To the page Scientific works

To the main page

 

Dr. Sergey V. Zagraevsky

 

About scientific perspectives of searching of origins and prototypes

of white stone church architecture of pre-Mongol temples

of Vladimir-Suzdal Russia

 

Published in Russian: .. - . : , 2013 .

 

Annotation

 

Attracting an unprecedented amount of illustrative material, the author shows that white stone sculptural decoration of pre-Mongolian temples of North-Eastern Russia existed within the world of architecture and art processes of that time, and its stylistic and thematic diversity is not less than the diversity and uniqueness of temple decoration of other countries and regions of the world. But as a result of its exceptional diversity, the search of specific origins and prototypes of Vladimir-Suzdal decor by stylistic methods has no scientific perspectives, and it is recommended to close the issue until the obtaining of documentary evidences.

 

 

Attention!

The following text was translated from Russian original by the computer program

and has not yet been edited.

So it can be used only for general introduction.

     RUSSIAN VERSION

 

 

The question of the origin of the white-stone sculptural decoration of the pre-Mongolian churches of the North-Eastern Russia was interested researchers all time of existence of the history of architecture as a science, and he devoted dozens of scientific works - perhaps more than any other problematic issue of the ancient Russian architecture.

First of all we will look at the origin of the decor, which appeared in the Vladimir-Suzdal Principality under Prince Andrey Bogolubsky and arranged before the Mongol invasion1 (Fig. 1, 2, 3, 4). This decoration is zooantropomorfnogo - includes images of people and animals. Earlier in the North-Eastern Russia white stone temples built only Yury Dolgoruky, and at the end of our study we will be able to touch a question of the origin of the decoration of churches Dolgoruky.

Documentary evidence of origin decoration of churches of Andrei Bogolyubsky, no, except messages V.N. Tatishchev about coming to Prince Andrew architect of the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa2. The origin of this architect is a contentious issue: for example, N.N. Voronin3 and the A.I. Komech4 believed that the architect was from Germany, O.M. ioannisyan of Northern Italy5. The author of the study put forward additional arguments6 in favor of the position of N.N. Voronin and A.I. of Komech, but even if we count the origin of the Imperial architect established, this does not solve the question of the origin of the masters in decor: they could not be nationals of the architect. Ancient Russia had cultural and economic ties with the world, and the master could be from any countries and regions, including local Russians. Remember the words of the chronicler of Vladimir assumption Cathedral: "...Given him (Andrew Bogoliubsky - SZ) God of all lands, all the masters and decorate W pace of INAH tserkvei"7. Perhaps the concept of "beautifying" was part of the sculptural decoration.

Therefore, messages V.N. Tatishchev not enough for any scientific conclusions on the issue.

The problem of determining the origins and prototypes white stone sculptural decoration of the pre-Mongolian churches of the North-Eastern Russia is complicated by the fact that today we have sufficient information on the monuments of other countries and that zooantropomorfnogo temple decoration was widely spread throughout the world, and his chronological appearance - for several centuries earlier, the old Russian (further we will consider many examples of such decoration).

Such typical Romanesque elements, developed advanced portals (Fig. 5, 6, 7, 8, 9), beam pilasters, complex profiles bases, database columns with corner "horns" ("vultures", "claws" - Il. 10), column-type belt (Fig. 11, 12, 13, 14, 15), deciduous and Indigo capital, "twist", etc. (Fig. 6, 11, 12, 16, 17, 18, 19) also appeared in temples of North-Eastern Russia with Andrew Bogoliubsky, simultaneously with zooantropomorfnogo sculptural decor. This further extends the range of "candidates".

The researchers, specify the question of the origin of the decor of the pre-Mongolian churches of the North-Eastern Russia, in the absence of documentary evidence remains only purely artistic methods of the search for the origins and prototypes, first of all stylistic analysis. In other words, the researchers are looking decor, stylistically (plastic and composite) and plot close to Vladimir-Suzdal and executed before the middle of XII century. And this decoration is easily found on churches around the world, which is not surprising if we take the amount of Romanesque temple decoration of Western Europe and its counterparts in other countries and regions of the world for 100%, then in Russia will be less than 1%. And the probability that this percentage will find stylistic, and the more narrative counterparts in other 99%is very high.

On a huge number of stylistic and thematic analogues is joined by a range of possible ways of influence: the coming to Russia by foreign masters, teaching Russian abroad artists, the General cultural and informational influence, and in varying degrees in local traditions. And all these options are not mutually exclusive.

It is not surprising that during the existence of the history of ancient architecture as science researchers have taken many different versions of the origin of the white-stone sculptural decoration of the pre-Mongolian churches of the North-Eastern Russia. The most complete review of advanced versions at different times did G. Wagner8 and MS Smooth9. Here are only some versions.

About predominantly Eastern influence (Iran, Caucasus, India) wrote V.I. Dobrokhotov10, EE Viollet Le Duc11, F. Halle12, I.A. Orbeli13, L.A. Lelekov14, Z.A. Hakobyan15. About mainly Byzantine-Balkan influence - I.D. mansvetov16, V.V. Stasov17, P. p. Pokryshkin18, FI the Buslaev19, A.I. Nekrasov20, F. Halle (which regarded the Balkans the transmission link from the East)21, A.N. Grabar22. That the decor of the Vladimir-Suzdal churches were mostly local roots - L.V. Dal23, N.V. Sultanov24, A. M. Peacocks25, B.A. Rybakov26, V.N. Lazarev27, M.V. Alpatov28, G. Wagner29. About predominant influence of Western European Romanesque - YEAR Stroganov30NA Artleben31, A. Bykovskii32, A.S. Uvarov33, N.P. Kondakov34, DSC. Berezhkov35, N.N. Voronin36, The A.I. Komech37, O.M. ioannisyan38.

Note that the A.I. Komech39 and O.M. ioannisyan40 believed that foreign masters came not only to Andrei Bogolyubsky and Vsevolod the Big Nest. A.I. the Komech believed that in Russia both times there arrived masters of Germany, O.M. ioannisyan - it is the first time they were masters of Lombardy, for the second time - from the Aquitaine or Poitou, France. If adopted, the point of view A.I. of Komech and O.M. Ioannisyan number of variants of origin increases twice.

So we see a large number of versions used by various researchers, each according to his observations, views and applied scientific method has brought a historical review and logical construction, one way or another positioned Vladimir-Suzdal sculptures in the world context, talked about possible ways of coming masters, etc. But at the core position of each Explorer still was stylistic affinity Vladimir-Suzdal decor to the different foreign analogues. Often this closeness was more than conditional: for example, A.M. Gordin as illustrations Lombard origin of the white-stone decor North-Eastern Russia, led details arcature Western facade of the Church of San Andrea in Toscolano Maderno (Fig. 20) and a capital of a column of the Church of San Michele in Pavia (Fig. 21)41. The similarity of the examples given with the decor, which we see in the churches of Vladimir-Suzdal Principality, very doubtful. In any case, in our study we will be able to see numerous examples of a much greater stylistic vicinity.

But in fact, the abundance of stylistic analogues in the world does not make it easy, and difficult, moreover, makes it practically impossible to determine the origins of the Vladimir-Suzdal white stone temple sculptures methods stylistic analysis. We will show this.

