Dr. Sergey V. Zagraevsky
Color solutions of the domes of Ancient Russian temples
Published in Russian: Çàãðàåâñêèé Ñ.Â. Öâåòîâûå ðåøåíèÿ ãëàâ
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On the basis of volumetric iconographic and documentary material the traditions of the color solutions of the domes of Ancient Russian temples are studied. Recommendations on the choice of the color of the church domes for modern restorers and builders of new churches are given.
The following text was translated from Russian original by the computer program
and has not yet been edited.
So it can be used only for general introduction.
In this study, we have to find out what were the traditions of color solutions of the heads of churches in Ancient Russia, and make appropriate recommendations modern restorers and yet (priests, architects, donors and others, who want when choosing colors chapters, restored and built temples to keep these traditions.
First of all necessary to define what we call the domes of temples. Encyclopedias, textbooks and readers1 usually determine the so-decorative coating, located above the dome and arranged on drums. Cupolas are called chapters, arranged not on light, but on decorative (deaf) drums. Head and domes can be bulbous, a helmet-shaped, pear-shaped, umbrella, conical, etc. (the shape of the heads of ancient temples author in their time dedicated a special research2).
Note that for historical, architectural and restoration of the household head are often collectively referred to as the completion of the temple, consisting of a drum of the dome and dome. And in the scientific and popular literature everywhere there are such expressions as "drum large head, small dome of the head", "the construction of four small heads" (together with the dome and the drum), "the fall of the head of the temple" (together with the dome and the drum), "helmet covering the big heads", etc. In everyday life often mix chapters and dome (for example, the widely used phrase "Golden domes").
But we will stick to the formal definition of heads as decorative domes of temples. Cupolas and simple cupola (i.e. not decorative) dome cover for simplicity, we will refer to the chapters, as for our purposes it does not matter whether the drum light or decorative, and whether the dome roof cupola or overbuilt.
Turning to the topic of our study, we can conclude that in Ancient Russia no canons and other Church regulations about the color of the decisions of the heads was not. Anyway, the modern Church history and history of architecture of such rules and regulations not know.
However, in practice, the most prestigious, elite color scheme chapters
In 1019 "Yaroslav Vladimirovich... renew hail of Kyiv and the establishment of the Church of the great and predivnu Holy Sophia who is the wisdom of God... and decorate Yu all beauty, and with it the tower (the tower) saruji, and the top poslati and the gates of the city of stone" 3.
In 1108 "incorporated was Zerka the Holy one of Michael's Golden-Domed Prince Svyatopolk"4.
In 1037 "Yaroslav founded the city of Kiev more, and set and the shaft great, and the creation in it the Church of the beautiful Saint Sophia and her two Veigy Golden"5.
In the "Tale of bygone years" States: "Where do unto poganie graha a devil on the mountains, now again amplitude saints of the Church's kamenistaya stand"6.
Word about Igor's regiment" Prince Svyatoslav of
Ipatiev chronicle repeatedly (under 1158, 1175 and 1183 years) speaking about gold chapters of Vladimir assumption Cathedral: Andrey Bogolyubsky "make this same Church 5 elite and all covered with gold decorate and store it by episcopo"; and five top of her poslati"; "and all five top Golden shore"7.
In 1191 "great Prince Dimitry Vsevolod built in his courtyard a Church of Kamenno in the name of the GreatMartyr Demetrios , and the top of her poslati"8.
In 1382 "gilded Grand Prince Mikhail top of the Holy Saviour in Tver10.
In 1408 "; the lords ofthe OAINN , svyatye Sofii lead, and macavity Bolshoy Zlatoverhy called the"11.
In 1509 "Nazi great Vasily Ivanovich top poslati the Holy one of Blagoveschenie, the Church before semi for State courts in the city of Moscow"12.
