Dr. Sergey Zagraevsky
possible ways of struggle against corruption in
The following text was translated from the Russian original by the computer program
and has not yet been edited.
So it can be used only for general introduction.
In our time there is no need to explain what corruption is. And yet, here are a few provisions that are useful for understanding the nature and the enormous danger of this phenomenon.
It is a word in English. There it has many meanings, among which, apart from the "corruption", even "damage", "rot", "disintegration", "decomposition", "decline", "corruption", "moral turpitude", a "distortion", "corruption" and many others like it. Rightly so.
The most common definition of corruption is the use of the official's powers and the rights entrusted it for personal benefit, contradicting the law and moral standards.
This did not argue, will make a significant caveat: most often talk about corruption only in government and power structures, forgetting another important part of it: corruption in commercial and non-commercial organizations. And if at the level of rural grocery store negative impact of corruption is small (although dishonest storekeeper may go bankrupt bring entrusted to him / gift shop), at the level of large corporations damage could amount to many millions, or even billions of dollars.
Therefore, speaking of the corrupt officials, we won't share their positions in state, municipal, commercial or non-commercial. We are not going to provide and the specific crimes, committed by such officials. Most often it is a bribe, or the receipt, embezzlement, but distributed and extortion, and outright theft, and many others like it, covering a large part of the Criminal Code.
First, of course, all these crimes cause direct or indirect damage. Theft of or inefficient use of budget or corporate funds, the conclusion of the "rollback" unprofitable contracts, the direction of fines in the pockets of the inspectors instead of the state budget and so on - all this is a direct damage. And indirect damage is primarily a monetary expression of the huge moral harm unjust courts, illegal actions of the power structures, unnecessary bureaucracy and more, until the full avoid payment of tax by individuals who do not see sense to pay, "if the officials still be stolen".
To list all components of direct and indirect material damage can be infinite, and can more or less accurately calculate how many millions, billions, trillions, and the currency in which costs the country of corruption. Let us make the most simple and primitive count.
Suppose that in Russia more or less corrupt 50 % of officers (some may consider this figure is too low). Assume that on average, each of them in one form or another, appropriates or inefficient uses a total of 50 % assigned to him wealth. ... And after all increase our revenues by 25 % and decrease of expenses on the same 25 % give a General improvement in living standards is already 50 %! A plus to improve the quality of goods for another 25 % is already 75 %. And so on. The total acceleration of the development of the country and improve the General standard of living of its citizens would be hundreds of percents, i.e. has grown to several times, if not several orders of magnitude.
As we see, there is something to fight. More precisely, against which to fight against corruption.
Some researchers are trying to separate corruption from more harmless, in their opinion, lobbying, when the officer also acts in the interests of one or another third party, but not for personal gain, but because in backroom negotiations (often carried out in the lobby - halls on the first floor of the hotel, hence the name) it was able to convince that this organization better than others. But in fact, in all civilized countries, lobbying has long been considered only as a milder form of corruption, and revelations of any fact behind-the-scenes negotiations is cause for "corruption scandal". Let "lobbyist" and there is no direct personal material benefit, of itself FACT UGTupline in backstage talks can and should be regarded as personal gain, at least in the form of the establishment of some informal relationships that may be useful in the future.
There is another milder form of corruption, as expressed in the famous phrase of the character "Woe from wit" - Famusov: "why not to oblige a dear person." Here too, it would seem that there is no personal gain, but in fact it is only expressed in intangible form by family and friends.
It is often assumed that corruption is the inheritance of the officials, in one degree or another connected with the mafia (organized crime structures, closely knitted with the government), and in order to defeat corruption, enough to win mafia. It is fundamentally wrong. And leaders, and ordinary members of the mafia may be arrested, condemn or even to shoot during the investigative work, and some brave Commissioner Cattani of the once popular Italian TV series "Sprut" under the force of at least theoretically. But not if Cattani myself... Nno, not necessarily connected with the mafia. Just corrupt, i.e. it does not alien to the use of its powers and the rights entrusted it for personal profit. And why would he then spend the nerves, strength, and even shed blood for the sake of law, order and justice? I'd rather brave Commissioner will collect tribute from larechnikov is far better, calmer and safer...
In this that lies the greatest danger of corruption: its like a virus that infects those who have to deal with other crimes, and with it. And the effectiveness of the fight immediately drops as much as it is heavily infected.
