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Dr. Sergey V. Zagraevsky

 

Color solutions of the domes of Ancient Russian temples

 

Published in Russian: .. . : , 2014 .

 

 

Annotation

 

On the basis of volumetric iconographic and documentary material the traditions of the color solutions of the domes of Ancient Russian temples are studied. Recommendations on the choice of the color of the church domes for modern restorers and builders of new churches are given.

 

 

Attention!

The following text was translated from Russian original by the computer program

and has not yet been edited.

So it can be used only for general introduction.

     RUSSIAN VERSION

 

 

In this study, we have to find out what were the traditions of color solutions of the heads of churches in Ancient Russia, and make appropriate recommendations modern restorers and yet (priests, architects, donors and others, who want when choosing colors chapters, restored and built temples to keep these traditions.

First of all necessary to define what we call the domes of temples. Encyclopedias, textbooks and readers1 usually determine the so-decorative coating, located above the dome and arranged on drums. Cupolas are called chapters, arranged not on light, but on decorative (deaf) drums. Head and domes can be bulbous, a helmet-shaped, pear-shaped, umbrella, conical, etc. (the shape of the heads of ancient temples author in their time dedicated a special research2).

Note that for historical, architectural and restoration of the household head are often collectively referred to as the completion of the temple, consisting of a drum of the dome and dome. And in the scientific and popular literature everywhere there are such expressions as "drum large head, small dome of the head", "the construction of four small heads" (together with the dome and the drum), "the fall of the head of the temple" (together with the dome and the drum), "helmet covering the big heads", etc. In everyday life often mix chapters and dome (for example, the widely used phrase "Golden domes").

But we will stick to the formal definition of heads as decorative domes of temples. Cupolas and simple cupola (i.e. not decorative) dome cover for simplicity, we will refer to the chapters, as for our purposes it does not matter whether the drum light or decorative, and whether the dome roof cupola or overbuilt.

Turning to the topic of our study, we can conclude that in Ancient Russia no canons and other Church regulations about the color of the decisions of the heads was not. Anyway, the modern Church history and history of architecture of such rules and regulations not know.

However, in practice, the most prestigious, elite color scheme chapters on Russia was the gilding. First of all this is confirmed by a large number of references gold plated (in everyday speech - "Golden") chapters in the ancient acts. One can cite many such examples.

In 1019 "Yaroslav Vladimirovich... renew hail of Kyiv and the establishment of the Church of the great and predivnu Holy Sophia who is the wisdom of God... and decorate Yu all beauty, and with it the tower (the tower) saruji, and the top poslati and the gates of the city of stone" 3.

In 1108 "incorporated was Zerka the Holy one of Michael's Golden-Domed Prince Svyatopolk"4.

In 1037 "Yaroslav founded the city of Kiev more, and set and the shaft great, and the creation in it the Church of the beautiful Saint Sophia and her two Veigy Golden"5.

In the "Tale of bygone years" States: "Where do unto poganie graha a devil on the mountains, now again amplitude saints of the Church's kamenistaya stand"6.

In "the Word about Igor's regiment" Prince Svyatoslav of Kiev says, "Already doska without kneza (ceiling rafters - SZ) in my Terem zlatoverhiy".

Ipatiev chronicle repeatedly (under 1158, 1175 and 1183 years) speaking about gold chapters of Vladimir assumption Cathedral: Andrey Bogolyubsky "make this same Church 5 elite and all covered with gold decorate and store it by episcopo"; and five top of her poslati"; "and all five top Golden shore"7.

In 1191 "great Prince Dimitry Vsevolod built in his courtyard a Church of Kamenno in the name of the GreatMartyr Demetrios , and the top of her poslati"8.

In 1249 in Yaroslavl "died there Vasily..and pologise him in the Church of the Holy virgin 's"9.

In 1382 "gilded Grand Prince Mikhail top of the Holy Saviour in Tver10.

In 1408 "; the lords ofthe OAINN , svyatye Sofii lead, and macavity Bolshoy Zlatoverhy called the"11.

In 1509 "Nazi great Vasily Ivanovich top poslati the Holy one of Blagoveschenie, the Church before semi for State courts in the city of Moscow"12.

In 1598,"saleisha Pskov at soborniy Church at Zhivonachalnoy Trinity Chapter coating with gold and not vosmogo. And reigned as sovereign Tsar and Grand Prince Boris Fedorovich , sea Rosie on his patrimony throughout Ruskoi earth, and svedav exhaustion the people of Pskov, the Holy Trinity was covered from his zarskoi coffers with gold; and he became the sovereign 2300 Rublev with everything"13.

Special kudos "gold" chapters confirmed and collected by the author statistical illustrative material (cm. The Application). In statistical illustrative material is given a random sample of 137 images attended by the heads of churches. These images are dated from the pre-Mongolian time before the beginning of the XVIII century. Mainly it is a painting, but given and miniatures from the manuscript, and plans of Moscow late XVI-early XVII century (Fig. 4.72, 5.01, 5.02), and "drawing" Vladimir 1715 (Fig. 6.04). Note that the realistic representation of the architecture of many of the icons so high that you can see even roofing sheets on the Church chapters (Fig. 2.05, 2.06, 3.02, 3.03, 3.04, 3.07 and mn. other).

The results of processing of the statistical illustrative material are:

- gold plated Chapter there are 73 the images from 137;

- black - 50 images;

green - 18;

red - 17;

- grey - 15 (grey color images can be considered as an analogue of silver);

brown - 10;

blue - 7;

- ochre - 1.