Special kudos "gold" chapters confirmed and collected by the
author statistical illustrative material (cm. The
Application). In statistical illustrative material
is given a random sample of 137 images attended by the heads of churches. These
images are dated from the pre-Mongolian time before
the beginning of the XVIII century. Mainly it is a painting, but given and
miniatures from the manuscript, and plans of
The results of processing of the statistical illustrative material are:
It is interesting to note that the percentage of gilded domes on the images grew from century to century:
- pre-Mongolian time - no gilded images of heads (note that in reality these chapters were, and we have led the chronicle evidence of this);
- XIII-XIV centuries - 1 image from 11;
- XV century - 3 of 11;
- XVI century - 34 of 72;
- XVII century - 22 of 29;
- the beginning of XVIII century - 11 from 12.
But the prevalence of the "Golden" chapters on ancient images and information about such chapters in the annals does not imply that these chapters quantitatively prevailed in reality. There are several reasons.
First, gilded head, as the most prestigious,
could be represented by the icon-painters as idealized image of completion of the
temples (or that the degree of idealisation depicted in principle inherent in
the icons). This is confirmed by the fact that on the plans of
Secondly, on ancient images lot and heads of other colors, and if the sum of the image with such chapters, you get a figure 118 (against 73 "gold"), that is the predominance of gilded chapters ambiguous;
Thirdly, during wars and other large-scale disasters gold with chapters often appeared and melted. This is confirmed by the fact that we see a lot gilded domes on petrovom the drawing (Fig. 4.72) up to the time of Troubles, and do not see them on "Kremlingaz" and "Sigismundovna plan (Fig. 5.01, 5.02) - after the time of Troubles.
Fourth, even in the capital of the temples were gilded by no means everywhere. This said, and "Peter's drawing", and many images of the heads of the other colors on the capital of icons (Fig. 3.01, 4.04, 4.05, 4.06, 4.09, 4.14, 4.20, 4.21, 4.22, 4.54, 5.08 and others)
Fifth, the "gold" of the head is too
expensive to become a mass phenomenon. The gilding of the Grand temple any of
the old Russian way " and "fire", and "oil gilding" -
took several kilograms of gold14. We have already brought theCCP UCS's
Sixth, if gilding was a mass floor chapters, it would cease to be prestigious and elite, and the chronicle hardly mentioned the facts of gilding.
In this regard, it is interesting to explore the question of why Russia was subject to the availability of financial opportunities to gold-plate of the head, why gilded head became the most prestigious and whence came this tradition that lasted for many centuries.
To date, the most common is the version E.N. Trubetskoy (1863-1920):
"Our native onion embodies the idea of deep prayer burning to the sky,
through which our terrestrial world is involved in the other-worldly wealth.
This is the end of the
Thus, E.N. Trubetskoy believed that because the bulb has the form of a flame, its color should be "Golden". But the author of this study showed that the onion domes appeared on ancient temples only in XIII century17and in times E.N. Trubetskoy dominated in General theory of occurrence of these chapters at the turn of the XVI-XVII centuries18. To gold-plate Chapter ancient temples began in the pre-Mongolian time when they were a simple cupola dome19. It will disavow version of "flame".
"Mystical" version, most clearly expressed in the popular song
V.S. Vysotsky: "Dome in
There is much more clear, reasonable and logical explanation of why
gilded head became a "business card" of the
Now we can move on to part of our research on other (except gold) color decisions of the heads of ancient temples. Let's start with used in XII-XVII centuries of roofing. For our purposes it is enough, without going into controversial issues, to quote the book "the Restoration of architectural monuments" (the head of the group of authors - S. pod'yapol'skii).
the first stone Church of the tithe Church in Kyiv was applied tiles in the
form of concave bricks size 30x60 see according to the chronicle data and
archeological finds, the most common material covering stone temples was a lead
that is fit leaves, which had a rather significant fluctuations in the size
(length found samples from 70 to
After the Mongol-Tatar invasion expensive roofing almost completely out
of use. Only occasionally metal roofing and gilding used in major urban or
largest monastic churches that it is particularly mentioned in the Chronicles.