First of all, consider the regions, wrote about the likely sources of O.M. ioannisyan, which caused the largest number of examples of similar decor: it Lombardy (temples of Andrei Bogolyubsky), Poitou and Aquitaine (temples of Vsevolod the Big Nest). Because the historical Lombardy was much more of the same name, modern Italian region (the Union Lombard cities in XII century was part of Milan, Milan, Ferrara, Lodi, Parma, Cremona, Mantova, Bergamo, Verona, Bologna, Padua, Treviso, Vicenza, Venice and Verona), we will collectively speak not about the Lombardy region, and Northern Italy. Similarly, because the historical Poitou and Aquitaine include modern French departments Charente, Charente Maritime, Deux-Sevres, Vienne, Dordogne, Gironde, Landes, lot-et-Garonne and the Atlantic Pyrenees, we will collectively talk about them as Western France.

On the temples in the Northern Italian cities, you can see a large amount of decoration, similar to Vladimir-Suzdal. Examples:

- the Church of San Michele in Pavia (Fig. 6, 22, 23);

- the Church of San of Sant'abbondio in Como (Fig. 24, 25);

- the Cathedral of San Ambrogio in Milan (Fig. 26, 27 - note the great similarity of a lion's head on the corner of Milan capitals with the head of two lions in the Cathedral of St. Demetrius, see ill. 28);

- Church of Santa Maria in a Benedictine monastery Pomposa near Codigoro, the Emilia-Romagna region (Fig. 29);

- the Church in Fidenza, the Emilia-Romagna region (Fig. 30);

- the Cathedral of San Marco in Venice (Fig. 31).

 

A large amount of the decor is present in Western France. First of all, of course, a rich multi-figured facade composition of the councils in Angouleme (Fig. 32) and Poitiers (Fig. 11), where you can find lots of items, stylistically close to the decor of white stone churches of North-Eastern Russia. There is a similar decor and other zapadnorusskih Romanesque churches. Examples:

- the Church of St. Peter in Savigny, Department of Vienne (Fig. 33 - note certain compositional similarities given capitals with a bas-relief group at the Cathedral of St. Demetrius, the most well known under the name "Vsevolod sons", see ill. 34. But the analysis of the composition and subjects and old, and the world of decor are not within the scope of this study),

- the Church of St. Peter in Ohe de Saintonge, Department of Charente Maritime (Fig. 35, 36, 37);

- the Church of St. Peter in Fontaine d Osijek, Department of Charente Maritime (Fig. 38 - note the similarity to the Vladimir-Suzdal lions, see ill. 1, 3);

- the Church of St Madeleine in Berle, Department of Charente Maritime (Fig. 39 - lions also similar to the Vladimir-Suzdal).

 

Indeed, we see a lot in common with the decoration of churches and Andrew, and Vsevolod. But let's not forget that zooantropomorfnogo thread first appeared in Russia not in the North-East and to the South, and much earlier era of the reign of Andrei Bogolyubsky: known examples of such decoration on Boris and Gleb Cathedral in Chernihiv (1120-1123 years, Il. 40, 41), known Dating back to the XI century archaeological finds in the Kyiv-Pechersk Lavra (Fig. 42) and in Novgorod (Fig. 43). In a similar plastic and made a number of objects of old Russian and decorative art (for example, Kiev silver bracelets - Il. 44). These facts do not remove the issue of foreign influences, but make it difficult, as the influence of Western European and world analogues on the temple sculptures of Vladimir-Suzdal Principality could take place not directly, but indirectly through Kiev, Chernigov and Novgorod.

Effective localization stylistic proximity with world analogues also prevents a big difference in the plastic decor themselves Vladimir-Suzdal churches (examples can be seen in the sludge. 1, 2, 3, 4, 45), moreover - in the plastic decor of each individual Church. Examples:

- various plastic lion masks in Vladimir's assumption Cathedral of Andrei Bogolyubsky (Fig. 46, 47, 48);

- various plastic female faces on the same Cathedral (Il. 49, 50);

- a big difference above decor of the assumption Cathedral with lions and women's faces and the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl (Fig. 51, 52, 53, 54);

- a big difference decoration above the temples decorated the galleries of the assumption Cathedral, built by Vsevolod (Fig. 55, 56);

- Vladimir Dmitrievskiy Cathedral also varies greatly plastic story-similar elements (Fig. 57, 58).

 

And in the Western romanik differences in the plastic decor is even more significant, even on the same buildings. Below we give a number of examples of decoration of churches of Northern Italy and Western France, stylistic proximity to Vladimir-Suzdal incomparably less than in the above.

Examples in Northern Italy:

- the Church of San Michele in Pavia (Fig. 59, 60, 61, 21 - let's remind, that last picture A.M. Gordin cited as an example of a possible prototype of the decor of the Vladimir-Suzdal churches42);

- the Cathedral of San Ambrogio in Milan (Fig. 62, 63, 64);

- the Cathedral in Modena, which O.M. ioannisyan considered the prototype of the temples Bogolyubsky43 (Fig. 65, 66, 67);

- the Church of San Zeno at Verona (Fig. 68, 69 - pay attention to the obscene story, absolutely uncharacteristic of the Vladimir-Suzdal land);

- the Church of San Pietro in Ciel d'oro in Pavia (Fig. 70 - also hypothetical prototype decoration of churches Bogolyubsky according O.M. Ioannisyan44);

- the Church of San Francesco in Pavia (Fig. 71);

- the Church of San Andrea in Toscolano Maderno near Brescia (Fig. 20).

You can cite the example of secular decor - Palace Ragione in Bergamo (Fig. 72).

 

Examples zapadnogermanskogo temple decoration, stylistically very far from the Vladimir-Suzdal.

First of all this is the Church of St. Peter in Fontaine d Osijek - the one on which was a picture of a lion, shown in Il. 38 and similar with lions on the temples of North-Eastern Russia. But at the same Church we see a very different plastics (Fig. 73 in addition to the stylistic difference we see uncharacteristic of the Vladimir-Suzdal sculpture obscene story; Il. 74, 75, 76). Pay attention to the sludge. 76: the same Church that Il. 38, the same account for the lion's story, on a number of similar small parts likely the same author, and the style was completely different. This illustrates the point that individuality and instability handwriting masters of stone carving is not possible to confidently identify the author and do stylistic methods of analysis any conclusions about their transitions from the construction site to the construction site and on their training in one or another construction site.

Another temple of Primorsko the Charente, where we saw the decoration, similar to Vladimir-Suzdal, - St. Peter's in Ohe de Saintonge. But this temple is the decor is made in a different style (Fig. 77, 78, 79 - not only stylistic differences, but again obscenity).

Other examples of great stylistic diversity of Romanesque decor in the Charente Maritime:

- the Church of St. Peter in Benoni (Fig. 80);

- the Church of St. Peter in Benoni (Fig. 81 - obscene story; Il. 82 - lions, a little similar to the Vladimir-Suzdal);

Notre-Dame in Achille (Fig. 83, 84 - pay attention to the story, similar to the plot of the decoration of the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl, see ill. 85, but a different style),

- the Church of Saint Martin Saint Martin d Anand (Fig. 86, 87);

- the Church of Saint-Etienne in Lakeville (Fig. 88);

- the Church of St. Peter in Mareste (Fig. 89);

- Church of the assumption of the virgin Mary in Massage (Fig. 90);

- the Church of Saint-Erie in the Material (Fig. 91);

- the Church of Saint-Saturnin-de-Sexo in Port d Envo (Fig. 92);

- Church of the assumption of the virgin Mary in Le Sere (Fig. 93),

- Church of the assumption of the virgin Mary in Surgery (Fig. 94),

- the Church of Saint-constant in Saint-kutan-Le-Grand (Fig. 95, again obscene plot);

- the Church of Saint-Brice in Saint-Mande-sur-Breuer (Fig. 96);

- the Church of St Alban in Saint-Owen-La-Ten (Fig. 97, again obscene plot);

- the Church of Saint-Savinien in Saint-Savinien du Long (Fig. 98);

- the Church of Saint-Gemme in Saint-Gemme (Fig. 99);

- the Church of Saint-Germain in Varese (Fig. 100);

- the Church of Saint-Etienne in Vaux-sur-Mer (Fig. 101).