It is interesting to note that the percentage of gilded domes on the images grew from century to century:

- pre-Mongolian time - no gilded images of heads (note that in reality these chapters were, and we have led the chronicle evidence of this);

- XIII-XIV centuries - 1 image from 11;

- XV century - 3 of 11;

- XVI century - 34 of 72;

- XVII century - 22 of 29;

- the beginning of XVIII century - 11 from 12.

But the prevalence of the "Golden" chapters on ancient images and information about such chapters in the annals does not imply that these chapters quantitatively prevailed in reality. There are several reasons.

First, gilded head, as the most prestigious, could be represented by the icon-painters as idealized image of completion of the temples (or that the degree of idealisation depicted in principle inherent in the icons). This is confirmed by the fact that on the plans of Moscow late XVI-early XVII century (Fig. 4.72, 5.01, 5.02) the predominance we not see more than that,"Kremlingaz (Fig. 5.01) and "Sigismundovna plan (Fig. 5.02) "gold" heads no. No on the"drawing" of Vladimir 1715 (Fig. 6.04).

Secondly, on ancient images lot and heads of other colors, and if the sum of the image with such chapters, you get a figure 118 (against 73 "gold"), that is the predominance of gilded chapters ambiguous;

Thirdly, during wars and other large-scale disasters gold with chapters often appeared and melted. This is confirmed by the fact that we see a lot gilded domes on petrovom the drawing (Fig. 4.72) up to the time of Troubles, and do not see them on "Kremlingaz" and "Sigismundovna plan (Fig. 5.01, 5.02) - after the time of Troubles.

Fourth, even in the capital of the temples were gilded by no means everywhere. This said, and "Peter's drawing", and many images of the heads of the other colors on the capital of icons (Fig. 3.01, 4.04, 4.05, 4.06, 4.09, 4.14, 4.20, 4.21, 4.22, 4.54, 5.08 and others)

Fifth, the "gold" of the head is too expensive to become a mass phenomenon. The gilding of the Grand temple any of the old Russian way " and "fire", and "oil gilding" - took several kilograms of gold14. We have already brought theCCP UCS's chronicle in 1598 a year: "Saleisha Pskov at soborniy Church at Zhivonachalnoy Trinity Chapter coating with gold and not vosmogo. And reigned as sovereign Tsar and Grand Prince Boris Fedorovich , sea Rosie on his patrimony throughout Ruskoi earth, and svedav exhaustion the people of Pskov, the Holy Trinity was covered from his zarskoi coffers with gold; and he became the sovereign 2300 Rublev with all"". For comparison, note that the cow at the time, cost, on average, 80 kopecks, and masons were received about 15 cents per month15.

Sixth, if gilding was a mass floor chapters, it would cease to be prestigious and elite, and the chronicle hardly mentioned the facts of gilding.

In this regard, it is interesting to explore the question of why Russia was subject to the availability of financial opportunities to gold-plate of the head, why gilded head became the most prestigious and whence came this tradition that lasted for many centuries.

To date, the most common is the version E.N. Trubetskoy (1863-1920): "Our native onion embodies the idea of deep prayer burning to the sky, through which our terrestrial world is involved in the other-worldly wealth. This is the end of the Russian Church as of fire language, crowned by a cross, and pointed to the cross... Why, of all these ways, ancient Russian architecture was elected to the completion in the form of bulbs? 16.

Thus, E.N. Trubetskoy believed that because the bulb has the form of a flame, its color should be "Golden". But the author of this study showed that the onion domes appeared on ancient temples only in XIII century17and in times E.N. Trubetskoy dominated in General theory of occurrence of these chapters at the turn of the XVI-XVII centuries18. To gold-plate Chapter ancient temples began in the pre-Mongolian time when they were a simple cupola dome19. It will disavow version of "flame".

"Mystical" version, most clearly expressed in the popular song V.S. Vysotsky: "Dome in Russia are covered with pure gold, so often the Lord appeared", hardly can be considered to be scientifically justified. This applies even to quite a logical assumption that the gilding of the heads was caused by the associations with the Heavenly Jerusalem, which was a gold (Open. 21:18). The fact that nowhere in the Chronicles and other ancient documents, nothing similar is encountered.

There is much more clear, reasonable and logical explanation of why gilded head became a "business card" of the old Russian Church architecture. This tradition of Ancient Rome and Byzantium. In Ancient Rome was the Golden dome of the Pantheon (the gold of the dome was removed only in the XVII century, when Pope urban VIII to create a canopy for St Peter's Cathedral20). In Constantinople - the dome of St. Sophia (gilding was arranged during Justinian and disappeared in the further restructuring of the dome)21. There is evidence that in Byzantium gilding chapters was quite a common thing22.

Now we can move on to part of our research on other (except gold) color decisions of the heads of ancient temples. Let's start with used in XII-XVII centuries of roofing. For our purposes it is enough, without going into controversial issues, to quote the book "the Restoration of architectural monuments" (the head of the group of authors - S. pod'yapol'skii).

For the first stone Church of the tithe Church in Kyiv was applied tiles in the form of concave bricks size 30x60 see according to the chronicle data and archeological finds, the most common material covering stone temples was a lead that is fit leaves, which had a rather significant fluctuations in the size (length found samples from 70 to 90 cm, width 35 to 70 cm at thickness from 1.5 to 3 mm). Sheets of lead fastened by nails to lime plaster or to a wooden crate. In the Vladimir-Suzdal Russia in the XII century for roofs were also used gilded copper.