Is there, for example, to detective investigating the case of car thieves, he began to steal cars? Maybe sometimes, but very rarely. And is there that the investigator after questioning sexual maniac he became a maniac? Even rarer... And sometimes it be that he who is on duty shall expose the corruption among his colleagues, he was corrupt? As much as you can, as in this case and the criminal, corrupt, and the hypothetical fighter against corruption life situation and motivation are the same: both officials, both have a family to support, both lacking wages, both come from the same system... in short, they are on the same side of the barricade, and it is much easier, more convenient and cheaper to find a common language among themselvesthan in conflict.
Let's not forget that man, getting in the team, Willy-nilly, adopts rules of conduct that are in this group are accepted. Therefore, if intra-culture in one degree or another has to corruption, the newcomers will take this behavior as normal and will follow him in the future. And in Russia the years of "stagnation" - 1990s created in this respect, the negative inertia, which operates to this day.
In short, corruption - as drug addiction: easy to begin but hard to stop. As they say, entrance - ruble output - two.
Perhaps the more accurate is the comparison of corruption by a virus or cancer, which continuously metastasizes, infecting healthy cells.
Let us say more precisely. Since corruption is itself a defect of society, and prevents the elimination of all other evils, then the conclusion is clear: corruption is the worst of all the vices of society. So to say, "the Queen of all vices."
And the result of "government" of this "Queen" is inevitable in a situation of which the Russian people have said clearly, gnomic, a big and sad: "land stolen.
In fairness, we note that whoever thinks that in Germany, Switzerland, Sweden, Canada, USA or Luxembourg there is no corruption. It is there and in Japan, in China, and even in North Korea. There was corruption in the USSR, both Brezhnev and under Stalin. The only question is subject to certain measures.
Let us explain. In all countries the authorities anyway contacts with big business, the military-industrial complex, etc. and you have to understand that when the question of the conclusion of the multi-billion dollar government contracts, without corruption (at least in the form of lobbyism or "vigil native man") is rarely. In the end, traders, Fund the election of a politician, just hoping for some preference, and often receive them.
By analogy with the "natural background radiation" (which is everywhere) say: it is "natural background levels of corruption. With it it is necessary to accept as a datum and the only consolation is that this form of corruption is almost does not affect the vast majority of citizens, and the loss of her almost fully compensated by the social responsibility of big business.
There is another component of the "natural background levels of corruption that existed and exists in all countries, irrespective of socio-political order in them, whether Switzerland or Sweden, on North Korea, or Stalin's Soviet Union. This corruption is occurring in an environment officials authorized to solve the issues of life and death (as a minimum the freedom of citizens. In civilized democratic countries, such rights have enough officers in countries with authoritarian regimes is a lot.
For the passage of a prescription tell a family history: when my grandfather Mikhail N. Zagraevsky in the middle of the 1930-ies was the chief of construction of a large flour mill in Saratov, he at the Elevator was a crack. In those days such a thing was threatened by the prosecution in the "sabotage" and "ten", and even "tower". My grandmother, Lydia V. sold everything she could to give a bribe to a Prosecutor and the case against his grandfather was closed. As she convinced Stalinist Prosecutor to take the money - I don't know, but convinced. Apparently, the money was really big, and he could not refuse.
But, fortunately, ordinary citizens in a stably developing company are in such desperate situations less and less. (For example, in our time, my grandfather, even if it was fully to blame for the emergence of cracks in the Elevator would have received in the worst case, some suspended sentence for negligence and would repair the Elevator at his own expense. the Last incidentally, he did, and the Elevator still stands today). Why exceeding natural background levels of corruption in matters of life and death is not catastrophic.
And "natural background, and every measure has appeared in contemporary Russia dramatically exceeded when corruption of officials of the ordinary citizen began to encounter the same time, how many times had they come in contact with these officials.
Remember the very recent time - the beginning of the 1990's, when just pass the customs, go past the police post or receive in the state Agency some help without petty bribes was almost a miracle. Now has usually taken a bribe is not "just"not as a tribute (though it happens), but at least with a "guilty" or those who need something to speed up or get without a law. It became a little easier, but not much.
Any extremely small in scale of Russia bribe, which the driver with trembling hands vanities traffic police inspector and rejoices when it took, and had graciously permitted to go further, is actually far more dangerous for the country than any "roll back" for some multi-billion dollar contract somewhere on the sidelines of the highest power.
