andrew without outgoing commands" (op. CIT. by the book: Karamzin N. M. The decree. CIT. Vol 2-3. P. 338).

18. First the basic provisions of this section of the article published: Zagraevsky SV Bogolyubov architectural ensemble of the end 1150 and 1170-ies: the history and reconstruction. In the book: Memory Andrei Bogolyubsky. Sat. articles. Moscow - Vladimir, 2009. C. 141-167:

19. This is, in particular, according to "the life of the Saint and great Prince and Martyr Andrew G. Bogolyubsky": "And Wherefore glorious and wonderful God Matera phenomena of the great Prince Andrey narace place that Bogolyubova; Ottone know of Prosveta Bogolyubsky. Then the same the castle building and the yard his princely near the newly established blessed Christmas The virgin the Church is built, and Velma's place it lablache, and Iwase Tu" (op. CIT. on article: Sirinov V. A. the Life of Andrei Bogolyubsky. In the book: Andrej Bogolyubsky. Sat. articles. Moscow - Vladimir, 2009. P. 228). The same position expressed in "Annals of the Bogolyubov monastery", composed by Abbot this abode Aristarchus (ibid., p. 207-210).

20. PSRL 2:580-595.

21. In particular, see: E. E. Golubinsky History the Russian Church. M., 1901. Vol. 1. Part 2. P. 117, 321.

22. For Example, N. N. Voronin wrote: "Construction Bogolyubov castle Prince Andrew is one of the most interesting pages of history culture of Ancient Russia in General and St. Vladimir in particular" (Voronin N. N. The decree. Op. Vol. 1. S. 201).

23. Ibid. P. 204-208.

24. PSRL 2:580.

25. Voronin N. N. The decree. Op. Vol. 1. P. 204-208. N. N. Voronin ibid assumed that the strengthening of the city included white stone tower.

26. Yemelin V. K. Planning structure the defensive fortifications of the time of Prince Andrei Bogolyubsky (for example Bogolyubov castle). Report on regional conference. Vladimir, April 22 2005.; Yemelin V. K. "Transition" or "prayer room"? (An attempt at reconstruction The princely court in the hierarchy). Electronic research library on the history ancient architecture "Rusarh" (, 2008.

27. The rationale for this reconstruction, see: Zagraevsky S. V. Grand-Ducal castle in the hierarchy: the experience of the graphic reconstruction. In kN.: The materials of the XVII inter-regional studies conference (April 20 2012.). Vol. 1. Vladimir, 2013. P. 296-312.

28. PSRL 2:581. Probably equal distances from Vyshgorod Kiev and Vladimir Bogolyubov chronicler emphasized in connection with the fact that Andrew received from his father in the destiny of Vyshgorod and removed the icon Virgin.

29. Tikhomirov, M. N. Ancient Russian city. M., 1956. S. 294. Characteristically, M. N. Tikhomirov, stressing the antiquity and importance Vyshgorod, still speaks of it as "the city of the castle" (ibid., p. 152) that reflects and attitudes regarding Bogolyubov.

30. Zagraevsky SV  New the study of architectural monuments of Vladimir-Suzdal Museum-reserve. M., 2008. GL. 4, C. 3.

31. By N. N. Voronin, a monastery in the Palace the building was built in the early XIIIcentury (Voronin N. N. The decree. CIT. P. 204, 524). A. V. Astafurov believes that the monastery in the hierarchy already existed when Andrei Bogolyubsky and was "modest residential monastery of the Prince and his family", and the beginning of XIII century, the monastery was occupied almost the entire territory the former princely castle. This conclusion the researcher confirmed the fact that Christmas temple in 1214-1215, already existed monastery cemetery (Mastepanov A.V. Bogolyubov in honour of the appearance of the Bogolyubsky icon of the mother of God (Nativity of the virgin Mary) monastery. In the book: The Orthodox encyclopedia. T. 5. M., 2002.

32. CHOIR. 1878. KN. 1. P.7.

33. The First Novgorod chronicle... P. 477.

34. Voronin N. N. The decree. CIT. P. 201.

35. Ibid. S. 129.

36. For example, see PSRL 2:580.

37. PSRL 2:580-595.

38. Ibid.

39. Tatischev V. N. The History Of Russian. T. 2. M., 2005. P. 378.


© Sergey Zagraevsky


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