 

In other zapadnorusskih departments also have developed Romanesque zooantropomorfny decor, and his style is also very diverse. Examples:

Notre-Dame d Awerner in Laval, the Department of Mayenne, pays de La Loire region (Fig. 102);

- the Church in the Abbey of Fontevraud, the Department of Maine et Loire, pays de La Loire region (Fig. 103 - a likely story is reminiscent of the "Samson" in the Cathedral of St. Demetrius, see ill. 104, but the style is quite different).

- the Church in Wowane, Department of Vendee, pays de La Loire region (Fig. 105 - also note the likely story "Samson");

- a Church in La chaise de-Vicomte, the Department of Vendee, pays de La Loire region (Fig. 106).

 

We brought so many examples to show that there is no single Romanesque style decor even within modern Italian province of Lombardy or zapadnogermanskogo of the Department of Charente Maritime, and especially in Northern Italy or Western France as a whole. Therefore, you cannot say that in the decoration of the Vladimir-Suzdal churches responded to any Romanesque regional style.

And look for the hand of a specific foreign masters on a specific element of the Vladimir-Suzdal decor with this amount of diverse information is all the more impossible. The reasons for this are the following.

First, Roman masters everywhere showed creative individuality, their style was unstable, they worked on the template and on their creations can be seen endless variety of hands: not in vain Romanesque sculpture looks so "alive" and "warm". Relative creative stability and recognition hands characteristic of later epochs.

Secondly, if Russia worked foreign masters, then they drove not copy Western counterparts (even performed by them), but to create. That's proved by all history of ancient architecture: since the end in the mid - XII century playback of Byzantine models (not direct, but indirect, as we are unaware of any of the Byzantine Church, which could be perceived as a direct and immediate analogue of old Russian)45 from the invited foreign masters churchwarden always required work in line with the already established at the time of the traditions of Russian architecture, and a masters were free to do is to make the principles and elements of different styles, adopted in their country of origin. (Remember the work of architect Frederick Barbarossa Andrei Bogolyubsky, Aristotle Fioravanti Ivan III, Aleviz New and petroc minor Vasily III, etc).

Third, if the masters were local, then search for specific prototypes even less fruitful, as could be free creativity based on General impressions of the temple decor other countries.

In the fourth place, tracking coming to Russia specific master carvers impossible because Romanesque churches often were built more than a dozen years, and all potential prototypes of Vladimir-Suzdal white stone carvings scattered on the XI-XII centuries, and even earlier eras. For example, the very same O.M. ioannisyan denied direct parish in the North-Eastern Rus craftsmen from Angouleme, as the temporary difference the end zapadnogermanskogo of the temple and began the construction of the Cathedral of St. Demetrius is more than 70 years46), and the stylistic differences of the research were also obvious47. Most temporary difference - 50 years - and with the completion of the temple in Poitiers48.

In addition, we note a small chance that some of the carvers decor, who worked at the provincial (relative to the Holy Roman Empire) churches the Charente Maritime, could be in Russia, together with the Imperial architect, sent by Frederick Barbarossa. Not the level. Yes, and the distance from the Charente, located at the Atlantic coast of France, the Holy Roman Empire, especially to Russia, too. O.M. ioannisyan wrote: "no matter How unrealistic this way may seem, Vsevolod could get masters of Aquitaine"49, but that is only an assumption, not proof.

O.M. ioannisyan assumed that Vsevolod the Big Nest worked masters not only from Western France, Germany, and from Serbia50- but such a position is only the recognition that Vladimir-Suzdal decor - observance, and its origins and prototypes impossible to localize at the level of a country or region. In fact, this position is merely repeats the above-mentioned words of the chronicler of the "masters of all lands". To determine the origin of a particular wizard on a specific element of decoration of Vladimir-Suzdal lands, as we have said, it is impossible, and O.M. ioannisyan, like other researchers, and did not try to do it.

Thus, we see that even in Roman times zooantropomorfny decor was not found anywhere else in the world except Northern Italy, Western France and North-Eastern Russia, still any hypotheses about the origins and the prototypes of the old white-stone temple thread would be considered proved even at the level of the region, not to mention the individual Western European churches.

But the main problem is that in other countries and regions also arranged zooantropomorfnogo temple decoration, often no less, and even more stylistically close to Vladimir-Suzdal than Northern Italian and zapadnobacki. For at least approximately show huge, truly world scale of the decor, it is necessary to attract a large amount of information for many countries of the world.

Overview Romanesque zooantropomorfnogo decor in Northern Italy and Western France, we have already done. Let's move to other countries and regions, where there stylistic affinity decor to Vladimir-Suzdal.

 

Germany, the Federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate, where did you look for the origins of the temple sculpture decoration of North-Eastern Russia N.N. Voronin51 and the A.I. Komech52:

the Imperial Cathedral of Speyer, another variant Russian transcription - Speyer (Fig. 17, 107, 108, 109 - note the similarity of Lviv with the Vladimir-Suzdal; Il. 110 - the decor is somewhat naive, but, for example, in the galleries of the assumption Cathedral in Vladimir we see no less than naive style, see the sludge. 111);

- Mainz Cathedral (Il. 112, 113; 18 - note the similarity of Lviv with the Vladimir-Suzdal;

- Cathedral in Trier (Fig. 114 - note the similarity of a lion with the findings N.A. Artlebena the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl, see ill. 115);

- the Cathedral in worms (Fig. 116).

 

Germany, Bavaria:

- "Scottish" the Church of St. Jacob in Regensburg (Fig. 9, 12, 117, 118, 119);

- the Cathedral of St. Peter in Straubing (Fig. 5, 120);

- the Cathedral in Bamberg (Fig. 121);

- the Cathedral in Freising (Fig. 122);

- the Cathedral in Moosburg (Fig. 123);

- the Church of St. Mary in Windberg-Hunderdorf near Straubing (Fig. 124);

- the Church in Seibersdorf in the area Mühldorf-Inn (Fig. 125 - the recall of the same crosses on the Novgorod temples);

- the Church in Geisenfeld under Inau in the area of Pfaffenhofen an der ILM (Fig. 126, 127, 128 - striking story and compositional similarities with king David at the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl, see ill. 51).

 

Germany, Federal land Saxony-Anhalt:

- the Church of St. Mary in Halberstadt (Fig. 129);

the Benedictine monastery in Groningen, lower Saxony (Fig. 130).

 

Austria:

- the Cathedral of St. Stephen's Cathedral in Vienna (Fig. 131);

- the Church in Rengraben (Fig. 132).

 

France, Alsace region (until the XVII century were part of the Holy Roman Empire):

- the Peter and Paul Church in Sigolsheim (Fig. 7);

- the Church of St. Peter in Avolsheim (Fig. 133);

- the Peter and Paul Church in Rezhime (Fig. 134).