After the Mongol-Tatar invasion expensive roofing almost completely out of use. Only occasionally metal roofing and gilding used in major urban or largest monastic churches that it is particularly mentioned in the Chronicles. So, under 1280 g. the Chronicles tell us about the coverage of the Dormition Cathedral in Rostov lead and the assumption Cathedral in Vladimir tin; at the Novgorod Sofia resume lead roof in 1341, 1396 and 1408, on St. George's Cathedral in Yuriev monastery in Novgorod - in 1345.; it is reported about gilding the heads of the Saviour Cathedral in Tver in 1382. and Sophia in Novgorod 1408. As is seen from the list, in most cases it is not about the construction of new and repair of old, even the pre-Mongolian constructions.

Wooden roof was used in the stone churches that had as pramocaineand curved floor. So, in the Novgorod churches with three-bladed form completion facades are missing Nabucco above the arches and have nests from fixing into brickwork, wooden elements, which served as a support for the roof construction. There is no doubt that the use of roofing boards have dictated the form osiptsova coverage Pskov churches and such Novgorod buildings as the Church of Nikola White (1312 g.) and the Church Onvanadzite apostles (1454.). Domed vault of the Novgorod and Pskov churches, as a rule, a little raised above the cornice of the drum, which indicates the use of roof trusses and timber (lamechovo) cover not only their main volume, but also heads of... (as far as color wooden roofs, it can be light yellow or pinkish, then becomes grey and silver, and after a long time, turning black - note. SZ).

The architecture of the Russian state and in particular the Moscow starting from the end of XV-beginning XVI centuries is characterized by a great variety of used roofing materials. Thus, in connection with the Moscow Uspensky Cathedral in the Chronicles mention about the use of white, i.e. tin, and iron, which later began to be used increasingly. The roof of the Uspensky Cathedral was laid by the solid wooden crate.

In the beginning of XVI century in Moscow appears roofing shingles. The earliest firmly dated monument with tiled floor - Archangel Cathedral in the Moscow Kremlin (1505-1508,). The main volume of the Cathedral was closed tray tiles, representing a wide plate with a raised from two sides by walls... Tile Russian buildings red terracotta, and black with gray test and shiny silver-black surface. Black pottery, typical of Northern Europe, was manufactured from the usual red clay and burnt with insufficient access of air to the furnace.

In the XVII in. continued to be used as bin and lamekhova tiles, but with the known changes. Bin polished tiles began to do more narrow and use it for both the bottom and top of the range... Lamekhova tiles of XVII century is usually more subtle crock and in most cases, covered with outer surface of dull green enamel, at least - green and yellow glaze, but sometimes there are also black and red tile...

A special case of roof structures - the device of the metal skeleton of the chapters that are common in the construction of the last quarter of the XVII century... the Floor, made from sheets of tinned iron, wykroczenia the shape of the head and connected to folds attached to the crate in some places and adjacent to it is not quite tightly...

In addition tinned iron to cover the Church of the heads of the richest churches were used gilded copper. For the first time in Moscow was in gilded 1508. the head of the home Church of Moscow rulers of the Kremlin Annunciation Cathedral. More often than themselves Chapter gilded metal cross cones, balls and crosses have covered tinned iron heads"23.

End of quote.

The first part of our research on gilding of chapters, in General confirmed quoted the position of a group of authors headed by S. Podyapolski. The statistical analysis of illustrative material (cm. above) also confirms the information given in the quotation. On ancient images are present, except gold, black, green, red, gray (silver), brown, blue, and (in one case) colour ochre, which can be considered a light brown. Mainly (50 images from 137) is black, the following the frequency is much less common (green - 18 images, red - on 17, grey - 15 etc).

It is interesting to note that on 23 icons from 121, presented in the statistical illustrative material, we see a combination of the "Golden" heads with black, green, red, etc. On 58 icons gilded head, not shown, only the heads of other colors. Therefore, anything "non-canonical"and especially "unworthy" in "nezolotaja" chapters were not. Gilding was more prestigious than any other material and colour of the cover, but this does not mean that the black or green chapters were "undesirable".

Generally speaking, the choice of the old Russian Church founder (priest, the architect, the churchwarden) color solutions Chapter constructed or repaired the temple could be due to practical, symbolic and (or) for aesthetic reasons. As we showed above, possible head was gilded. But in the vast majority of cases, yet this was not possible, and they chose any other species and, accordingly, the color coating chapters.

Consider the order of possible considerations of choice "netlogo" color.

As for practical reasons, we have no reason to believe that in Ancient Russia they are a little bit essentially differed from modern. The parity "price-quality roofing materials, availability, light-fastness, have yet necessary financial resources and construction personnel - all this was true at all times. A specific set of "optimal" from a practical point of view materials could vary significantly depending on age, location, a particular situation at a particular temple, etc.

Therefore, we can recommend modern yet, wish to observe traditions of Ancient Russia, one of two ways: either use the old Russian materials and technologies (see the above-quoted text from the "Restoration of monuments of architecture"), or to follow the same practical considerations that guided the ancient yet (price, quality, availability, light-fastness and so on), only in respect of old and modern materials and technologies.

Let us consider the possible considerations color symbolism.

No documentary (the chronicle and other) data about what the symbols in Ancient Russia gave this or that color chapters (like the color of any other architectural element) modern Church history and history of architecture do not know. In this regard, we have to state that the use of modern restorers and yet symbols as justification of the choice of colors chapters have negative methodological aspect. so as subjective opinions, looking no less convincing.