The fact that the traffic police inspector, a virtuoso gesture poke bill received by the cuff mittens, is the official authorized representative of Executive power of the Russian Federation, dressed in uniform, with shoulder-straps, the plate with personal number and the double-headed eagle, weapons, and other attributes of state power. And it turns out that a bribe from the driver takes Russia itself, with all its republics, territories and regions, forests, fields and rivers, towns and villages, mills and factories, the President and the government!
And how should then refer to their country nationals? Not so, as to the inspector - with mixed feelings of fear, contempt and hatred? God forbid.
What to do, how to fight corruption?
Theoretically, you can skip on her hand, as it was in the late 1990s, and let things take their course, hoping that the society within the market itself will handle everything. But what follows from this, we know, was held at the same time, in the nineties: any civil dispute : "a criminal showdown", any contact with the state apparatus - a bribe, any social career - only the mafia, any output on the street - the risk of being robbed...
Perhaps if these times will again return, Russia will not perish, people and not so experienced (that survived till the beginning of 1990-ies my grandmother, Lydia V. liked to say that the war was still worse), but farewell, state budget, social security, good roads, pensions, health care, education... fessentially in this case the country waiting degeneration and social degradation. Therefore, any serious talk about this option of fighting corruption (or rather, the lack of control) is not necessary.
So the fight should be. A cancerous tumor called "corruption", the extension of metastases to the whole body of Russia, must be eliminated (at least, reduced to "natural background").
As with any cancer, it can be treated with either surgical or therapeutic methods. In particularly difficult cases (as we are dealing with this), you need both.
And we start with surgical methods. What can be "cut" in the framework of the fight against corruption?
The answer would seem to lie on the surface themselves corrupt official persons Or at least part of them. Identify, dismissed, fined, arrested, imprisoned (and some "hot political head" even offer a shot, that's just indicative to hang on red square seemed to have not offered). And those who are not dismissed or not planted, shall, in principle, themselves scared and to work honestly...
With that in respect of corrupt officials need some punitive measures, nobody argues. The question is what and at what stage?
At this stage, unfortunately, to achieve more or less tangible results need to be punished too many. Arrange a dozen other "high-profile processes" and put a couple of hundred convicted of corruption of public officials and law enforcement agencies, of course, possible, and weep for him, little one would be. You can add to them a few corrupt businessmen and the staff of public organizations. But the ones, tens, hundreds, and corrupt millions.
In the Roman Empire knew: if the Legion seriously decayed and (or) ran away from the battlefield, to punish the few Legionnaires useless. We must apply the so-called "decimate" - to punish every tenth (demote, deny awards, flog, execute, depending on the gravity of the situation). Only nine others scare and radically change their behavior.
Extrapolating this method in contemporary Russia (and the underlying psychology of people since then has not drastically changed), it turns out that if corrupt 50 % of officials, to achieve the goal of a "fix " whip" should be put at least fined and fired) 10 % from 50 %, i.e. 5 % of the approximately two million employees of the state apparatus. This 100000 (one hundred thousand) people. And another 5 % of the approximately three million employees in the various power structures, i.e. another 150,000 (one hundred fifty thousand). Also, to add to them a couple of hundred of thousands of merchants, and to be more convincing - thousand twenty-five teachers (5 % of the approximately five hundred thousand)...
This is will not struggle with corruption and terror.
Someone can say: well, let it be terrorism, to fight corruption, all means are good. And along with other crimes to eradicate, if we put (or better to shoot) with hundreds of thousands...
But then the question arises: many drivers and pedestrians violating traffic Rules, ie and risk their lives and the lives of others. Surely, this must be fought. So don't shoot it (or at least to plant ten years) and for any violation of traffic rules? Then on the road, you see, and the order will comeAnd... if we put ten years for illegal re-planning of apartments and violations of the rules of gas stoves, and houses will be much less likely to collapse... And if we punish unscrupulous builders, the house will fall even more rarely, if not stop...
Strictly speaking, this is the essence of terror as a possible tool for targeting certain "order". But the problem is that even if you do not touch any moral aspects, it is still a terror tool ineffective and short-lived.
Let us explain. Typically, the declared purpose of terror - freeing society from criminals, i.e. increasing the security of citizens. Now, they say, will destroy all corrupt, serial killers, terrorists, crooks, spies, brakodel, parasites, the homeless, drug addicts, alcoholics and other similar, and then the honest citizen, faithfully perform their official or professional duties, unusual commodity well.
