Prof. Dr. S.V. Zagraevsky
the problems of the capitals of North-Eastern
Pereslavl-Zalessky in the times of Yuri Dolgoruky, Bogolyubovo in the times of Andrey Bogolyubsky
Published in Russian: Заграевский С.В. К вопросу о столицах
Северо-Восточной Руси: Переславль-Залесский при Юрии Долгоруком, Боголюбово при
Андрее Боголюбском. Электронная публикация: электронная научная библиотека «РусАрх»,
Historical and architectural
evidence indicates that Yuri Dolgoruky founded in 1152 the city of
The following text was translated from the Russian original by the computer program
and has not yet been edited.
So it can be used only for general introduction.
First of all it is necessary to clarify the terms "North-Eastern Russia" and "capital".
Northeast Russia is the term used in historiography to refer to the
Russian principalities between the
Under the capital we will understand the administrative and political
center of the Principality, which the permanent seat of the Duke, and,
accordingly, the Supreme bodies public administration (such centralization
characteristic of the Middle ages). The capital of the Principality could not
coincide with the main city of the diocese and in General case, and especially
in the context of this article (and the Yuri Dolgoruky, and Andrew Bogolyubsky
were significant problems in relationships and with
Yuri Vladimirovich Dolgoruky (1090-s-1157, Grand Prince of
According to Chronicles references to determine the capital of
North-Eastern Russia and Dolgoruky, and when his immediate descendants of the
impossible: during the pre-Mongolian time chroniclers often traditionally
referred to the entire region of Suzdal (Sujalam), sometimes the Woods, and the
Novgorod chronicle - Lower ground. This North-Eastern Russia differs from most
of the Russian principalities, where the definition of the capital of any
complexity is not (the Principality of Smolensk -
In connection with this question of capital Yury Dolgoruky is of
considerable interest and has attracted the attention of researchers. The term
"Rostov-Suzdal land" in historiography Apple's QuickTime:
But controversial3 the question of the relationship of
Metropolitan functions of
Similar the situation in the times of Yuri Dolgoruky took place in the Holy Roman Empire, where no cities with strong capital functions: Rome was only nominal capital, in the Cathedral of Speyer was burying the dead emperors, and with worms his Cathedral was the center of a diocese. And how in the Holy Roman Empire elusive nominal capital from Rome prevented the emergence of any other the capital and North-Eastern Russia prevented the giving of any town Metropolitan status is difficult to achieve nominal capital - Kiev.
Dolgoruky twice in 1149 and 1150 was briefly captured Kiev, and,
finally, suffered in may June 1151 crushing defeat at Rute and withdrew to the
North-East Russia and its southern allies were one by one defeated Izyaslav
Mstislavich. And, returning to the North-East, Yuri (probably capturing
"Then Prince George in Suzdal be, and othersl him God razumnee eyes on the Church building, and many churches postavili on Suzdalskoy the country, and the Church built a stone on the Nerl, saints Martyr Boris and Gleb, and of the Holy Saviour in Suzdal, the Holy one of Georgia in Volodimer the stone, and Pereiaslavl grad moved from Klemania, and place the great castle, and a Church of stone in it dope of the Holy Saviour, and fill th books and mommy saints marvelous, and Gergev hail and lay in it the Church gospe the stone of the Holy the Martyr of Georgia"5.
Like probably already guessed the attentive reader, we believe that Yuri in 1152 laid Pereslavl-Zalessky as its new capital. Direct and clear documentary evidence for this no, but it is proved by the totality of the following arguments.
The argument first. Izyaslav Mstislavich and Vyacheslav Vladimirovich,
expelling Yuri from Kiev, has created a duumvirate, in which nephew Dolgoruky
Izyaslav was a real leader (and judging by the image of Izyaslav in the Kiev
chronicle, the darling of Kiev), and Vyacheslav, senior brother of George, was
made credible by the Board in accordance princely ladder. Previously Yuri tried
twice to capture
Desire Dolgoruky, like any medieval ruler, reign own the capital their state is the second argument, as in Rostov, Suzdal and Vladimir was traditionally highly popular Assembly, and in the near future Andrew Bogolyubsky had at his vokkarane to obtain the approval of the Assembly of these the largest and oldest cities of the Principality of6.
The Plenum of ownership Dolgoruky Pereslavl-Zalessky and its surroundings is confirmed by the message Typographical annals: "Pereslavl grad moved from Klemania". In order within a year or two to relocate if not all, then most of the inhabitants of the city another place (even relatively recent), it was necessary to have a truly unlimited power.