For example, in "the Handbook of the cleric"24 cited as exemplary position V.V. Bychkov: "In iconography the Divine light was symbolized not only gold but also in white, which means the radiance of eternal life and purity as opposed to black hell, death, spiritual darkness. Therefore, in iconography the blackness that will be painted only images of the cave, where in white coverings rests Born the Holy child, the grave, from which white shroud out of the resurrected Lazarus, hole of hell, from the depths of which isodata Resurrected Christ the righteous also - in white linen). When the icons needed to portray something of the everyday life of black earth, I tried the color is replaced by some other. For example, a black horse painted blue. It should be noted that for the same reason in ancient iconography tried to avoid and brown, because it is essentially the color of the earth and mud. 25.

So, to see the inadequacy of such a "symbolic" interpretations of black and brown colors and considerations about their transfer in iconography, just look at the lists in this study statistical illustrative material, where 50 icons from 121 we see black domes of temples, and another 10 - brown. And that black is the colour "hell, death, spiritual darkness", is unlikely to agree to "monks" - monks.

Here is another example. On the Internet site of the Moscow Sretensky monastery "www.pravoslavie.ru" hieromonk job (Gumerov), referring to a kind of "tradition", writes: "Golden cupolas symbolize the divine glory. Therefore Golden most satisfied with temples dedicated to Lord holidays. Blue or blue dome symbolically represent the heavenly purity and chastity. These dome crowning the churches dedicated to the Mother of God. Domes of temples dedicated to the blessed Holy Trinity, have, as a rule, green. Temples consecrated in honor of the saints, also have green dome"26. On the Internet site of the Kiev Church of St. Theodosius of Chernigov given a slightly different version of "traditional" symbolism color chapters: "Gold is a symbol of heavenly glory. Golden domes were the main temples and churches dedicated to Christ and the twelve great feasts; blue dome crowned with the stars temples dedicated to the virgin, because the star is reminiscent of Christ's birth from the virgin Mary; Trinity churches had green dome, because green is the color of the Holy spirit; temples dedicated to the saints, often topped with green or silver domes; in the monasteries are black dome is the color of monasticism"27.

But to understand that such "traditions" in Ancient Russia was not enough, again, look at the statistical illustrative material, where the color of the chapters in no way depends on bestowal. Thus, the 24 icons of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker on 7 we see the "Golden" color chapters 13 - black, 4 brown 3 red 2 gray, etc. Of 11 icons of the blessed virgin: 5 gold, 5 black 3 red 2 blue etc. On all three icons "happy About you" - different colors: gold, black and blue. XVI-early XVII century. And decorated with Golden stars on a blue head first appeared on the assumption Cathedral of the Trinity-Sergius Lavra in the beginning of XIX century28, that is, to ancient Russian traditions do not apply.

Such "traditions" was not in the beginning of XX century. We present statistics on photos S.M. Prokudin-Gorskii, on which presents temples Vologda and Olonets provinces along the Mariinskaya water system29:

- "Golden" color heads - 1 Church, dedication - Alexander Nevsky;

- silvery color with Chapter 26 of the temples of initiation - Transformation (3 Church), the Intercession of the virgin, the birth of Christ (2 Church), the Church of Savior the merciful, Peter and Paul (2 temple), the Dormition of the virgin (2 temple), Epiphany (3 of the temple, the Annunciation, for the Resurrection of Christ (3 Church), the Tikhvin icon of the Theotokos, the Holy Trinity (2 temple), the Praise of the virgin, John the Baptist, the Paraskeva Friday, Sign, Nicholas the Wonderworker;

green heads - 19 temples of initiation - Nicholas the Wonderworker (3rd temple), to All the saints, to the Intercession of the virgin, and the Resurrection of Christ, the Rapture, Zosima and Savvatiy, John Climacus, Euphemia, the Dormition of the Theotokos, John the forerunner (2 temple), Sergius of Radonezh, the Introduction into the Temple, the Church of Savior not man-made Image, the Tikhvin icon of the virgin Mary Clement;

blue chapters (with the stars) - 3 of the temple, dedication - the Trinity, the Introduction into Temple of the Kazan icon of the mother of God;

brown heads - 1 Church, dedication - Peter and Paul.

In connection with the foregoing, we can only repeat: the fact that in Ancient Russia (as in the Russian Empire) symbols played some role in the choice of color chapters, we may not be considered proven, and any modern theory of the ' traditional ' the symbolism of the color of heads is arbitrary and historically unfounded. Accordingly, we can not recommend modern yet to be guided by such theories.

Let us turn to possible aesthetic reasons color selection chapters, yet Ancient Russia. In principle, aesthetic is more conventional than the symbolism, but we have two significant evidence of ancient aesthetic preferences:

- very expensive gilding chapters is unlikely to become very frequent in Russia, if not perceived as something "nice";

- there is a bright example of ancient aesthetic choice "nezolotaja" colors of heads - the Cathedral of the intercession on the Moat. Judging on the thumbnail of the Personal annalistic code (Fig. 4.41), originally the head of the Cathedral were gilded, but then the gilding gone (this is confirmed by the plans of Moscow late XVI-early XVII century), and then (probably after the great fire in Moscow 1626 years) were renovated and became polychrome - about the same as now. It is distinguishable on the engraving of Adam Olearius 1630 (Fig. 1).

 

 

Silt. 1. The Cathedral of the Intercession on the Moat on the engraving of Adam Olearius. 1630.

 

Therefore, modern yet when choosing colors chapters can and should be guided by aesthetic considerations in addition to the practical. For adequate aesthetic preferences, it would be better deep acquaintance with cultural, historical and architectural traditions of Ancient Russia. This can be useful in selecting not only the color of the heads, but also architectural forms, decoration and other features restored or constructed temple.