This statement sounds very impressive, but there is a problem: a unique distinction between honest and dishonest citizen, and especially between honest and dishonest attitude to their duties, almost impossible. And this leads not only to the fact that in the camp or the bullets sent millions of innocent people, and the number of victims is higher numbersPTB suex offenders together. In terror, there are other negative consequences.
Citizens, in fact, begin to fear. This fear paralyzes people, they start to look at power, as rabbits boa constrictor, and there is a "vicious circle": for the reinforcement of terror citizens are becoming less and less to feel safe, for which, in fact, was started and terror. Accordingly, people will fade away, abilities, talents, disappears entrepreneurial initiative, business rots, productivity declines, families are created, the birth rate falls, the country's national income is reduced...
Then the government can only "militarize" his people (examples - of Stalin's pre-war Soviet Union or modern North Korea). And in war as in war: there all the methods of intimidation caused by "choice", gave each soldier - between possible death ahead or imminent death behind (ahead - the enemy behind - the detachments armed with machine guns). But no war can not last forever: it finally destroys the economy, and culture. And then, together with the war the government (if it survived) had to stop and terror.
But anyways, the most brutal terror, in any most bloody war of professional criminals (and corrupt officials, of course, also are), which is not so timid and helpless, as honest and respectable citizens, are able not to fall into the hands of law enforcement. the first opportunity, already during the war, again raised their heads.
So punitive measures (of course, not to shoot, but fine and fire - exactly) it makes sense to use in full scale only when the percentage of corrupt officials will be much less than fifty (at least equal to the percentage ratio of the number in the company of other criminals - thieves, killers, terrorists, crooks and other, i.e. will not exceed 3-5 %). Then these measures will be to bring real results and it will not be a terror. Meanwhile, they can and should apply only to "particularly brazen", whose corrupt activities is allocated even the General negative background.
Let us consider other possibilities of combating corruption, but the "carrot". If not possible at this stage "surgery", then, maybe, let's start with the "therapy"?
Logically arises option "stick". If the main social cause corruption officials complained their material position, forcing "earn money on the side" - that does not try whether this situation improved?
None of this, again, not argue. But despite the extent and at what stage. Human greed, as you know, the infinite, and if not to eliminate all other fundamental causes of corruption, it is much salary or raise enough. And due to what is now significantly increase salaries to officials, at least half of which is corrupt? Due to the budget, which they robbed and so? Get vicious "vicious circle".
Hence, the pay increase could only be parallel with the reduction in corruption of those who receive this payment.
There is another way of treating corruption. This is to bring the legislation to a clear, logical and workable form, elimination of excessive administrative barriers and obstacles that even a ' corruption-minded" officials have not been able to implement their "mood" in life.
Examples of "corruption" and "vzyatkoemkoy" laws and regulations can result set. That's quite a fresh: at the end of February 2010 were published amendments to the Rules of the road, talking about that, as of March 1, all coaches must be equipped with seat belts (and at that time they were equipped with not more than 10 % of buses).
Probably, the buses really need the seat belts. But can we at least theoretically, to have time in less than a week to equip 90 % of the total bus fleet of Russia certified belts? Of course not, it takes at least six months. Does this mean that from March 1, nearly all intercity bus transportation in a huge country stopped? Also there. Conclusion: at each point of technical control and on each post of traffic police bribes, and will be given at least another six months.
And how many years, for example, considers the question of the abolition of compulsory military service, have long since become a way of attracting the army gratuitous labour force? Although progress in this question is obvious (term of service has already been reduced to one year), still every spring and autumn are rounding up young people. And whether or not to throw a stone in the mothers, all by hook or by crook trying to "otmazatsya" sons from "hardship and privation" of military service, if for anybody not a secret, that in these "hardships" often includes not only hoists, construction and forced marches, but hazing, bullying "fathers commanders", poor nutrition and hard physical labor? And is it worth then ask the question, where corruption in the military?
As for the insanely bureaucratic procedures in any field of civil relations, which is best characterized by the famous words of Mikhail Zhvanetsky: "Bring the certificate that you need help - I guess and say no.
But bringing the legislation to the logical and workable form, and the elimination of excessive administrative barriers although necessary, and should be, but is not always possible, and not always a panacea.