 

South France:

- the Church in Nimes, the Department of the Gard, Languedoc-Roussillon (Fig. 135);

- the Church of St. trophime in Arles, the Department of Bouches-du-Rhone, Provence-Alpes (Fig. 136, 137 - note stylistic affinity griffins, Lviv and images of saints to the relief of St. Demetrius Cathedral);

- Church of Santa Maria de Vallespir in Arles-sur Teich, the Department of the Pyrenees Orientales, Languedoc-Roussillon (Fig. 138);

- the Church in Souillac, the Department of Lot, the region of the Pyrenees (Fig. 139 - note the similarity column unpreserved portal with consoles on the Northern facade of the Cathedral of St. Demetrius, see ill. 140, 141);

- the Church in Moissac, the Department of tarn and Garonne, the region of the Pyrenees (Fig. 142 - rich multi-figure composition, in which you can find analogues of many elements of the Vladimir-Suzdal churches);

- the Church in Conques-EN-Ruark, Department Aveyron, the MIDI-Pyrenees region (Fig. 143 is also rich multi-figure composition with many analogues of the decor of the Vladimir-Suzdal churches);

- the Church of Saint-Gilles-du-Gard in Garda, the capital of the Department of the Gard, Languedoc-Roussillon (Fig. 19).

 

Central France:

- the Church in Saint-Benoit-sur-Loire Department Loiret, Centre region (Fig. 144 - note the similarity of Lviv with the Vladimir-Suzdal);

- the Church of Saint-Exchange in Moulin, Department of Allier, Auvergne region (Fig. 145 - note the similarity of the likely story, "Hercules and Larnaka Hydra" with the corresponding plot of the decor of the Cathedral of St. Demetrius, see ill. 146);

- the Church in Beaulieu-sur-Dordogne, Department of Correze, Limousin region (Fig. 147 - rich multi-figure composition, in which you can find analogues of many elements of the Vladimir-Suzdal churches);

- the Church of St Ur in Loches, the Department of Indre-et-Loire, Centre region (Fig. 148, 149);

 

Eastern France (region of Burgundy):

- the Church of St-Revered in Nevers, Department nièvre (Fig. 14);

- the Church in Otho, Department of Saone et Loire (Fig. 150 - rich multi-figure composition, in which you can find analogues of many elements of the Vladimir-Suzdal churches);

- the Church of Saint-Philibert in Turnu, Department of Saone et Loire (Fig. 151);

- the Church of Saint-Andes in Soulier, a Department of the Gold Coast (Fig. 152);

the Church of Mary Magdalene in Vezelay, the Department of Yonne (Fig. 153 - note the similarity of the likely story "Samson" with the corresponding plot of the decor of the Cathedral of St. Demetrius, see ill. 104; Il. 154 - newly rich multi-figure composition with many analogues of the decor of the Vladimir-Suzdal churches);

- the Church in Anzy-Le-Duc, Department of Saone et Loire (Fig. 155 - note the similarity of the likely story "Fighters" with the corresponding plot of the decor of the Cathedral of St. Demetrius, see ill. 156);

- the Church of Sainte-Genevieve in the Abbey of Cluny (Fig. 157).

 

Italy, region of Tuscany:

- the Church in Arezzo (Fig. 158 - note the similarity of the likely story "Fighters" with the corresponding plot of the decor of the Cathedral of St. Demetrius, see ill. 156);

- the Church of San Caciano in Val di Pesa, near Florence (Fig. 159 - note the similarity column baptismal font with consoles on the Northern facade of the Cathedral of St. Demetrius, see ill. 140, 141);

- the Church in Lucca (Fig. 160);

- the Church of Santa Maria Maggiore in Sovana (Fig. 161);

- the Church of San Andrea in Pistoia (Fig. 162).

Concluding the review of the Italian decor, similar to Vladimir-Suzdal, one cannot fail to recall stored in the Louvre marble antependium VIII-IX centuries of Italian origin (Fig. 163), where the plastic reliefs very similar to the one we see in North-Eastern Russia.

 

England:

- the Church in the Abbey Lester (Fig. 164);

- Cathedral in Hereford, Herefordshire (Fig. 165);

- the Church of St. Mary and David in Cilice, Herefordshire (Fig. 166, 167);

- the Church in the Abbey hill Bridon (Fig. 168);

- the Church in Canterbury (Fig. 169, 170);

- Cathedral in Lincoln (Fig. 171).

It makes sense to bring the image on parchment from English "Bestiary" - "Adam baptizes animals"53 (Fig. 172). Besides the similarities plastic images of Vladimir-Suzdal reliefs, interesting plot, which allows to make certain conclusions about dogmatic justification "baptized" animals in the temple decoration. But, as we have said, the analysis of the stories and iconographic programs decor is beyond the scope of this study.

 

Spain:

- the Cathedral in Santiago Compostela, in the region of Galicia (Fig. 173);

- the Church of San Vicente in Avila, Castile and Leon (Fig. 174, 175);

- the Cathedral of the convent of Santo Domingo in the Silo, in the province of Burgos, Castilla y Leon (Fig. 176);

- Church of Santa Maria La real in Sanguesa, the region of Aragon (Fig. 177 - many-figured composition with close analogues of the decor of the Vladimir-Suzdal churches);

- Cathedral in Pamplona, Navarra (Fig. 178);

- Church of Santa Maria Ripoll, province Girona, the Catalonia region (Fig. 8 - rich multi-figure composition, in which you can find analogues of many elements of the Vladimir-Suzdal churches);

- the Church of San Isidoro in Puerta de Cordero, Leon province, Castile and Leon (Fig. 179 is also rich multi-figure composition with analogues decoration of churches of North-Eastern Russia).

 

Palestine: Jerusalem, Lion's gate (Fig. 180).

Speaking of Palestine, it is impossible not to pay attention to Psalm Queen Melisande, images, which is very similar to the Vladimir-Suzdal reliefs (Fig. 181).

 

Serbia: the Church of the virgin in Studenica (Fig. 182, 183, 184).

 

Byzantium, where, despite the negative attitude of the Orthodox Church to the temple sculptural decoration54such decor occasionally appeared:

the Small Church of the Archdiocese in Athens (Fig. 185);

- the Church of St. Mines in Thessalonica (Fig. 186).

Note also a fragment of decoration of the Archaeological Museum in Istanbul (Fig. 187).

 

Transcaucasia:

- the temple of the Holy cross on Akhtamar island, Armenia (Fig. 188, 189, 190).

- the temple of Watching forces in Zvartnots Armenia (Fig. 191);

the Svetitskhoveli Cathedral in Mtskheta, Georgia (Fig. 192);

- gravestone X-XI centuries, from the village of Cala Korach, Dagestan (Fig. 193 - G. Wagner noted the similarity of the eagle and lion this gravestones decorated Cathedral of St. Demetrius55see Il. 194).

 

India: the Royal Palace VII century proceed to Mahabalipuram, near the city of Chennai, South India (Fig. 195).

 

Iran: the Palace Ardashir I in Naksh-e-Rustam, III century (Fig. 196).

 

In conclusion of our review here are two hypotheses O.M. Ioannisyan, examples of which can again show the impossibility of determining the origins and prototypes decoration of Vladimir-Suzdal churches methods stylistic analysis.