Confirmed the unlimited power of the jury over the surrounding area of
Pereslavl-Zalessky and the enormous scale of construction work on the
construction of shafts and ramparts (ill. 1) huge length of about
Il. 1. Strengthening Of Pereslavl-Zalessky. Plan (N. N. Voronin)
Already we noted the huge length of the shafts of Pereslavl-Zalessky -
Pereslavl-Zalesskiy was a very large city by the standards of all of
The fourth argument. Yuri Dolgoruky was laid Pereslavl not on the
mountain, and the plain, despite the fact that the surrounding hills it was
possible to find space to accommodate enough large fortresses (for example, the
length of the wall of Goritsky monastery is almost
The fifth argument is closely related to the fourth. Not far from
Pereslavl-Zalessky (strategic scales at almost the same place) on a high hill
was located perfectly strengthened and nature, and ramparts, and walls of the
fortress city - kleshin. And this the city, as we saw above, had sizes
comparable with the size of other cities and North-East, and the rest of
Characteristically, after the base of Pereslavl-Zalessky kleshin still continued to exist enough for a long time: he is mentioned among the "Zalessky grad" in a compound in The fourteenth century "the List of Russian cities, far and near"10. Probably Kleschin in Pereslavl Prince moved far from all inhabitants, besides many of them could return to his hometown after the death of Dolgoruky.
Therefore, Dolgoruky built Pereslavl-Zalessky is not to improve the military-strategic situation in the Principality.
The sixth argument is the presence of in Pereslavl princes court, the existence of which is reasonably assumed N.N. Voronin9. Dolgoruky, as we have said above were the yards and in several other cities of North-Eastern Russia, so this the argument in favor of capital functions of Pereslavl is not self-sufficient (as and any other from the us), but in light of all the others is important.
The seventh argument is that the Pereslavl-Zalessky was located almost
in the center possessions of Yuri Dolgoruky. If we think of the latter as the
quadrilateral with vertices in
This Central the location of Pereslavl and symbolic, and practical from the point of view of the device capital. Usability is confirmed by the fact that this town was straight river the path and into the upper reaches of the Volga - the Nerl Volga (and further through Tver to Novgorod), and in St. George, Suzdal and Vladimir on the Nerl Klyazma (and further through Moscow in Southern Russia), and in Rostov - on Sarah, the upper parts of which come close to the headwaters The Nerl Klyazma (and from Rostov - Yaroslavl).
The eighth argument is the choice Yuri Dolgoruky names of Pereslavl-Zalessky. His ancestral chronicle name - Pereyaslavl, and was called the southern Russian city (now Pereyaslav-Khmelnitsky), where 1094 at 1113 his father was Prince Dolgoruky - Vladimir Monomakh, and where the jury, most likely, grew up (and probably born). In other words, Pereyaslavl-Russian even if not formally, then in fact was hometown Dolgoruky. And even if the Centre was not Russian associated childhood Yuri, still it was one of the most ancient Russian princely cities (along with Kiev and Chernigov). All it shows what a great the value Dolgoruky gave the Pereslavl-Zaleski.
The ninth argument is the word Printing the annals of the Cathedral of the Transfiguration: "Grant books and mommy Holy wonder" show a special attitude of the jury for the main and only at that time the temple of Pereslavl-Zalessky, and hence to the the city. After all, about the other temples mentioned in the same message of the chronicler, nothing nothing is being said.
The tenth argument of the word the same chronicle: "Founded great hail". In this case, the word "great" can mean not only "great", but "home" (by analogy with linguistic "great Prince"). After all about Yuryev-Polish chronicler in the same message, nothing like said, even though the St. George area slightly area of Pereslavl and much more other cities of North-Eastern Russia (the dimensions we gave above).