Wooden roof was used in the stone churches that had as pramocaineand curved floor. So, in the
The architecture of the Russian state
and in particular the
In the beginning of XVI century in
In the XVII in. continued to be used as bin and lamekhova tiles, but with the known changes. Bin polished tiles began to do more narrow and use it for both the bottom and top of the range... Lamekhova tiles of XVII century is usually more subtle crock and in most cases, covered with outer surface of dull green enamel, at least - green and yellow glaze, but sometimes there are also black and red tile...
A special case of roof structures - the device of the metal skeleton of the chapters that are common in the construction of the last quarter of the XVII century... the Floor, made from sheets of tinned iron, wykroczenia the shape of the head and connected to folds attached to the crate in some places and adjacent to it is not quite tightly...
In addition tinned iron to cover the Church of the
heads of the richest churches were used gilded copper. For the first time in
End of quote.
The first part of our research on gilding of chapters, in General confirmed quoted the position of a group of authors headed by S. Podyapolski. The statistical analysis of illustrative material (cm. above) also confirms the information given in the quotation. On ancient images are present, except gold, black, green, red, gray (silver), brown, blue, and (in one case) colour ochre, which can be considered a light brown. Mainly (50 images from 137) is black, the following the frequency is much less common (green - 18 images, red - on 17, grey - 15 etc).
It is interesting to note that on 23 icons from 121, presented in the statistical illustrative material, we see a combination of the "Golden" heads with black, green, red, etc. On 58 icons gilded head, not shown, only the heads of other colors. Therefore, anything "non-canonical"and especially "unworthy" in "nezolotaja" chapters were not. Gilding was more prestigious than any other material and colour of the cover, but this does not mean that the black or green chapters were "undesirable".
Generally speaking, the choice of the old Russian Church founder (priest, the architect, the churchwarden) color solutions Chapter constructed or repaired the temple could be due to practical, symbolic and (or) for aesthetic reasons. As we showed above, possible head was gilded. But in the vast majority of cases, yet this was not possible, and they chose any other species and, accordingly, the color coating chapters.
Consider the order of possible considerations of choice "netlogo" color.
As for practical reasons, we have no reason to believe that in Ancient Russia they are a little bit essentially differed from modern. The parity "price-quality roofing materials, availability, light-fastness, have yet necessary financial resources and construction personnel - all this was true at all times. A specific set of "optimal" from a practical point of view materials could vary significantly depending on age, location, a particular situation at a particular temple, etc.
Therefore, we can recommend modern yet, wish to observe traditions of Ancient Russia, one of two ways: either use the old Russian materials and technologies (see the above-quoted text from the "Restoration of monuments of architecture"), or to follow the same practical considerations that guided the ancient yet (price, quality, availability, light-fastness and so on), only in respect of old and modern materials and technologies.
Let us consider the possible considerations color symbolism.
No documentary (the chronicle and other) data about what the symbols in Ancient Russia gave this or that color chapters (like the color of any other architectural element) modern Church history and history of architecture do not know. In this regard, we have to state that the use of modern restorers and yet symbols as justification of the choice of colors chapters have negative methodological aspect. so as subjective opinions, looking no less convincing.
For example, in "the Handbook of the cleric"24 cited as exemplary position V.V. Bychkov: "In iconography the Divine light was symbolized not only gold but also in white, which means the radiance of eternal life and purity as opposed to black hell, death, spiritual darkness. Therefore, in iconography the blackness that will be painted only images of the cave, where in white coverings rests Born the Holy child, the grave, from which white shroud out of the resurrected Lazarus, hole of hell, from the depths of which isodata Resurrected Christ the righteous also - in white linen). When the icons needed to portray something of the everyday life of black earth, I tried the color is replaced by some other. For example, a black horse painted blue. It should be noted that for the same reason in ancient iconography tried to avoid and brown, because it is essentially the color of the earth and mud. 25.
So, to see the inadequacy of such a "symbolic" interpretations of black and brown colors and considerations about their transfer in iconography, just look at the lists in this study statistical illustrative material, where 50 icons from 121 we see black domes of temples, and another 10 - brown. And that black is the colour "hell, death, spiritual darkness", is unlikely to agree to "monks" - monks.