O.M. ioannisyan believed that "carpet" covering the sculptural decoration of facades is the only place in the Cathedral of Notre-Dame-La-Grand in Poitiers (Fig. 11) and in Vladimir-Suzdal56. But such coverage we see on the Scottish Church of St. Jacob in Regensburg (Fig. 9), and the Church of Santa Maria Ripoll (Fig. 8).

The researcher also believed that the "medallions"used in sculptural decoration of the Cathedral in Angouleme (Fig. 32) and in the temples of North-Eastern Russia are "rare admission to a Romanesque facade plastics"57. But in fact, this technique is very common. Thus, the "medallions" we see at the temple in Akhtamar (Fig. 190), churches of San Michele in Pavia (Fig. 197), San Isidoro in Puerta del Cordero (Fig. 179), Santa Maria de Vallespir in Arles-sur Teich (Fig. 138), and even in the book of Psalms Queen Melisande (Fig. 181).

Let's sum up.

We have shown that the decor that "claim" to be the prototype for the decoration of churches of North-Eastern Russia, in some regions and countries. Many temples candidates" are located in Western France and Northern Italy, but the origins and prototypes ancient temple sculptures could be and in any other region. And, for example, Western France seems less probable source than Germany, located much closer to Russia.

But in this case we have no right to even speak about more or less likely that the origins and prototypes decoration of Vladimir-Suzdal churches located in one of the above (or others) regions, and all attempts to identify such sources and prototypes art methods may not be scientifically justified. The reasons for this are the following.

First, that in Northern Italy and Western France remained the most Romanesque temple decoration, 't mean that there was more than just X-XII centuries. In any case, we are dealing only with the decor, which has reached our days, and this is a small part of what existed originally. For example, in Germany the vast majority of Romanesque churches were either completely replaced the Gothic and Baroque, or substantially rebuilt.

Secondly, even if it was not Romanesque decor in any other Western European region, in Northern Italy and Western France, still the possibility of a precise definition of the regions of origin of the Vladimir-Suzdal decor methods stylistic analysis would be 50% (or Northern Italy or Western France). And if to consider not one foreign masters, and two - and Andrey Bogolyubsky and Vsevolod the Big Nest, - the probability would have been 25%.

Of course, the absolute probability of the exact solution of a problem does not exist in any scientific discipline, especially in the history of ancient architecture: for example, even if a particular fact has been documented, it is likely that the compilers of the documents was wrong or deliberately distort the truth. According to the author of this study, in the history of architecture in a scientifically sound can be considered as a fact, proven with probability greater than 90%.

In the latter case, the scientific invalidity of the findings with increased research interest in the problem (in particular, to the problem of the origin of the Vladimir-Suzdal decor) leads to the fact that some version immediately rejected by the other, and the circle is put forward hypotheses constantly and, by and large, fruitless extended (see review earlier in our study).

A similar situation is waiting for researchers when trying to determine the origins and prototypes decoration of churches of Yuri Dolgoruky, decorated only with arcature, curb, carved shafts and crenate belt (Fig. 198). Arcature, curb and carved trees - "observance" decoration, examples of which can be observed on many dozens, if not hundreds of Western European churches. For example, one of the largest churches with the same decor - Cathedral in Speyer (Fig. 199, 200), one of the smallest Church in Oberravelsbach, Bavaria (Fig. 201).

Until recently it was not clear whether there were any architecture other countries analogues crenate belt, but in 2013, the author of this study was accidentally discover this similar to the bell X century Church of San Giovanni Battista in Ravenna (Fig. 202). And since the author's supervision, was it a random (the purpose of the survey temples of Ravenna was different), we must assume that this decoration is in other churches, yet had escaped the attention of domestic researchers. And if we turn to the origins of the form itself crenate belt, then she traced on the gates of Ishtar in ancient Babylon (Fig. 203).

The conclusion from our study can be the following.

There is no doubt that white stone sculptures of the pre-Mongolian churches of the North-Eastern Russia existed in the framework of the world architectural process of its time, and its stylistic and thematic diversity and uniqueness is not inferior to the degree of diversity and uniqueness of the temple decor other countries and regions of the world, and even surpasses it. But finding a specific origins and prototypes of Vladimir-Suzdal decor stylistic methods and any other art analysis scientific prospects has not, and this issue it is recommended to close until documentary evidence.

Theoretical chances of the occurrence of such evidence is stored, because information about the direction of masters to Russia or about the training of old masters abroad could be saved in foreign archives.

 

ILLUSTRATIONS58

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl.

 

Silt. 1. A fragment of decoration of the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the galleries of the assumption Cathedral in Vladimir.

 

Silt. 2. A fragment of decoration of the galleries of the assumption Cathedral in Vladimir.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of St. Demetrius Cathedral in Vladimir.

 

Silt. 3. A fragment of decoration of St. Demetrius Cathedral in Vladimir.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of St. George's Cathedral in Yuryev-Polsky.

 

Silt. 4. A fragment of decoration of St. George's Cathedral in Yuryev-Polsky.

 

 

The portal of the Cathedral of St. Peter in Straubing (Straubing, Germany.

 

Silt. 5. The portal of the Cathedral of St. Peter in Straubing (Straubing, Germany.

 

 

The portal of the Church of San Michele in Pavia (Pavia), Italy.

 

Silt. 6. The portal of the Church of San Michele in Pavia (Pavia), Italy.

 

 

The portal of the Church of Peter and Paul in Sigolsheim (Sigolsheim), Alsace (Alsace), France.

 

Silt. 7. The portal of the Church of Peter and Paul in Sigolsheim (Sigolsheim), Alsace (Alsace), France.

 

 

The facade of the Church of Santa Maria Ripoll (Ripolle), province of Girona-Costa Brava (Gerona, Spain.

 

Silt. 8. The facade of the Church of Santa Maria Ripoll (Ripolle), province of Girona-Costa Brava (Gerona, Spain.

 

 

The facade of "Scottish" the Church of St. Jacob in Regensburg, Germany.

 

Silt. 9. The facade of "Scottish" the Church of St. Jacob in Regensburg, Germany.

 

 

The base of the column in the crypt of the Cathedral in Speyer (Speyer, Germany.

 

Silt. 10. The base of the column in the crypt of the Cathedral in Speyer (Speyer, Germany.

 

 

Cathedral in Poitiers (Poitiers), the Department of Vienne (Vienne), France.

 

Silt. 11. Cathedral in Poitiers (Poitiers), the Department of Vienne (Vienne), France.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of "Scottish" the Church of St. Jacob in Regensburg, Germany.

 

Silt. 12. A fragment of decoration of "Scottish" the Church of St. Jacob in Regensburg, Germany.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church of San Pietro ' Fiori Le Mura in Spoleto (Spoleto), Umbria-Umbria), Italy.

 

Silt. 13. A fragment of decoration of the Church of San Pietro ' Fiori Le Mura in Spoleto (Spoleto), Umbria-Umbria), Italy.

 

 

Small caps in the Church of Saint-Referrer in Nevers (Nevers), Department nièvre (for nièvre), France.

 

Silt. 14. Small caps in the Church of Saint-Referrer in Nevers (Nevers), Department nièvre (for nièvre), France.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church Saint-Genis in Saint-Genis de Fontaine (St-Genis des Fontaines), the Department for the Eastern Pyrenees-Orientales, France.