Here is another example (again from the practice of the police, but what to do if this organization since the Soviet times is almost a symbol of corruption). Because in some small town road markings applied so that not to go into the oncoming lane impossible, but this departure is punishable by deprivation of a driving licence, it is either all local motorists has long been deprived of their rights (which it is not), or the local Department of the traffic police are corrupt and take bribes.
There is a simpler example, in which the adequacy of legislation nothing to do with it. Little did the drivers completely and sincerely acknowledging their guilt, in violation of traffic Rules, offer to the inspector of traffic police "to solve the issue on the spot" only because they are lazy to go to the branch of the savings Bank to pay a fine? Legislation and administrative practice in this area is continuously improved, the penalty can be paid within 30 days and not only in Sberbank, and in the past now almost no queues, " but is not profitable if any, the most perfect system of payment of fines to pay personally inspector half the amount? Profitable and the driver, and the inspector. Unprofitable only the country. But is such a big country (as they say, to God is high, the king of far), and the road - here it is, and it "agree" two: the driver and the traffic police.
You can do more global and generally remove inspectors from the roads, replacing them with cameras - but someone 's gotta do it, for example, catch drunk drivers, this is no camcorder will not do. Where a drunk behind the wheel - there is absolutely fair deprivation of rights, and there is a great desire to give a bribe to the inspector. The result is "vzyatkoemkoy" the situation in a completely adequate legislation.
And such examples are an infinite number of different areas. For example, competition for the allocation of budget funds. Can I delete the "human factor"? Not - a competition Commission no substitute for a computer. And where the fate of millions of contracts depends on the decision of one or more persons, the situation becomes automatically "vzyatkoemkoy".
So, we have listed a number of possible measures for combating corruption and realized that even if we apply them correctly and comprehensively, they are still a problem will not solve. So, Russia forever doomed to corruption and it can only slightly lower - for example, the percentage or the other?
So, to understand what modern history has given Russia a unique chance to reduce this risk to the indicators, the most civilized and socially developed countries, it is necessary to mention the Federal law ¹ 273-FZ dated 25th December 2008 "On combating corruption".
We are not going to claim that this law is a panacea. Moreover, we have to believe that in modern conditions it is ineffective, as it is a very General nature and is dedicated primarily to measures that corrupt officials have long and successfully learned to crawl. Well, will provide somnii official income Declaration, including a ten-year "Lada" and panel house in the garden Association, so his latest Mercedes decorated his wife, three-story mansion on Rublevskoe highway - in law, and a huge yacht in the Canary Islands - offshore companyH... the prohibited to combine the posts in state, municipal and commercial structures - so even the janitors often bypass the formalization of work, to say nothing of experienced officials? Well, obligatoryanti-corruption expertise of legal acts and their projects - as we saw with the resulting negative traditions even the most perfect laws do not protect against corruption. And so on.
But there is in article 6 of this law, speaking on measures for the prevention of corruption, one phrase is extremely important, but, unfortunately, is so General and not later not deciphered that occurs even thought that it was included in the law on purely formal grounds. But it determines that the only way that is effective in the fight against corruption. This is the formation of public intolerance towards corruption behavior.
And this formation is quite possible theoretically and practically, as in normal, stable society the vast majority of people willing to live honestly and not to break laws and forced breaking, not to produce these violations and not to aggravate the situation.
For example, any normal driver violated the traffic Rules and being obliged to pay a fine (or even stay for some time without rights), does not want to commit a serious criminal offence to bribe traffic police inspector. It means that in some circumstances it this will give a bribe, and in some and not give. And the task is to contribute to the creation of such psychological conditions in which the driver with a light heart will be punished, and will not degrade themselves and the inspector money supply. And the biggest pool of creating such conditions is that the driver must feel when the bribe is disgusted that is not redeemed by savings on fine.
The same applies to the second party is considered "vzyatkoemkoy" situation - traffic police inspector. He, like any normal person with adequate concepts of honor and conscience (and even more as a staff officer), doesn't want to look like a petty thief and extortionist. In certain conditions, it will not hold and take the money and, in some - not take it. And the task is to contribute to the creation of such psychological conditions in which its civilian and military honor would not allow him to extend bill.
It may be objected that such logic is always acting, and yet, in Russia and in the times of Peter Iand Catherine II, and Nicholas II, and under Stalin and Brezhnev and government officials, and officers and cashiers, and party officials, and judges take bribes, was casinocrystal and mechanical, despite the honor, conscience, uniforms, medals, Royal orders, decrees of the Central Committee of the CPSU, ideological upbringing... Nart afaithful, so it was when Rurikovich only record did not fall...