 

APPLICATION

 

STATISTICAL ILLUSTRATIVE MATERIAL

 

Section 1. The pre-Mongolian time

 

 

Silt. 1.01. The Evangelist Luke. Miniature from Dobrilovo gospel (Galicia-Volyn school). 1164.

 

 

 

Silt. 1.02. The temple and the house on the thumbnail of the Saviour of the gospel. The first half of the XIII century.

 

 

Section 2.XIII-XIV centuries

 

 

Silt. 2.01. Yaroslav Vsevolodovich the temple. The fresco of the Saviour Church at Nereditsa. About 1246.

 

 

 

Silt. 2.02. The Saviour on the throne with the upcoming Michael and Xenia Tver. Miniature "The Chronicles George Of Hamartolas". The end of the XIII-beginning of the XIV century.

 

 

 

Silt. 2.03. John the Theologian dictates Prokhor. Miniature Fedorovsky Of The Gospel. 1321-1327 years.

 

 

 

Silt. 2.04. Christ and the apostles. Miniature Russian Gospel. 1339 year.

 

 

 

Silt. 2.05. Introduction in the temple. The icon of the village of the curve. Novgorod school. The first half of the XIV century.

 

 

 

Silt. 2.06. The Intercession Of The Virgin. Novgorod. The end of the XIV in.

 

 

 

Silt. 2.07. Boris and Gleb with scenes from his life. Icon. Kolomna. The end of the XIV century.

 

 

 

Silt. 2.08. Nicola with a Cosmas and Damian, with scenes from his life. Novgorod. The second half of the XIV century.

 

 

 

Silt. 2.09. Nikola Zaraisky and his life. Ryazan. The XIV century.

 

 

 

Silt. 2.10. The miracle of St. George of the snake, with scenes from his life. Novgorod. The XIV century.

 

 

 

Silt. 2.11. Nikola from the Church of saints Cosmas and Damian in Rostov. XIV century

 

 

Section 3. XV century

 

 

Silt. 3.01. The entrance to Jerusalem. The icon of the Annunciation Cathedral in Moscow Kremlin. 1405.

 

 

 

Silt. 3.02. Battle of the Novgorodians with the Suzdal. Novgorod. The 60 years of the XV century.

 

 

 

Silt. 3.03. The entry of the Lord into Jerusalem. Novgorod school. The middle of the XV in.

 

 

 

Silt. 3.04. Battle of the Novgorodians with the Suzdal (the Miracle of the icon "of the Sign"). The middle to the end of the XV century the Novgorod.

 

 

 

Silt. 3.05. Metropolitan Peter with scenes from his life. Dionysius. 80 s XV in.

 

 

 

Silt. 3.06. Metropolitan Alexy was in conversation. Dionysius. 80 s XV in.

 

 

 

Silt. 3.07. The Intercession Of The Virgin. From the Church of.CIII in Novgorod. The end of the XV century.

 

 

 

Silt. 3.08. Exaltation Of The Cross. The end of the XV century. Novgorod.

 

 

 

Silt. 3.09. Nikola Zaraisky and his life. XV century Ryazan.

 

 

 

Silt. 3.10. Cover. Novgorod. XV century.

 

 

 

Silt. 3.11. Happy about You. Novgorod. The end of the XV-beginning of XVI in.

 

 

Section 4. XVI century

 

 

Silt. 4.01. Happy about you. OK. 1500 g. The assumption cthe survey of the Moscow Kremlin.

 

 

 

Silt. 4.02. The Intercession Of The Virgin. Novgorod. The beginning of the XVI century.

 

 

 

Silt. 4.03. St. John the Theologian with Prokhor on the acting of Patmos, in conversation. The beginning of the XVI century
Comes from Tosnenskiy Church near Vologda.

 

 

 

Silt. 4.04. Sergius of Radonezh with scenes from his life. The beginning of the XVI in. Moscow.

 

 

 

Silt. 4.05. The monk Cyril of Belozero with scenes of the lives. Moscow. The beginning of the XVI century.

 

 

 

Silt. 4.06. Happy about You. Moscow. The beginning of the XVI in.

 

 

 

Silt. 4.07. Nikola Zaraisky and his life. Kostroma. 1st third of the XVI in.

 

 

 

Silt. 4.08. Sergius of Radonezh in conversation. Ustyuzhna. The first third of the XVI century.

 

 

 

Silt. 4.09. St. George with scenes from his life. Moscow. The first third of the XVI century.

 

 

 

Silt. 4.10. The vision of Sexton tarasii. 1536.

 

 

 

Silt. 4.11. The beheading of the headss OAInna the Baptist, with scenes from his life. The Pskov. On year.

 

 

 

Silt. 4.12. Nikola Zaraisky and his life. 1-St half of the XVI century Boriskovo, Ryazan region

 

 

 

Silt. 4.13. Gerasim at the Jordan. Makariev workshop. The first half of the XVI century.

 

 

 

Silt. 4.14. Sergius of Radonezh in conversation. Moscow. The second quarter of XVI century.

 

 

 

Silt. 4.15. Nikola Zaraisk in conversation. The Dvina region. The first half of the XVI century.

 

 

 

Silt. 4.16. Wisdom hath builded her house. Novgorod. The first half of the XVI century.

 

 

 

Silt. 4.17. The monk Simeon the Stylite in conversation. Novgorod. The second half of the XVI in.

 

 

 

Silt. 4.18. Zosima and Savvatii with scenes from his life. Novgorod. 1550-1560,

 

 

 

Silt. 4.19. John the Baptist, angel of the wilderness, with scenes from his life. About 1551. Comes from the Church of St. Nicholas Nadein in Yaroslavl.