Here is another example. On the Internet site of the
Moscow Sretensky monastery "www.pravoslavie.ru"
hieromonk job (Gumerov), referring to a kind of
"tradition", writes: "Golden cupolas symbolize the divine glory.
Therefore Golden most satisfied with temples dedicated
to Lord holidays. Blue or blue dome symbolically
represent the heavenly purity and chastity. These dome crowning the churches
dedicated to the Mother of God. Domes of temples dedicated to the blessed Holy Trinity, have, as a rule, green.
But to understand that such "traditions" in Ancient Russia was not enough, again, look at the statistical illustrative material, where the color of the chapters in no way depends on bestowal. Thus, the 24 icons of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker on 7 we see the "Golden" color chapters 13 - black, 4 brown 3 red 2 gray, etc. Of 11 icons of the blessed virgin: 5 gold, 5 black 3 red 2 blue etc. On all three icons "happy About you" - different colors: gold, black and blue. XVI-early XVII century. And decorated with Golden stars on a blue head first appeared on the assumption Cathedral of the Trinity-Sergius Lavra in the beginning of XIX century28, that is, to ancient Russian traditions do not apply.
Such "traditions" was not in the beginning
of XX century. We present statistics on photos S.M. Prokudin-Gorskii, on which
- "Golden" color heads - 1 Church, dedication - Alexander Nevsky;
- silvery color with Chapter 26 of the temples of initiation - Transformation (3 Church), the Intercession of the virgin, the birth of Christ (2 Church), the Church of Savior the merciful, Peter and Paul (2 temple), the Dormition of the virgin (2 temple), Epiphany (3 of the temple, the Annunciation, for the Resurrection of Christ (3 Church), the Tikhvin icon of the Theotokos, the Holy Trinity (2 temple), the Praise of the virgin, John the Baptist, the Paraskeva Friday, Sign, Nicholas the Wonderworker;
green heads - 19 temples of initiation - Nicholas the Wonderworker (3rd temple), to All the saints, to the Intercession of the virgin, and the Resurrection of Christ, the Rapture, Zosima and Savvatiy, John Climacus, Euphemia, the Dormition of the Theotokos, John the forerunner (2 temple), Sergius of Radonezh, the Introduction into the Temple, the Church of Savior not man-made Image, the Tikhvin icon of the virgin Mary Clement;
blue chapters (with the stars) - 3 of the temple,
dedication - the Trinity, the Introduction into
brown heads - 1 Church, dedication - Peter and Paul.
In connection with the foregoing, we can only repeat: the fact that in Ancient Russia (as in the Russian Empire) symbols played some role in the choice of color chapters, we may not be considered proven, and any modern theory of the ' traditional ' the symbolism of the color of heads is arbitrary and historically unfounded. Accordingly, we can not recommend modern yet to be guided by such theories.
Let us turn to possible aesthetic reasons color selection chapters, yet Ancient Russia. In principle, aesthetic is more conventional than the symbolism, but we have two significant evidence of ancient aesthetic preferences:
- very expensive gilding chapters is unlikely to become very frequent in
- there is a bright example of ancient aesthetic choice "nezolotaja" colors of heads - the Cathedral of the intercession on the Moat. Judging on the thumbnail of the Personal annalistic code (Fig. 4.41), originally the head of the Cathedral were gilded, but then the gilding gone (this is confirmed by the plans of Moscow late XVI-early XVII century), and then (probably after the great fire in Moscow 1626 years) were renovated and became polychrome - about the same as now. It is distinguishable on the engraving of Adam Olearius 1630 (Fig. 1).
Silt. 1. The
Cathedral of the Intercession on the Moat on the engraving of Adam Olearius.
Therefore, modern yet when choosing colors chapters can and should be guided by aesthetic considerations in addition to the practical. For adequate aesthetic preferences, it would be better deep acquaintance with cultural, historical and architectural traditions of Ancient Russia. This can be useful in selecting not only the color of the heads, but also architectural forms, decoration and other features restored or constructed temple.