 

Silt. 15. A fragment of decoration of the Church Saint-Genis in Saint-Genis de Fontaine (St-Genis-des-Fontaines), the Department of the Eastern Pyrenees (Pyrenees-Orientales), France.

 

 

The capital of the columns in the Cathedral in Speyer (Speyer, Germany.

 

Silt. 16. The capital of the columns in the Cathedral in Speyer (Speyer, Germany.

 

 

The window of the Cathedral in Speyer (Speyer, Germany.

 

Silt. 17. The window of the Cathedral in Speyer (Speyer, Germany.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the portal of the Cathedral in Mainz, Mainz, Germany.

 

Silt. 18. A fragment of decoration of the portal of the Cathedral in Mainz, Mainz, Germany.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church of Saint-Gilles-du-Gard in Garda (Gard), the capital of the Department of Gard (Gard, Languedoc-Roussillon (Languedoc-Roussillon).

 

Silt. 19. A fragment of decoration of the Church of Saint-Gilles-du-Gard in Garda (Gard), the capital of the Department of Gard (Gard, Languedoc-Roussillon (Languedoc-Roussillon).

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church of San Andrea in Toscolano Maderno (Toscolano-Maderno), the Lombardy region, Italy.

 

Silt. 20. A fragment of decoration of the Church of San Andrea in Toscolano Maderno (Toscolano-Maderno), the Lombardy region, Italy.

 

 

The capital of the pillar in the Church of San Michele in Pavia (Pavia), Italy.

 

Silt. 21. The capital of the pillar in the Church of San Michele in Pavia (Pavia), Italy.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church of San Michele in Pavia (Pavia), Italy.

 

Silt. 22. A fragment of decoration of the Church of San Michele in Pavia (Pavia), Italy.

 

 

The portal of the Church of San Michele in Pavia (Pavia), Italy.

 

Silt. 23. The portal of the Church of San Michele in Pavia (Pavia), Italy.

 

 

Window of the Church of San of Sant'abbondio in Como, Italy.

 

Silt. 24. Window of the Church of San of Sant'abbondio in Como (Como), Italy.

 

 

Window of the Church of San of Sant'abbondio in Como, Italy.

 

Silt. 25. Window of the Church of San of Sant'abbondio in Como (Como), Italy.

 

 

Small caps in the Cathedral of San Ambrogio in Milan (Milano), Italy.

 

Silt. 26. Small caps in the Cathedral of San Ambrogio in Milan (Milano), Italy.

 

 

Small caps in the Cathedral of San Ambrogio in Milan (Milano), Italy.

 

Silt. 27. Small caps in the Cathedral of San Ambrogio in Milan (Milano), Italy.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Dmitrievsky Cathedral, Vladimir.

 

Silt. 28. A fragment of decoration of the Dmitrievsky Cathedral, Vladimir.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church of Santa Maria in a Benedictine monastery Pomposa near Codigoro (Codigoro), Emilia Romagna (Emilia-Romagna).

 

Silt. 29. A fragment of decoration of the Church of Santa Maria in a Benedictine monastery Pomposa near Codigoro (Codigoro), Emilia Romagna (Emilia-Romagna).

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church in Fidenza (Fidenza), Emilia Romagna (Emilia-Romagna).

 

Silt. 30. A fragment of decoration of the Church in Fidenza (Fidenza), Emilia Romagna (Emilia-Romagna).

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Cathedral of San Marco in Venice (Venezia).

 

Silt. 31. A fragment of decoration of the Cathedral of San Marco in Venice (Venezia).

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Cathedral in Angouleme (main road), the Department of Charente (Charente, Poitou-Charentes (Poitou-Charentes), France.

 

Silt. 32. A fragment of decoration of the Cathedral in Angouleme (main road), the Department of Charente (Charente, Poitou-Charentes (Poitou-Charentes), France.

 

 

The capital of the pillar in the Church of St. Peter in Savigny (Chauvigny), the Department of Vienne (Vienne), France.

 

Silt. 33. The capital of the pillar in the Church of St. Peter in Savigny (Chauvigny), the Department of Vienne (Vienne), France.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Dmitrievsky Cathedral, Vladimir.

 

Silt. 34. A fragment of decoration of the Dmitrievsky Cathedral, Vladimir.

 

 

The portal of the Church of St. Peter in Ohe de Saintonge (Aulnay de Saintonge), the Department of Charente Maritime (Charente-Maritime), France.

 

Silt. 35. The portal of the Church of St. Peter in Ohe de Saintonge (Aulnay de Saintonge), the Department of Charente Maritime (Charente-Maritime), France.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church of St. Peter in Ohe de Saintonge (Aulnay de Saintonge), the Department of Charente Maritime (Charente-Maritime), France.

 

Silt. 36. A fragment of decoration of the Church of St. Peter in Ohe de Saintonge (Aulnay de Saintonge), the Department of Charente Maritime (Charente-Maritime), France.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church of St. Peter in Ohe de Saintonge (Aulnay de Saintonge), the Department of Charente Maritime (Charente-Maritime), France.

 

Silt. 37. A fragment of decoration of the Church of St. Peter in Ohe de Saintonge (Aulnay de Saintonge), the Department of Charente Maritime (Charente-Maritime), France.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church of St. Peter in Fontaine d Osijek (Fontaines d Ozillac), the Department of Charente Maritime (Charente-Maritime), France.

 

Silt. 38. A fragment of decoration of the Church of St. Peter in Fontaine d Osijek (Fontaines dOzillac), the Department of Charente Maritime (Charente-Maritime), France.

 

 

The capital of the pillar in the Church of Saint-Madeleine in Berle (Beurlay), the Department of Charente Maritime (Charente-Maritime), France.

 

Silt. 39. The capital of the pillar in the Church of Saint-Madeleine in Berle (Beurlay), the Department of Charente Maritime (Charente-Maritime), France.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Borisoglebsk Cathedral in Chernihiv.

 

Silt. 40. A fragment of decoration of the Borisoglebsk Cathedral in Chernihiv.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Borisoglebsk Cathedral in Chernihiv.

 

Silt. 41. A fragment of decoration of the Borisoglebsk Cathedral in Chernihiv.

 

 

The carving fragment of the Kyiv-Pechersk Lavra.

 

Silt. 42. The carving fragment of the Kyiv-Pechersk Lavra.

 

 

Column found in Novgorod.

 

Silt. 43. Column found in Novgorod.

 

 

 

Silt. 44. Kiev silver bracelets.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Suzdal Cathedral of the Nativity of the virgin.

 

Silt. 45. A fragment of decoration of the Suzdal Cathedral of the Nativity of the virgin.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of Vladimir assumption Cathedral.

 

Silt. 46. A fragment of decoration of Vladimir assumption Cathedral.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of Vladimir assumption Cathedral.

 

Silt. 47. A fragment of decoration of Vladimir assumption Cathedral.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of Vladimir assumption Cathedral.

 

Silt. 48. A fragment of decoration of Vladimir assumption Cathedral.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of Vladimir assumption Cathedral.

 

Silt. 49. A fragment of decoration of Vladimir assumption Cathedral.

 

 

 

Silt. 50. A fragment of decoration of Vladimir assumption Cathedral.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl.

 

Silt. 51. A fragment of decoration of the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl.

 

Silt. 52. A fragment of decoration of the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl.

 

Silt. 53. A fragment of decoration of the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl.

 

Silt. 54. A fragment of decoration of the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl.