So, Yuri Dolgoruky in 1151 left the hostile state - Kievan Rus - next
year began an unprecedented construction in the state North-Eastern Russia. In
this construction program will be staking huge
Did this city the capital not only in the plans, but in reality, did
Dolgoruky to live in it and to move at least a portion of the administrative
functions? We believe that done. Yuri, laying in 1152 (most likely in the
spring or in the beginning of the summer) all my new cities and temples, at the
end of the year (the winter road) went to an unsuccessful trip to
So Yuri could see their cities and temples in 1153 and 1154, and at the
same time to come (maybe even live) in his new capital. In 1153 Pereslavl
wooden Prince the Palace and the Cathedral of the Transfiguration already, most
likely, were almost fully built (one year was a common term for wood
construction buildings and temples of this magnitude11). The temple
was even painted in the life of Yuri, as evidenced by the book of degrees:
"...decorated the car to increase Yu wonderfully chudnoy signature and
Holy icons..."12. The growth of Pereslavl was stopped only
after 1155 year - after the departure of the Prince in
A. Karpov Yu. in his biographical book about Yuri Dolgoruky wrote:
"Very soon Pereslavl-Zalessky will become one of the major cities of
Suzdal land will be equal to the "old" cities of
In the book "Yuri Dolgoruky and the old white-stone architecture" the author of this the article noted that the significance of culture and politics, and labor costs and the burden on the economy of Russia construction Dolgoruky five cathedrals it is comparable to the Foundation of St.-Petersburg15. Now we have the right to extend this comparison in respect of ground Yuri Vladimirovich in 1152 year of its new capital - "from nowhere", on marshy ground, not only Gulf of Finland, and the Pleshcheyevo lake. And the fact that Peter I built my first fleet on this lake is very symbolic.
As for the son of Yuri Dolgoruky - Andrei Bogolyubsky, one (perhaps the main) reason he did not make his capital Pereslavl-Zalessky and settled in Vladimir, and then founded and built by him Bogolyubovo16, see next: when in 1155 Dolgoruky became Grand Prince of Kiev, and Andrey came to reign in North-Eastern Russia against the will of his father17, take belonging to the city father Andrew had neither the right nor the ability. About the capital Andrew will be discussed in the next section of our article.
Andrey Yurievich (approx. 1111-1174, reigned in North-Eastern Russia with 1157) not only lived19 and died20 in the hierarchy, but went down in history as Andrey Bogolyubsky. Accordingly, the hypothesis that the city of Bogolyubovo was the capital of the Principality Andrew in the sense indicated by us at the beginning of this article (administrative and political center, which is the permanent residence Prince, and, accordingly, the Supreme bodies of state administration), literally arises, and to take it earlier researchers prevented only stereotypical the perception of Bogolyubov's not as "full" of the city, and as suburban Prince's castle, which can be called a city only in the broadest the terms of any fortified settlements. This stereotype, which was formed in the XIX century21, was so strong that it took22 even N. N. Voronin, who spent excavations23, revealed the true extent of the pre-Mongol Bogolyubov and affirming messages chronicle, speaking of him as "the stone city"24.
The outline of the Western part Bogolyubov well traced and the terrain,
and plan N. N. Voronin (ill. 2). Southwest corner fortifications formed
Il. 2. Plan the ancient part of the modern
Archaeological research 1954, conducted under the leadership of N.
N. Voronin showed loyalty messages and chroniclers and explorers of the
nineteenth century that the city of
The length of these walls in depending on the shape of the North-Eastern
part of the fortifications (to determine which no new archaeological research
is not possible) is estimated about 1.2-
Research V. K. Emelina showed that in the city, except the Prince's castle, and was the citadel26(see Il. 3).
Il. 3. Plan of the city Bogolyubov in the XII century (reconstruction Emelina V. K.)
As we noted above, researchers have actually previously denied that Bogolyubovo was "full" town with a permanent population, government, Commerce, crafts, militia, Posada, etc.). But we cannot agree with this position. Let us give the following arguments in favor of the fact that Bogolyubovo was exactly in such a city.
The first argument is already we mentioned the size of Bogolyubov
(perimeter walls is 1.2-
The second argument is the presence of inside Bogolyubov fortified
Il. 4. Bogolyubovo. The fortified
A third argument. When Andrey Bogolubsky the scale of the construction
activities were quite Bogolyubov comparable to the scale of works on
The fourth argument is exceptionally favorable economic and strategic location Bogolyubov, evidenced by the fact that the crossroads of trade routes on the Klyazma and Nerl was so important that even his "appearance" Church of the Intercession on The Nerl.
The fifth argument: the presence in The hierarchy of the residence of
the great Prince could not contribute to its enhanced growth, which lasted from
1158 (date of inception) to 1174 (the death of Andrei The pious and the
transfer of Vsevolod the Big Nest of the capital in
The sixth argument: the city Bogolyubovo was far enough from
The seventh argument: after Andrey's death, migration Vsevolod the Big Nest of the capital to Vladimir, ruin Bogolyubov Gleb of Ryazan in 1177 and devices in the former the princely castle of the monastery of31 the city has not come to a complete desolation. In the beginning of the XIII century as a symbol of happiness and prosperity Daniel mentioned Sharpener ("Zane, the gentleman who Bogolubovo, and I mount a fierce"). On deserves some credit monastic legend, recorded in the eighteenth century by the Abbot of Aristarchus32, the city was besieged by the Mongols, which reflects its strategic importance. And much later, in the late XIV century, Bogolyubovo was mentioned in the "List of Russian cities far and near"33.