Yes, it always was. But it always like this?
I can quote almost entirely dialogue the main hero of the novel by the Strugatsky brothers "Difficult to be God" don Rumata with Dr. Buahom. Let me remind you that the action takes place on a distant planet in the distant future. Earthlings, had already taken a huge leap in the development, trying to help this planet, under the "dark ages" and torn by wars, rebellions and banditry. One of the earthlings, performing on this planet rescue mission, acting on it under the name of don Rumata. His dialogue with local scientists is consistent with our subject, and we can make a very useful conclusions.
First replica - doctor of budha:
- "Ineradicable evil. No man is able to reduce its number in the world. It may somewhat improve their own destiny, but always at the expense of the fate of others. And there will always be kings, more or less violent, barons, more or less wild, and will always be ignorant people, feeding the admiration of their oppressors and the hatred of her rescuer. Rumata, and this is our world.
- The world changes all the time, doctor Budach, "said Rumata...
- The world cannot change forever, " said Budach - because nothing lasts forever, even a change... I do not like much of the world, a lot I would like to see other... Nabout what to do? In the eyes of the higher powers perfection looks different than in mine. What is the meaning of the tree to complain that it can not move, though it would be glad, probably, to run from the Woodman's axe.
- What if you could change the higher destiny?.. What, in your opinion, should be done is the Almighty, that you said, now the world is kind and good?..
- Well, if you please. I would say to the Almighty: "Master, I do not know your plans may be, you're not going to make people happy. Want it! So easy to achieve it! Give people plenty of bread, meat and wine, give them shelter and clothing. Let him disappear hunger and poverty, and with it and all that divides people."
- Is that all? "asked Rumata.
- You would think that not enough?
Rumata shook his head.
God would answer you: "it will Not go on advantage to people. For strong your world have labored weak that I gave them, and weaknesses still remain beggars.
- I would ask God to protect the weak. "Cruel rulers listen to reason", I would say.
- Violence is the power. Having lost the cruelty the rulers lose their power, and other cruel replace them.
The Bud stopped smiling.
- Punish cruel, " he said firmly, " to teach was a strong show the cruelty to the weak.
- Man is born weak. Stronger it becomes, when no one is stronger around him. When will be punished ill from strong, their place will be strong from the weak. Too cruel. It will punish all, and I don't want that.
"You know best, the Almighty. Make time for fun, so that people got everything and not taken away from each other what you gave them.
And it will not go to the people in favor, " said Rumata, - because when they get all in vain, no work, out of my hands, then forget your work, will lose the zest for life and turn in my pet, which I'll continue to feed and clothe forever.
"Don't let them all at once! - the hotly said Budach. - Give a little, gradually!
- Gradually, the people themselves will take all that they need.
The Bud laughed awkwardly.
- Yes, I see, it's not easy, " he said. I somehow thought before about such things... Toaetsa, we went over everything with you. However, he leaned forward, - there is another possibility. Make it so that most people liked the work and knowledge to work and knowledge are the only meaning of their lives!
Yes, we also intend to try, thought Rumata. Mass pipeindustry, positive remoralization. Gipnoizluchateli on three Equatorial satellite...
"I could do that, " he said. "But should we deprive humanity of its history? Should I replace one of humanity to others? Will that same thing to wipe humanity from the face of the earth and establish in its place a new one?
"Then, Lord, wipe us from the face of the earth and re-create more perfect... or better yet, leave us alone and let us go his way.
- My heart is full of pity, slow said Rumata. "I can't do that".
End of quote.
As we recall, the result of the humanist ideal" Rumata, not wanting to replace one of humanity to others, was deplorable: a nervous breakdown and mass murder. But could you put "gipnoizluchateli", a "massive positive remoralizatsiyu", and it would be good...
Arkady and Boris Strugatsky, wrote his most famous book in the Brezhnev times, quite naturally did not take these options, since it reminded them of coarse and primitive propagation of Communist ideology, which all more or less serious and decent people are already sick.
But now is another time.
The main toolof remoralization"not violating anyone's civil rights in our information age must serve the media, people carrying the fact that at all times kept on crimes and reprehensible actions - education and culture.
Will the cultural and educated people to pay bribes for any reason? Most likely, elementary disdain. Perhaps Sauvant bills employee of the district Council or the traffic police inspector combine with high civic consciousness, based on the examples of Cicero, Byron, Pushkin, or Solzhenitsyn? Perhaps, but very, very difficult.