 

 

A fragment of decoration galleries of Vladimir assumption Cathedral.

 

Silt. 55. A fragment of decoration galleries of Vladimir assumption Cathedral.

 

 

A fragment of decoration galleries of Vladimir assumption Cathedral.

 

Silt. 56. A fragment of decoration galleries of Vladimir assumption Cathedral.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Vladimir Cathedral of St. Demetrius

 

Silt. 57. A fragment of decoration of the Vladimir Cathedral of St. Demetrius

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Vladimir Cathedral of St. Demetrius

 

Silt. 58. A fragment of decoration of the Vladimir Cathedral of St. Demetrius

 

 

. The capital of the pillar of the Church of San Michele in Pavia (Pavia), Italy.

 

Silt. 59. The capital of the pillar of the Church of San Michele in Pavia (Pavia), Italy.

 

 

The capital of the pillar of the Church of San Michele in Pavia (Pavia), Italy.

 

Silt. 60. The capital of the pillar of the Church of San Michele in Pavia (Pavia), Italy.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church of San Michele in Pavia (Pavia), Italy.

 

Silt. 61. A fragment of decoration of the Church of San Michele in Pavia (Pavia), Italy.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Cathedral of San Ambrogio in Milan (Milano), Italy.
121

 

Silt. 62. A fragment of decoration of the Cathedral of San Ambrogio in Milan (Milano), Italy.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Cathedral of San Ambrogio in Milan (Milano), Italy.

 

Silt. 63. A fragment of decoration of the Cathedral of San Ambrogio in Milan (Milano), Italy.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Cathedral of San Ambrogio in Milan (Milano), Italy.

 

Silt. 64. A fragment of decoration of the Cathedral of San Ambrogio in Milan (Milano), Italy.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Cathedral in Modena (Modena), Italy.

 

Silt. 65. A fragment of decoration of the Cathedral in Modena (Modena), Italy.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Cathedral in Modena (Modena), Italy.

 

Silt. 66. A fragment of decoration of the Cathedral in Modena (Modena), Italy.

 

 

The portal of the Cathedral in Modena (Modena), Italy.

 

Silt. 67. The portal of the Cathedral in Modena (Modena), Italy.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church of San Zeno at Verona (Verona), Italy.

 

Silt. 68. A fragment of decoration of the Church of San Zeno at Verona (Verona), Italy.

 

 

The capital of the pillar of the Church of San Zeno at Verona (Verona), Italy.

 

Silt. 69. The capital of the pillar of the Church of San Zeno at Verona (Verona), Italy.

 

 

The portal of the Church of San Pietro in Ciel d'oro in Pavia (Pavia), Italy.

 

Silt. 70. The portal of the Church of San Pietro in Ciel d'oro in Pavia (Pavia), Italy.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church of San Francesco in Pavia (Pavia), Italy

 

Silt. 71. A fragment of decoration of the Church of San Francesco in Pavia (Pavia), Italy

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Palace Ragione in Bergamo, Italy

 

Silt. 72. A fragment of decoration of the Palace Ragione in Bergamo (Bergamo), Italy

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church of St. Peter in Fontaine d Osijek (Fontaines d Ozillac), the Department of Charente Maritime (Charente-Maritime), France.

 

Silt. 73. A fragment of decoration of the Church of St. Peter in Fontaine d Osijek (Fontaines dOzillac), the Department of Charente Maritime (Charente-Maritime), France.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church of St. Peter in Fontaine d Osijek (Fontaines d Ozillac), the Department of Charente Maritime (Charente-Maritime), France.

 

Silt. 74. A fragment of decoration of the Church of St. Peter in Fontaine d Osijek (Fontaines dOzillac), the Department of Charente Maritime (Charente-Maritime), France.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church of St. Peter in Fontaine d Osijek (Fontaines d Ozillac), the Department of Charente Maritime (Charente-Maritime), France.

 

Silt. 75. A fragment of decoration of the Church of St. Peter in Fontaine d Osijek (Fontaines dOzillac), the Department of Charente Maritime (Charente-Maritime), France.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church of St. Peter in Fontaine d Osijek (Fontaines d Ozillac), the Department of Charente Maritime (Charente-Maritime), France.

 

Silt. 76. A fragment of decoration of the Church of St. Peter in Fontaine d Osijek (Fontaines dOzillac), the Department of Charente Maritime (Charente-Maritime), France.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church of St. Peter in Ohe de Saintonge (Aulnay de Saintonge), the Department of Charente Maritime (Charente-Maritime), France.

 

Silt. 77. A fragment of decoration of the Church of St. Peter in Ohe de Saintonge (Aulnay de Saintonge), the Department of Charente Maritime (Charente-Maritime), France.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church of St. Peter in Ohe de Saintonge (Aulnay de Saintonge), the Department of Charente Maritime (Charente-Maritime), France.

 

Silt. 78. A fragment of decoration of the Church of St. Peter in Ohe de Saintonge (Aulnay de Saintonge), the Department of Charente Maritime (Charente-Maritime), France.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church of St. Peter in Ohe de Saintonge (Aulnay de Saintonge), the Department of Charente Maritime (Charente-Maritime), France.

 

Silt. 79. A fragment of decoration of the Church of St. Peter in Ohe de Saintonge (Aulnay de Saintonge), the Department of Charente Maritime (Charente-Maritime), France.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church of St. Peter in Benoni (Benon), the Department of Charente Maritime (Charente-Maritime), France.

 

Silt. 80. A fragment of decoration of the Church of St. Peter in Benoni (Benon), the Department of Charente Maritime (Charente-Maritime), France.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church of St. Peter in Benoni (Benon), the Department of Charente Maritime (Charente-Maritime), France.

 

Silt. 81. A fragment of decoration of the Church of St. Peter in Benoni (Benon), the Department of Charente Maritime (Charente-Maritime), France.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church of St. Peter in Benoni (Benon), the Department of Charente Maritime (Charente-Maritime), France.

 

Silt. 82. A fragment of decoration of the Church of St. Peter in Benoni (Benon), the Department of Charente Maritime (Charente-Maritime), France.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church of Notre Dame in Achille (Echillais), the Department of Charente Maritime (Charente-Maritime), France.

 

Silt. 83. A fragment of decoration of the Church of Notre Dame in Achille (Echillais), the Department of Charente Maritime (Charente-Maritime), France.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church of Notre Dame in Achille (Echillais), the Department of Charente Maritime (Charente-Maritime), France.

 

Silt. 84. A fragment of decoration of the Church of Notre Dame in Achille (Echillais), the Department of Charente Maritime (Charente-Maritime), France.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl.

 

Silt. 85. A fragment of decoration of the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church Saint Martin Saint Martin d Anand (Saint-Martin d Esnandes), the Department of Charente Maritime (Charente-Maritime), France.

 

Silt. 86. A fragment of decoration of the Church Saint Martin Saint Martin d Anand (Saint-Martin d'Esnandes), the Department of Charente Maritime (Charente-Maritime), France.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church Saint Martin Saint Martin d Anand (Saint-Martin d Esnandes), the Department of Charente Maritime (Charente-Maritime), France.

 

Silt. 87. A fragment of decoration of the Church Saint Martin Saint Martin d Anand (Saint-Martin d'Esnandes), the Department of Charente Maritime (Charente-Maritime), France.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church of Saint-Etienne in Lakeville (Macqueville), the Department of Charente Maritime (Charente-Maritime), France.