The eighth argument. As in any large and growing city, outside the city walls Bogolyubov was located a considerable trade and craft Posad, as evidenced the presence of between and Vladimir Bogolyubov Good old villages and ancient settlements over Angelevski ravine (which in the XII century became a town34), as well as elongation of the fortifications of Vladimir on the East35 (ill. 5)
Il. 5. The plan of Vladimir XII-XIII century (by N. N. Voronin).
The number mark: I - city Monomakh (Picerni city); II - Vetchinoy the city; III - New city; IV - the citadel; 1 - the Church of our Saviour; 2 - the Church of St. George; 3 - Cathedral of the assumption; 4 - Golden gate; 5 - Originy gate; 6 - Copper gate; 7 - Silver gate; 8 - Volga gate; 9 - Demetrius Cathedral; 10 - Ascension monastery; 11 - the monastery of the Nativity; 12 assumption (Center) the monastery; 13 - Trade gateway; 14 - Ivanovo gate; 15 - gate citadel; 16 - the Church of the exaltation on the marketplace.
Probably the Eastern part Vladimir and the Western part of the Bogolyubov Posada during the reign of Prince Andrew was always "drawn" to each other, and in the early 1170-ies Posada could actually to be integrated (including Good Posad village and town over Angelevski ravine).
All these arguments say that Bogolyubovo was a "full-fledged" city, 1160-1170 years on its size and significance is comparable to the Suzdal, Yuriev-Polsky or Dmitrova, and possibly exceeding them.
All the above does doesn't diminish the significance of
History knows many analogues of correlation functions and Vladimir Bogolyubov under Andrei Yurievich - how Aleksandrovskaya Sloboda and Moscow under Ivan IV, St. Petersburg and Moscow during the reign of Peter I, and in modern times - Washington and New York, Canberra and Sydney, Brasilia and Rio de Janeiro and many others. etc.
In conclusion, we will answer question, same as that set at the end of the first section of this article: why Vsevolod the Big Nest chose as their capital is not Bogolyubovo, and Vladimir?
The reasons for this could be many, but the main we see the following.
We don't know what mistakes in domestic policy, Andrew caused it, but the
majority of residents Bogolyubov hated his Prince, and this is proved by the
fact that when Andrew Yu was killed by conspirators, his corpse lay there under
the wall of the Palace - and it with that squad, and the townspeople knew about
his death. Then the clergy were not allowed to bring his body to the Church,
and it rolled up in a carpet, two days lay in the porch, and the citizens were
robbed Prince's Palace37. The same
1. See more: Shchapov Ya. The state and the Church in Ancient Rus X-XIII centuries M., 1989.
2. Lemons J. A. Vladimir-Suzdal Rus. Essays socio-political history. L., 1987. S. 20.
3. For example, in
the encyclopedia contains a rather strange and not confirmed by the annals of
information that in 1125 Yuri Dolgoruky moved the capital of his realm from
4. What Kideksha
was "full-fledged" city with a Prince's court, the author of this
article showed in the book: Zagraevsky SV New research Vladimir-Suzdal
Museum-reserve. M., 2008.
5. PSRL 24:77.
6. For example, the
Hypatian chronicle under the year 1158 reports: "Sumashi Rostove and
Suzdaltsev, and vladimirci the CSIS poasa Andrew, son Dureva oldest, and
pasadika and otine desktop
7. Enormous complexity of white stone construction details see: Zagraevsky SV Yuri Dolgoruky and old white-stone architecture. M., 2001.
8. Kuchkin A. In
9. The First
10. Voronin N. N. The architecture of North-Eastern Russia XII-XV centuries. M., 1961-1962. Vol. 1. S. 102.
11. Zagraevsky SV
New research Vladimir-Suzdal Museum-reserve...