STATISTICAL ILLUSTRATIVE MATERIAL
Section 1. The pre-Mongolian time
Silt. 1.01. The Evangelist Luke. Miniature from Dobrilovo gospel (Galicia-Volyn school). 1164.
Silt. 1.02. The temple and the house on the thumbnail of the Saviour of the gospel. The first half of the XIII century.
Section 2.XIII-XIV centuries
Yaroslav Vsevolodovich the temple. The fresco of the
Silt. 2.02. The Saviour on the throne with the upcoming Michael and Xenia Tver. Miniature "The Chronicles George Of Hamartolas". The end of the XIII-beginning of the XIV century.
Silt. 2.03. John the Theologian dictates Prokhor. Miniature Fedorovsky Of The Gospel. 1321-1327 years.
Silt. 2.04. Christ and the apostles. Miniature Russian Gospel. 1339 year.
Silt. 2.05. Introduction in the temple. The icon of the village of the curve. Novgorod school. The first half of the XIV century.
Silt. 2.06. The Intercession Of The Virgin.
Silt. 2.07. Boris and Gleb with scenes from his life. Icon. Kolomna. The end of the XIV century.
Silt. 2.09. Nikola Zaraisky and his life. Ryazan. The XIV century.
Silt. 2.10. The miracle of St. George of the snake, with scenes from his life. Novgorod. The XIV century.
Silt. 2.11. Nikola
from the Church of saints Cosmas and Damian in
Section 3. XV century
Silt. 3.01. The entrance to
Silt. 3.03. The
entry of the Lord into
Silt. 3.07. The Intercession Of The Virgin. From the Church of.CIII in
Silt. 3.08. Exaltation Of The Cross. The end of the XV century. Novgorod.
Silt. 3.09. Nikola
Zaraisky and his life. XV century
Silt. 3.10. Cover.
Silt. 3.11. Happy about You.
Section 4. XVI century
Silt. 4.01. Happy about you. OK.
Silt. 4.02. The Intercession Of The Virgin.
Silt. 4.04. Sergius of Radonezh with scenes from his life. The beginning of the XVI in. Moscow.
Silt. 4.06. Happy about You.
Silt. 4.07. Nikola
Zaraisky and his life.
Silt. 4.09. St. George with scenes from his life.
Silt. 4.10. The vision of Sexton tarasii. 1536.
Silt. 4.12. Nikola
Zaraisky and his life. 1-St half of the XVI century Boriskovo,
Silt. 4.13. Gerasim
Silt. 4.16. Wisdom
hath builded her house.
Silt. 4.22. Saint Nicholas The Wonderworker (Velikoretskaya). The middle of the XVI century. Moscow.
Silt. 4.23. Cover. The middle of the XVI century. Pereslavl-Zalessky.
Silt. 4.24. Our
lady of Tikhvin with miracles. The Annunciation Cathedral,
Silt. 4.25. The Intercession Of The Virgin.
Silt. 4.27. The
cutting off. The Annunciation Cathedral,
Silt. 4.28. The Intercession Of The Virgin. Russian North. Middle-second half of the XVI in.
Silt. 4.29. Bound
with ropes Veche bell, loaded on a sledge and prepared for shipment to
Silt. 4.30. The appointment of Dmitry Ivanovich the great reign. Miniature from the illuminated Chronicles of. The 70-ies of the XVI in.
Silt. 4.31. Dmitry Ivanovich showered with coins after the inauguration the great reign. Miniature from the illuminated Chronicles of. The 70-ies of the XVI in.
Silt. 4.32. The funeral of Grand Duke Dimitri Ioannovich. Miniature from the illuminated Chronicles of. The 70-ies of the XVI in.
Silt. 4.33. The construction of the Church of the Intercession on the Moat on the red square. Miniature from the illuminated Chronicles of. The 70-ies of the XVI in.
Silt. 4.34. The construction of the Church of the Intercession on the Moat on the red square. Miniature from the illuminated Chronicles of. The 70-ies of the XVI in.