And would it be, for example, cultural and educated officer GUYCCD brAMB these small bribes? Probably disdain. Compatible virtuoso inserting bills received by the cuff mittens with examples of the high honor of an officer who served Admiral Nelson, Prince Bagration, Decembrist Muraviev-Apostol or Marshal Rokossovsky? And would not it be kind of bills generate resentment in his heart: "Who wants to buy? Me, a Russian officer?"
And will the cultural and educated senior public officials to commit corrupt acts contrary to the interests of his country? Maybe in certain conditions (for example, under pressure a lot of money), but if he will remember high and unselfish service to the Fatherland such statesmen as Derzhavin, Speransky, Gorchakov or Witte, he will do it much more difficult...
Modern man, paradoxically, more manageable psychologically than medieval. The latter was to intimidate torture and executions (the ineffectiveness of such measures , we have already mentioned), and the modern through mass media can inspire (not afraid of this word) is almost all that is required. You can "fool", and you can "raise".
Unfortunately, so far, even on public television stations tendency to "dupe" clearly prevails over the tendency to "elevate". Yes, it comes out a lot of very interesting and informative transmission, there are good films, but when it's all punctuated by some unimaginable "spiritual rumination like "full House", "Spotlight Peris Hilton" or infinite series, the positive effect from serious gear is on there. What can we then say about "entertainment" channels? One "Reality show "House-2"which is...
It's the same with printed and electronic media. Waves swept vulgar bad taste weak sprouts of useful information, developing not only domestic skills at the level of "how to hammer a nail into the wall, but the culture, and spirituality.
Yes, the "high" culture to some it may seem boring (though actually it is not so: many educated people, such as reading the Bible, or the "War and peace" is far more interesting and exciting than some mystery or "women's novel"). Probably, "mass culture" for the majority of citizens still more interesting and exciting. But she, unlike genuine culture, teaches nothing and nothing develops, but the ability to instantly identify some regular pop diva and list its many husbands and lovers.
And after watching and listening to these revelations most pop divas (recently, for example, one of some very serious television gave a cry of the soul: "to be a prostitute! Live in pleasure, and not have to work!"), people begin to wonder: why good citizenship in our pragmatic time? We have to make money all by hook or by crook, and there - "after us the deluge".
Of course, such arguments are at the level of student humorous songs: "Copernicus a century he worked, he studied the rotation of the Earth... Fool! He would rather have a drunk, then there would be no doubt!". But the song is humorous, but people think seriously.
And whether the victory over corruption and other vices of society with such "antediluvian" and "soderjaschii" psychology? Of course not.
Hence, while in Russia will not be installed traditionally good citizenship, we will continue to live by the laws unenforceable, buy off the bureaucratic arbitrariness, to travel on bad roads, get beggarly pensions...
And these traditions can be set only through implementation in the minds and hearts of people is high, civic, humanistic culture, higher spiritual and moral values.
I in no case do not call "Soviet-style" deny all cultural phenomena, not corresponding to the aim of establishing these traditions (if only it is not a direct propaganda of extremism, violence, violation of territorial integrity of the country etc). I call to create a real culture and high spiritual and moral values of the optimal conditions for penetration into the minds and hearts of the citizens. This is possible primarily through the media (although we must not forget, for example, about the necessity of improving the system of education). And commercially attractive "mass culture" and so will not disappear, it simply must, as they say, a little push back.
Russia is a great country with great history, and positive civic tradition, it does not only exist, but also very strong. And this, coupled with the achievements of modern information technology provides a unique historical opportunity to overcome vices, deeply-rooted in society, even from the time of Rurik and wide wave of overwhelming the country in the post-Soviet years of "stagnation". And first of all need a victory over corruption is the "Queen of all vices."
One could conclude the article in good citizenship note, but as in the fight against corruption is important not only theory, but in practice, as the parable tell you about how the seven horticultural associations struggled with garbage dumps.
So, lived seven SNT - garden-profit associations. Ordinary holiday villages with lots of 6 sq. meters and modest summer cottages. And each one is absolutely the same situation: on the edge of the forest - a huge dump. No one even remembers when the scrapyard appeared - probably at the stage of initial construction of the village when the ancestors of the current owners. All this used to dump, and almost all of them, except a few very conscious vacationers, it something thrown. Who is more modest - only a small trash, and who is more impudent and something like a gas stove or refrigerator.