12. Detailed analysis of these annalistic data given in kN.: Voronin N. N. The decree. CIT. P. 23, 87. Under 1157 year there are a number of Chronicles the reports that Andrei "the Church of sconce, s same the be first place of his father the Holy Saviour of the stone...". N. N. Voronin believed that it is Pereslavl. If so (although it could go on and referred to in quoted message Typographical annals of the Church of the Saviour in Suzdal), 1157 could be arranged majolica floors, gilded head and held other work defined as maintenance. Therefore, we are not entitled to put question the message Typographical annals and the book of degrees of full the construction of the Transfiguration Cathedral.
communicated to the author in 2002. O. M. Hovhannisyan, conducted excavations
in Pereslavl-Zalessky (other results of these excavations see: O. M. ioannisyan
14. Karpov A. Y. Decree. Op.
15. Zagraevsky SV Decree. Op. Conclusion.
16. There were many interpretations of the name city - Bogolyubov (Voronin N. N. The decree. CIT. P. 201), Bogolyubova (Karamzin N. M. History of the Russian state. M., 1991. T. 2-3. S. 521), Bogalay (PSRL 2:580), God-loving (PSRL 4:10), Bogolubovo (the Prayer of Daniel Sharpener" - see website http://pisatel.org) and etc., so we will to adhere to the modern name - Bogolyubovo.
17. "In the
summer 6663 (1155 - Sz) come from
18. First the basic
provisions of this section of the article published: Zagraevsky SV Bogolyubov
architectural ensemble of the end 1150 and 1170-ies: the history and
reconstruction. In the book: Memory Andrei Bogolyubsky. Sat. articles.
19. This is, in
particular, according to "the life of the Saint and great Prince and
Martyr Andrew G. Bogolyubsky": "And Wherefore glorious and wonderful
God Matera phenomena of the great Prince Andrey narace place that Bogolyubova;
Ottone know of Prosveta Bogolyubsky. Then the same the castle building and the
yard his princely near the newly established blessed Christmas The virgin the
Church is built, and Velma's place it lablache, and Iwase Tu" (op. CIT. on
article: Sirinov V. A. the Life of Andrei Bogolyubsky. In the book: Andrej
Bogolyubsky. Sat. articles.
20. PSRL 2:580-595.
22. For Example, N. N. Voronin wrote: "Construction Bogolyubov castle Prince Andrew is one of the most interesting pages of history culture of Ancient Russia in General and St. Vladimir in particular" (Voronin N. N. The decree. Op. Vol. 1. S. 201).
23. Ibid. P. 204-208.
24. PSRL 2:580.
25. Voronin N. N. The decree. Op. Vol. 1. P. 204-208. N. N. Voronin ibid assumed that the strengthening of the city included white stone tower.
26. Yemelin V. K.
Planning structure the defensive fortifications of the time of Prince Andrei
Bogolyubsky (for example Bogolyubov castle). Report on regional conference.
27. The rationale
for this reconstruction, see: Zagraevsky S. V. Grand-Ducal castle in the
hierarchy: the experience of the graphic reconstruction. In kN.: The
materials of the XVII inter-regional studies conference (April 20 2012.). Vol.
28. PSRL 2:581. Probably equal distances from Vyshgorod Kiev and Vladimir Bogolyubov chronicler emphasized in connection with the fact that Andrew received from his father in the destiny of Vyshgorod and removed the icon Virgin.
29. Tikhomirov, M. N. Ancient Russian city. M., 1956. S. 294. Characteristically, M. N. Tikhomirov, stressing the antiquity and importance Vyshgorod, still speaks of it as "the city of the castle" (ibid., p. 152) that reflects and attitudes regarding Bogolyubov.
30. Zagraevsky SV New the study of architectural
monuments of Vladimir-Suzdal Museum-reserve. M.,
31. By N. N.
Voronin, a monastery in the Palace the building was built in the early
XIIIcentury (Voronin N. N. The decree. CIT. P. 204, 524). A. V. Astafurov
believes that the monastery in the hierarchy already existed when Andrei
Bogolyubsky and was "modest residential monastery of the Prince and his
family", and the beginning of XIII century, the monastery was occupied
almost the entire territory the former princely castle. This conclusion the
researcher confirmed the fact that Christmas temple in 1214-1215, already
existed monastery cemetery (Mastepanov A.V. Bogolyubov in honour of the
appearance of the Bogolyubsky icon of the mother of God (Nativity of the virgin
Mary) monastery. In the book: The Orthodox encyclopedia. T.
32. CHOIR. 1878. KN. 1. P.7.
33. The First
34. Voronin N. N. The decree. CIT. P. 201.
35. Ibid. S. 129.
36. For example, see PSRL 2:580.
37. PSRL 2:580-595.
39. Tatischev V. N.
The History Of Russian. T.
© Sergey Zagraevsky