 

 

 

Silt. 4.20. The monk Varlaam of khutynsk, with scenes from his life. 1560's. Moscow.

 

 

 

Silt. 4.21. John Chrysostom in conversation. Moscow. The middle of the XVI century.

 

 

 

Silt. 4.22. Saint Nicholas The Wonderworker (Velikoretskaya). The middle of the XVI century. Moscow.

 

 

 

Silt. 4.23. Cover. The middle of the XVI century. Pereslavl-Zalessky.

 

 

 

Silt. 4.24. Our lady of Tikhvin with miracles. The Annunciation Cathedral, Moscow. The middle of the XVI century.

 

 

 

Silt. 4.25. The Intercession Of The Virgin. Vologda. The middle of the XVI century.

 

 

 

Silt. 4.26. Dmitry Thessalonica with scenes from his life. Novgorod. The middle of the XVI in.

 

 

 

Silt. 4.27. The cutting off. The Annunciation Cathedral, Moscow. The middle of the XVI century.

 

 

 

Silt. 4.28. The Intercession Of The Virgin. Russian North. Middle-second half of the XVI in.

 

 

 

Silt. 4.29. Bound with ropes Veche bell, loaded on a sledge and prepared for shipment to Moscow. Miniature from the illuminated Chronicles of. The 70-ies of the XVI in.

 

 

 

Silt. 4.30. The appointment of Dmitry Ivanovich the great reign. Miniature from the illuminated Chronicles of. The 70-ies of the XVI in.

 

 

 

Silt. 4.31. Dmitry Ivanovich showered with coins after the inauguration the great reign. Miniature from the illuminated Chronicles of. The 70-ies of the XVI in.

 

 

 

Silt. 4.32. The funeral of Grand Duke Dimitri Ioannovich. Miniature from the illuminated Chronicles of. The 70-ies of the XVI in.

 

 

 

Silt. 4.33. The construction of the Church of the Intercession on the Moat on the red square. Miniature from the illuminated Chronicles of. The 70-ies of the XVI in.

 

 

 

Silt. 4.34. The construction of the Church of the Intercession on the Moat on the red square. Miniature from the illuminated Chronicles of. The 70-ies of the XVI in.

 

 

 

Silt. 4.35. Ivan the terrible at the wedding Simeon of Bekbulatovich. Miniature from the illuminated Chronicles of. The 70-ies of the XVI in.

 

 

 

Silt. 4.36. The Life Of Alexander Nevsky. Shows the "March of the many people" on sailing vessels in sea and river in the Novgorod region". Miniature from the illuminated Chronicles of. The 70-ies of the XVI in.

 

 

 

Silt. 4.37. The Life Of Alexander Nevsky. In the center - the figure of Prince Alexander, surrounded by the boyars. Below on the right - "kralj... about Polonia the country" with the court. The left - "Batu captivity" of Russia, giving to the king ("steal") hope "ostyvshuyu Rus devour". Miniature from the illuminated Chronicles of. The 70-ies of the XVI in.

 

 

 

Silt. 4.38. The Life Of Alexander Nevsky. Alexander sits on the horse (thumbnails) and leads an army out of the city. Miniature from the illuminated Chronicles of. The 70-ies of the XVI in.

 

 

 

Silt. 4.39. The Life Of Alexander Nevsky. The image troops "godless king of Batu by the sufferance of God much evil he did to thy great land rust". Miniature from the illuminated Chronicles of. The 70-ies of the XVI in.

 

 

 

Silt. 4.40. The monastic vows of great Princess Evdokia Dmitrievna. Miniature from the illuminated Chronicles of. The 70-ies of the XVI in.

 

 

 

Silt. 4.41. The consecration of the Central Church Cathedral on the feast of the Intercession of the Holy virgin. Miniature from the illuminated Chronicles of. The 70-ies of the XVI in.

 

 

 

Silt. 4.42. "Immediately rebelled Holy Emperor Constantine, with premnogo joy, praising God of heaven and earth. And decorating the place and the Church of creating beautiful, and the altar sanctified, called St. Michael Church". Miniature from the illuminated Chronicles of. The 70-ies of the XVI in.

 

 

 

Silt. 4.43. Nicholas The Wonderworker. Third quarter of the XVI century. Comes from the Nikolsky side-chapel of the Church of the Intercession of the mother of God in Rostov.

 

 

 

Silt. 4.44. The Intercession Of The Virgin. Third quarter of the XVI in. Occurs from the resurrection of the Goritsky monastery.

 

 

 

Silt. 4.45. Sergius of Radonezh with scenes from his life. The Trinity-Sergiev monastery.

 

 

 

Silt. 4.46. Nicholas the Wonderworker (Zaraisk) c a liveem. The last third of the XVI century. Kostroma.

 

 

 

Silt. 4.47. Color Triad. Central Russia. The last third of the XVI century.

 

 

 

Silt. 4.48. Cyril of Belozero and Cyril of Alexandria, with scenes from his life Kirill of Belozersk. Makariev workshop. The second half of the XVI century

 

 

 

Silt. 4.49. Sergius of Radonezh with scenes from his life. The end of the XVI century. Pereslavl-Zalessky.

 

 

 

Silt. 4.50. Nikola Zaraisky and his life. Rostov. XVI century

 

 

 

Silt. 4.51. Paraskeva Friday. XVI century. Rostov

 

 

 

Silt. 4.52. Vision Prepodobnogoabout the OAInna of the ladder. XVI in. Moscow.