First, from the garbage suffered only owners of adjacent suburban areas. Suffered, but tolerated: plots originally distributed by lot, out of luck - what to do? And sort of got used already for many years, sniffed... Nabout the waste was becoming more and more, even in the woods for mushrooms became unpleasant to walk around scattered bags of garbage and stumbled on a rusty piece of iron...
And now gathered in each of these seven SNT Board and decided: we must eliminate the garbage. Responsible, as expected, the Chairman of the partnership.
And when presidents to deal with garbage dumps.
Chairman of the first SNT was not to philosophize slyly and simply hung over the garbage plate: "According to the decision of the Board of such a number dumping is prohibited." But it did not help plate: the old village, the plots areresold, most people each other without knowing the meeting does not go, conscientiousness special no different to the Board and personally to the Chairman of great respect not nourishes and debris as is customary for people to dump and dump. Somewhere is his need to blame! So there's a sign of growing and growing garbage, creating an absurd situation: it turns out that the people specially dumps rubbish under the sign spite of the Board and Chairman.
Chairman of the second partnership is not just hang a sign, and the threat of huge fines for dumping rubbish. But the people quiet chuckles: catch the first! Police in SNT looks only if there is something very serious had happened, the camcorder from garbage, of course, the President did not set a (expensive it is for the humble fellowship)... And garbage as I used to pass the buck and blame. And we need somewhere to pass the buck. So there's a sign of the growing garbage, increasing absurdity of the situation huge and absolutely no one capable of scaring the amount of the fine.
The third Chairman SNT approached the problem worse: not only hung a sign forbidding, but also realized completely remove debris. That's already helped: the brushed place psychologically difficult to throw out with the garbage bag. But, unfortunately, helped briefly: negative inertia of dumping garbage in this area remained, and need somewhere rubbish dump... So the first one cottager, from habit bringing trash on the old place and surprised to find there purity, still too lazy to carry debris back and threw him wherever carried aP... Otomi so did the second... And there you go. Sewer again began to grow unabated.
Fourth, the Chairman not only did all the same, that the third, but still found a formal landfill site somewhere in a neighboring town. Are there any civilian clothes: containers, street sweepers, garbage trucks, regular cleaning ofT... AK what's on the plate, adorned in SNT over the cleaned area of former garbage, it was also pointed out an alternative site landfill. A week or two all was well until one scattered summer resident has suffered in the habit waste on a former garbage dump near the forest, was too lazy to read the explanations on the alternative route (perhaps he, this route was not in the path) and in memory of old rubbish. And then another summer visitor walked by, saw that lies somewhere with the garbage bag and threw her. So to say, where one is, there are two. Where two, there are three... And again all over again.
Fifth, the President made all the same, the fourth, and whatnot. And the big sign at the entrance to the CHT hung - "Dear neighbours, the garbage in the forest liquidated, please take out the garbage there is something there, that, and the same Declaration in the form of leaflets in mailboxes are scattered, and I walked all villas and all personally informed, and then reminded everyone who met on the street. Sewer disappeared. But the trouble is that there remained some people - perhaps the most-the most scattered, or enemies of the President, whether General anti-social elements - which are sometimes continued to throw garbage at the old place. And then the other vacationers these dregs have seen and figured: why one can throw the garbage around and do not drive, and others don't? Here again, began to grow scrapyard...
The sixth Chairman did all the same, the fifth, but realized that those still, through malicious intent or distraction, continues to litter after all the measures taken, it's time to catch and punish. And he organized by volunteers periodic patrolling the place where once was garbage. The task of the patrol - at least, catch, shame, and warn informers garbage, and the maximum - neighborly to give a pair of cuffs, if you are a good man does not understand. So it eliminated the garbage. Satisfied with the Chairman reported to the Board and was busy with other work, it took several holiday seasons, patrols stopped walking, plates have faded... Nabout dumped some trash this place for years, and the inertia was still very strong. And once a scattered summer resident in memory of old rubbish, and then walked past the second and decided that where one package, there are two... And here again, garbage.
A seventh Chairman did all the same, he did six, but not for one or two holiday seasons, and for several years until a settlement is not completely erased the memory of the fact that the forest was once dumped the garbage.
And only then scrapyard was eliminated completely and permanently.
© Sergey Zagraevsky