Silt. 4.35. Ivan the terrible at the wedding Simeon of Bekbulatovich. Miniature from the illuminated Chronicles of. The 70-ies of the XVI in.
Silt. 4.36. The
Life Of Alexander Nevsky. Shows the "March of the many people" on
sailing vessels in sea and river in the
Silt. 4.37. The
Life Of Alexander Nevsky. In the center - the figure of Prince Alexander,
surrounded by the boyars. Below on the right - "kralj... about Polonia the country" with the court. The left - "Batu captivity" of
Silt. 4.38. The Life Of Alexander Nevsky. Alexander sits on the horse (thumbnails) and leads an army out of the city. Miniature from the illuminated Chronicles of. The 70-ies of the XVI in.
Silt. 4.39. The Life Of Alexander Nevsky. The image troops "godless king of Batu by the sufferance of God much evil he did to thy great land rust". Miniature from the illuminated Chronicles of. The 70-ies of the XVI in.
Silt. 4.40. The monastic vows of great Princess Evdokia Dmitrievna. Miniature from the illuminated Chronicles of. The 70-ies of the XVI in.
Silt. 4.41. The consecration of the Central Church Cathedral on the feast of the Intercession of the Holy virgin. Miniature from the illuminated Chronicles of. The 70-ies of the XVI in.
Silt. 4.42. "Immediately rebelled Holy Emperor Constantine, with premnogo joy, praising God of heaven and earth. And decorating the place and the Church of creating beautiful, and the altar sanctified, called St. Michael Church". Miniature from the illuminated Chronicles of. The 70-ies of the XVI in.
Silt. 4.43. Nicholas The Wonderworker. Third quarter of the XVI century. Comes
from the Nikolsky side-chapel of the Church of the Intercession of the mother
of God in
Silt. 4.44. The Intercession Of The Virgin. Third quarter of the XVI in. Occurs from the resurrection of the Goritsky monastery.
Silt. 4.47. Color
Silt. 4.48. Cyril of Belozero and Cyril of Alexandria, with scenes from his life Kirill of Belozersk. Makariev workshop. The second half of the XVI century
Silt. 4.50. Nikola Zaraisky and his life. Rostov. XVI century
Silt. 4.51. Paraskeva Friday. XVI century. Rostov
Silt. 4.52. Vision Prepodobnogoabout the OAInna of the ladder. XVI in. Moscow.
Silt. 4.53. Nikola Zaraisky and his life. XVI century
Vladimir, Boris and Gleb with scenes from his life. Moscow, XVI century.
Silt. 4.56. Nikola Zaraisk, with scenes from his life. Rostov, XVI in.
Silt. 4.57. Nikola Zaraisky and his life. XVI century Zaraysk.
Silt. 4.58. Nikola
Zaraisky and his life. XVI century
Nicholas The Wonderworker. XVI century
Silt. 4.60. Nicholas The Wonderworker. XVI century Palekh.
Silt. 4.61. Miracle Of The Archangel Michael. Moscow. XVI century
Silt. 4.62. Nicholas the Wonderworker in conversation. XVI century.
From the Church of the Intercession g.
Silt. 4.63. The Veil Of The Virgin. Novgorod. XVI century
Silt. 4.64. Vision Eulogia. XVI century the North.
Silt. 4.65. The Intercession Of The Virgin. Obonezhje. XVI century
Silt. 4.66. Cover. The North. XVI century.
Silt. 4.67. Sergius of Radonezh with scenes from his life. XVI century
Nicholas The Wonderworker. The middle - second half of the
XVI century, stigma about 1607.
Solvychegodsk Annunciation Cathedral.
Silt. 4.69. Nikola Zaraisk, with scenes from his life. The end of the XVI-beginning of the XVII century. Totma.
Silt. 4.71. Cover. The North. The end of XVI-the beginning of XVII in.
"Peter's drawing" of
Section 5. XVII century
Silt. 5.01. "Kremlingaz". The beginning of the 1600's.