 

 

 

Silt. 4.53. Nikola Zaraisky and his life. XVI century

 

 

 

Silt. 4.54.

Vladimir, Boris and Gleb with scenes from his life. Moscow, XVI century.

 

 

 

Silt. 4.55. Dmitry Prilutsky, with scenes from his life. Vologda, XVI in.

 

 

 

Silt. 4.56. Nikola Zaraisk, with scenes from his life. Rostov, XVI in.

 

 

 

Silt. 4.57. Nikola Zaraisky and his life. XVI century Zaraysk.

 

 

Silt. 4.58. Nikola Zaraisky and his life. XVI century Vologda.

 

 

 

Silt. 4.59. Nicholas The Wonderworker. XVI century Novgorod.

 

 

 

Silt. 4.60. Nicholas The Wonderworker. XVI century Palekh.

 

 

 

Silt. 4.61. Miracle Of The Archangel Michael. Moscow. XVI century

 

 

 

Silt. 4.62. Nicholas the Wonderworker in conversation. XVI century. From the Church of the Intercession g. Rostov.

 

 

 

Silt. 4.63. The Veil Of The Virgin. Novgorod. XVI century

 

 

 

Silt. 4.64. Vision Eulogia. XVI century the North.

 

 

 

Silt. 4.65. The Intercession Of The Virgin. Obonezhje. XVI century

 

 

 

Silt. 4.66. Cover. The North. XVI century.

 

 

 

Silt. 4.67. Sergius of Radonezh with scenes from his life. XVI century

 

 

 

Silt. 4.68. Nicholas The Wonderworker. The middle - second half of the XVI century, stigma about 1607.
Solvychegodsk Annunciation Cathedral.

 

 

 

Silt. 4.69. Nikola Zaraisk, with scenes from his life. The end of the XVI-beginning of the XVII century. Totma.

 

 

 

Silt. 4.70. Martyr Minh and his life. The end of the XVI-beginning of the XVII century Arkhangelsk.

 

 

 

Silt. 4.71. Cover. The North. The end of XVI-the beginning of XVII in.

 

 

 

Silt. 4.72. "Peter's drawing" of Moscow. 1597-1599 years.

 

 

Section 5. XVII century

 

 

Silt. 5.01. "Kremlingaz". The beginning of the 1600's.

 

 

 

Silt. 5.02. "Sigismundo plan". 1610.

 

 

 

Silt. 5.03. SVMC. Varvara with scenes of the lives and passions. Kostroma. The beginning of the XVII in.

 

 

 

Silt. 5.04. Miraculous deliverance of Constantinople with the help of the robe of the mother of God.
A fresco in the Church of the deposition of the robe of the Moscow Kremlin.
1644.

 

 

 

Silt. 5.05. The Monk Antonii Of Siisk. The North. The first half of the XVII century.

 

 

 

Silt. 5.06. Clement Pope of Rome, with scenes from his life. The first half of the XVII century. Perm.

 

 

 

Silt. 5.07. Stephen of Perm, with scenes from his life. The first half of the XVII century. Solvychegodsk.

 

 

 

Silt. 5.08. The monk Alexander of Svirsk, with scenes from his life. 1655.
Moscow.

 

 

 

Silt. 5.09. Holy healers Cosmas and Damian, with scenes from his life. The middle of XVII century. Kostroma.

 

 

 

Silt. 5.10. Sergius of Radonezh with scenes from his life. The centerpiece of the icon. Yaroslavl. The middle of XVII in.

 

 

 

Silt. 5.11. Nikola Zaraisky and his life. The second half of the XVII in.

 

 

 

Silt. 5.12. Sergius of Radonezh in conversation. Average Rus. The second half of the XVII century.

 

 

 

Silt. 5.13. John the divine in silence, in conversation. The second half of the XVII century, Belozersk.

 

 

 

Silt. 5.14. The people and nobles beg of Mikhail Romanov and his mother in the Kingdom before the Ipatiev monastery. The image of the "Book about the election to the throne of Mikhail Romanov". 1672-1673 years.

 

 

 

Silt. 5.15. Sobornaya square of the Kremlin. The image of the "Book about the election to the throne of Mikhail Romanov". 1672-1673 years

 

 

 

Silt. 5.16. John the Baptist, angel of the wilderness, with scenes from his life. About 1687. Kostroma.

 

 

 

Silt. 5.17. John the Baptist, angel of the wilderness, with scenes from his life. The last third of the XVII century. Kostroma.

 

 

 

Silt. 5.18. Sainted Philip, Metropolitan of Moscow, in conversation. Average Rus. The end of the XVII century.

 

 

 

Silt. 5.19. Zosima and Savvatii of Solovetsk with scenes of the lives. Icon painting workshop of the Solovetsky monastery, the end of the XVII in.

 

 

 

Silt. 5.20. Nikola Zaraisky and his life. XVII century the Average Rus.

 

 

 

Silt. 5.21. The apostles Peter and Paul, with scenes from his life. XVII in. Karelia.

 

 

 

Silt. 5.22. The life of Saint Catherine. The leaf icon-body. The Royal workshops. XVII century

 

 

 

Silt. 5.23. The Intercession Of The Virgin. XVII century. Solvychegodsk.

 

 

 

Silt. 5.24. Murom saints - Prince Konstantin with sons Michael and Theodore,
Peter and Febronia, Juliania of Lazarev, with the lives of Peter and Fevronia.
XVII century Murom.

 

 

 

Silt. 5.25. The Holy princes Vladimir, Boris and Gleb with scenes from his life of Boris and Gleb.
The last quarter of the XVII-beginning of XVIII century.
Average Rus.

 

 

 

Silt. 5.26. Nicholas the Wonderworker (Zaraisk), with scenes from his life. The end of XVII-beginning of XVIII century. Kostroma.

 

 

 

Silt. 5.27. The George's miracle about the serpent and his life. The North. The end of XVII-beginning of XVIII in.

 

 

 

Silt. 5.28. Sergius of Radonezh in conversation. Poshekhon. The end of the XVII-first quarter of the XVIII century.

 

 

 

Silt. 5.29. The Trinity-Sergiev monastery. The icon of the turn of XVII-XVIII centuries. The Holy Trinity.

 

 

Section 6. XVIII century

 

 

Silt. 6.01. Holy princes Boris and Gleb, in conversation. Kholmogory. 1700 year.

 

 

 

Silt. 6.02. John the Baptist, angel of the wilderness, with scenes from his life. Around 1700. Moscow.

 

 

 

Silt. 6.03. The mother of God Inall skobami Joy. 1710. Moscow.

 

 

 

Silt. 6.04. Vladimir. "Drawing" of 1715.

 

 

 

Silt. 6.05. John the Baptist, angel of the wilderness, with scenes from his life. 1714. Kostroma.

 

 

 

Silt. 6.06. The GreatMartyr George, with scenes from his life. The beginning of the XVIII century. Kostroma.

 

 

 

Silt. 6.07. Nicholas the Wonderworker (Nicolas Mozhaisky), and his life. The beginning of the XVIII century. The North.

 

 

 

Silt. 6.08. The monk Makarii Ungenskii, with scenes from his life. The beginning of the XVIII century. Galich.

 

 

 

Silt. 6.09. Great Martyr Paraskeva, with scenes from his life. The beginning of the XVIII century. Galich.

 

 

 

Silt. 6.10. The monk Makarii Ungenskii in conversation. Kostroma. The beginning of the XVIII century.

 

 

 

Silt. 6.11. The monk Onuphrios the Great in life. Workshop Solovetsky monastery.
First quarter of the XVIII century.

 

 

 

Silt. 6.12. The monk Makarii Ungenskii, with scenes from his life. The first third of the XVIII century. Galich.

 

 

NOTES

 

1. Martina A.S. Architectural terms. Illustrated dictionary. M, 2001; Dictionary of Russian Humanities Internet University. Located on the web-site www.i-u.ru.

2. Zagraevsky SV Form of domes of ancient Russian temples. M., 2008.

3. "Kyiv synopsis 1674. http://www.nnre.ru/istorija/mechta_o_russkom_edinstve_kievskii_sinopsis_1674/p55.php.

4. Novgorod Paragraphof erva chronicle younger recension. PSRL, I, 120-121; IX, 141.

5. PSRL, II. Application: Gustynskogo chronicle. SPb., 1843, C. 266-267.

6. The material is at the Internet site: http://krotov.info/acts/12/pvl/novg10.htm

7. PSRL, II, 349; 409; 439.

8. The chronicler of Vladimir assumption Cathedral. In the book: Shilov A. Description of manuscripts containing chronicle texts. Vol. 1. LSAC. 1910. Vol. 22. C. 58.

9. Lviv Chronicle. http://litopys.org.ua/ostrog/ostr01.htm.

10. Tver chronicle. http://www.vostlit.info/Texts/rus16/Tversk_let/frametext1.htm

11. Novgorod Paragraphof erva chronicle. http://krotov.info/acts/12/pvl/novg32.htm

12. "Vladimir chronicler. http://www.vostlit.info/Texts/Dokumenty/Russ/XVI/1520-1540/Vlad_let/text.htm

13. Pskov chronicle. Vol. 1. M.; Leningrad, 1941. C. 114.

14. Read more about old Russian technologies gilding cm. http://pozolotalepnina.ru/kupola/106-kupola-2; http://www.galvanicworld.com/history/historynew_234.html; http://www.itogi.ru/archive/2003/23/83326 .html.

15. Poltava N. Rates and salaries of the XVI-XVIII centuries Material found on the Internet site http://www.liveinternet.ru/users/3330352/post117900378/

16. E.N. Trubetskoy. Three essays on Russian icon. 1917. Novosibirsk, 1991. C. 10.

17. For more information, see: Zagraevsky SV Decree. withPTS.

18. More cm. ibid.

19. More cm. ibid.

20. http://www.archito.org.ua/2012/02/rimskij-panteon.html.

21. http://atheism.about.com/library/FAQs/christian/blxtn_constan-hagia10.htm.

22. http://www.scholastic.com/browse/article.jsp?id=3753901.

23. Pod'yapol'skii S., Bessonov G.B., Belyaev L.A., Postnikova T.M. Restoration of monuments of architecture. M., 2000. Analysis of the pre-Mongol roofing materials also see.: Rappoport P.A. Construction production of Ancient Rus (X-XIII centuries). St.Petersburg, 1994. C. 99.

24. Handbook of priest. M., 1977-1994. So 4. C. 152.

25. Bychkov V.V. Aesthetic value of the color in the Eastern Christian art. In the book: Issues of history and theory of aesthetics. M., 1991.

26. http://www.pravoslavie.ru/answers/7009.htm.

27. http://www.hram-feodosy.kiev.ua/struct_color.htm.

28. GA assumption Cathedral of the Trinity-Sergius Lavra. "Journal of the Moscow Patriarchate". 2, 1947.

29. Statistics from photos of S.M. Prokudin-Gorsky courtesy of V. Dolzhenko.

 

 

Sergey Zagraevsky

 

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