Silt. 5.02. "Sigismundo plan". 1610.
Silt. 5.04. Miraculous deliverance of
A fresco in the Church of the deposition of the robe of the Moscow Kremlin.
Silt. 5.11. Nikola Zaraisky and his life. The second half of the XVII in.
Silt. 5.14. The people and nobles beg of Mikhail Romanov and his mother in the Kingdom before the Ipatiev monastery. The image of the "Book about the election to the throne of Mikhail Romanov". 1672-1673 years.
Silt. 5.15. Sobornaya square of the Kremlin. The image of the "Book about the election to the throne of Mikhail Romanov". 1672-1673 years
Silt. 5.20. Nikola Zaraisky and his life. XVII century the Average Rus.
Silt. 5.23. The Intercession Of The Virgin. XVII century. Solvychegodsk.
Silt. 5.25. The
Holy princes Vladimir, Boris and Gleb with scenes from his life of Boris and
The last quarter of the XVII-beginning of XVIII century. Average Rus.
Silt. 5.26. Nicholas the Wonderworker (Zaraisk), with scenes from his life. The end of XVII-beginning of XVIII century. Kostroma.
Silt. 5.27. The George's miracle about the serpent and his life. The North. The end of XVII-beginning of XVIII in.
Silt. 5.29. The Trinity-Sergiev monastery. The icon of the turn of XVII-XVIII centuries. The Holy Trinity.
Section 6. XVIII century
Silt. 6.03. The mother of God Inall
skobami Joy. 1710.
Silt. 6.04. Vladimir. "Drawing" of 1715.
Silt. 6.05. John the Baptist, angel of the wilderness, with scenes from his life. 1714. Kostroma.
Silt. 6.06. The GreatMartyr George, with scenes from his life. The beginning of the XVIII century. Kostroma.
1. Martina A.S. Architectural terms. Illustrated dictionary.
M, 2001; Dictionary of
2. Zagraevsky SV Form of domes of ancient Russian temples. M., 2008.
3. "Kyiv synopsis 1674. http://www.nnre.ru/istorija/mechta_o_russkom_edinstve_kievskii_sinopsis_1674/p55.php.
4. Novgorod Paragraphof erva chronicle younger recension. PSRL, I, 120-121; IX, 141.
5. PSRL, II. Application: Gustynskogo
6. The material is at the Internet site: http://krotov.info/acts/12/pvl/novg10.htm
7. PSRL, II, 349; 409; 439.
8. The chronicler of
9. Lviv Chronicle. http://litopys.org.ua/ostrog/ostr01.htm.
10. Tver chronicle. http://www.vostlit.info/Texts/rus16/Tversk_let/frametext1.htm
11. Novgorod Paragraphof erva chronicle. http://krotov.info/acts/12/pvl/novg32.htm
14. Read more about old Russian technologies gilding cm. http://pozolotalepnina.ru/kupola/106-kupola-2; http://www.galvanicworld.com/history/historynew_234.html; http://www.itogi.ru/archive/2003/23/83326 .html.
15. Poltava N. Rates and salaries of the XVI-XVIII centuries Material found on the Internet site http://www.liveinternet.ru/users/3330352/post117900378/
16. E.N. Trubetskoy. Three
essays on Russian icon. 1917.
17. For more information, see: Zagraevsky SV Decree. withPTS.
18. More cm. ibid.
19. More cm. ibid.
S., Bessonov G.B., Belyaev L.A., Postnikova T.M. Restoration of monuments of
architecture. M., 2000. Analysis of the pre-Mongol
roofing materials also see.: Rappoport
P.A. Construction production of Ancient Rus (X-XIII centuries). St.Petersburg,
24. Handbook of priest. M.,
25. Bychkov V.V. Aesthetic value of the color in the Eastern Christian art. In the book: Issues of history and theory of aesthetics. M., 1991.
29. Statistics from photos of S.M. Prokudin-Gorsky courtesy of V. Dolzhenko.
© Sergey Zagraevsky