 

Silt. 88. A fragment of decoration of the Church of Saint-Etienne in Lakeville (Macqueville), the Department of Charente Maritime (Charente-Maritime), France.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church of St. Peter in Mareste (Martestay), the Department of Charente Maritime (Charente-Maritime), France.

 

Silt. 89. A fragment of decoration of the Church of St. Peter in Mareste (Martestay), the Department of Charente Maritime (Charente-Maritime), France.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church of the assumption of the virgin Mary in Massage (Massac), the Department of Charente Maritime (Charente-Maritime), France.

 

Silt. 90. A fragment of decoration of the Church of the assumption of the virgin Mary in Massage (Massac), the Department of Charente Maritime (Charente-Maritime), France.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church of Saint-Erie in Mata (Matha), the Department of Charente Maritime (Charente-Maritime), France.

 

Silt. 91. A fragment of decoration of the Church of Saint-Erie in Mata (Matha), the Department of Charente Maritime (Charente-Maritime), France.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church Saint-Saturnin-de-Sexo in Port d Envo (Port d Envaux), the Department of Charente Maritime (Charente-Maritime), France.

 

Silt. 92. A fragment of decoration of the Church Saint-Saturnin-de-Sexo in Port d Envo (Port dEnvaux), the Department of Charente Maritime (Charente-Maritime), France.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church of the assumption of the virgin Mary in Le Sere (Le Seure), the Department of Charente Maritime (Charente-Maritime), France.

 

Silt. 93. A fragment of decoration of the Church of the assumption of the virgin Mary in Le Sere (Le Seure), the Department of Charente Maritime (Charente-Maritime), France.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church of the assumption of the virgin Mary in Surgery (Surgères), the Department of Charente Maritime (Charente-Maritime), France.

 

Silt. 94. A fragment of decoration of the Church of the assumption of the virgin Mary in Surgery (Surgères), the Department of Charente Maritime (Charente-Maritime), France.

 

 

 

Silt. 95. A fragment of decoration of the Church of Saint-constant in Saint-kutan-Le-Grand (Saint-Coutant-le-Grand), the Department of Charente Maritime (Charente-Maritime), France.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church of Saint-Brice in Saint-Mande-sur-Breuer (Saint-Mandé-sur-Brédoire), the Department of Charente Maritime (Charente-Maritime), France.

 

Silt. 96. A fragment of decoration of the Church of Saint-Brice in Saint-Mande-sur-Breuer (Saint-Mandé-sur-Brédoire), the Department of Charente Maritime (Charente-Maritime), France.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church of Saint Alban in Saint-Owen-La-Ten (Saint-Ouen-la-Thène), the Department of Charente Maritime (Charente-Maritime), France.

 

Silt. 97. A fragment of decoration of the Church of Saint Alban in Saint-Owen-La-Ten (Saint-Ouen-la-Thene), the Department of Charente Maritime (Charente-Maritime), France.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church of Saint-Savinien in Saint-Savinien-du-port (Saint-Savinien-du-Port), the Department of Charente Maritime (Charente-Maritime), France.

 

Silt. 98. A fragment of decoration of the Church of Saint-Savinien in Saint-Savinien-du-port (Saint-Savinien-du-Port), the Department of Charente Maritime (Charente-Maritime), France.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church of Saint-Gemme in Saint-Gemme (Sainte Gemme), the Department of Charente Maritime (Charente-Maritime), France.

 

Silt. 99. A fragment of decoration of the Church of Saint-Gemme in Saint-Gemme (Sainte-Gemme), the Department of Charente Maritime (Charente-Maritime), France.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church of Saint-Germain in Varese (Varaize), the Department of Charente Maritime (Charente-Maritime), France.

 

Silt. 100. A fragment of decoration of the Church of Saint-Germain in Varese (Varaize), the Department of Charente Maritime (Charente-Maritime), France.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church of Saint-Etienne in Vaux-sur-Mer (Vaux-sur-Mer), the Department of Charente Maritime (Charente-Maritime), France.

 

Silt. 101. A fragment of decoration of the Church of Saint-Etienne in Vaux-sur-Mer (Vaux-sur-Mer), the Department of Charente Maritime (Charente-Maritime), France.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church of Notre Dame d Awerner in Laval (Laval, Mayenne Department (Mayenne, France.

 

Silt. 102. A fragment of decoration of the Church of Notre Dame d Awerner in Laval (Laval, Mayenne Department (Mayenne, France.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church in the Abbey of Fontevraud (Fontevraud), the Department of Maine et Loire (Maine-et-Loire), France.

 

Silt. 103. A fragment of decoration of the Church in the Abbey of Fontevraud (Fontevraud), the Department of Maine et Loire (Maine-et-Loire), France.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of St. Demetrius Cathedral in Vladimir.

 

Silt. 104. A fragment of decoration of St. Demetrius Cathedral in Vladimir.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church in Wowane (Vouvant), Department of Vendee (Vendée), France.

 

Silt. 105. A fragment of decoration of the Church in Wowane (Vouvant), Department of Vendee (Vendée), France.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of a Church in La chaise de-Vicomte (La-Chaise-de-Viscount), Department of Vendee (Vendée), France.

 

Silt. 106. A fragment of decoration of a Church in La chaise de-Vicomte (La-Chaise-de-Viscount), Department of Vendee (Vendée), France.

 

 

The window of the Cathedral in Speyer (Speyer, Germany.

 

Silt. 107. The window of the Cathedral in Speyer (Speyer, Germany.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Cathedral in Speyer (Speyer, Germany.

 

Silt. 108. A fragment of decoration of the Cathedral in Speyer (Speyer, Germany.

 

 

The window of the Cathedral in Speyer (Speyer, Germany.

 

Silt. 109. The window of the Cathedral in Speyer (Speyer, Germany.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Cathedral in Speyer (Speyer, Germany.

 

Silt. 110. A fragment of decoration of the Cathedral in Speyer (Speyer, Germany.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the galleries of the assumption Cathedral in Vladimir.

 

Silt. 111. A fragment of decoration of the galleries of the assumption Cathedral in Vladimir.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the portal of the Cathedral in Mainz, Mainz, Germany.

 

Silt. 112. A fragment of decoration of the portal of the Cathedral in Mainz,Mainz, Germany.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Cathedral in Mainz, Mainz, Germany.

 

Silt. 113. A fragment of decoration of the Cathedral in Mainz,Mainz, Germany.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Cathedral of Trier (Trire), Germany.

 

Silt. 114. A fragment of decoration of the Cathedral of Trier (Trire), Germany.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of excavations N.A. Artlebena the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl.

 

Silt. 115. A fragment of decoration of excavations N.A. Artlebena the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Cathedral in worms (Worms), Germany

 

Silt. 116. A fragment of decoration of the Cathedral in worms (Worms), Germany

 

 

A fragment of decoration of "Scottish" the Church of St. Jacob in Regensburg, Germany.

 

Silt. 117. A fragment of decoration of "Scottish" the Church of St. Jacob in Regensburg (Regensburg, Germany.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of "Scottish" the Church of St. Jacob in Regensburg, Germany.

 

Silt. 118. A fragment of decoration of "Scottish" the Church of St. Jacob in Regensburg (Regensburg, Germany.

 

 

The capital of the column in the Scottish Church of St. Jacob in Regensburg, Germany.

 

Silt. 119. The capital of the column in the Scottish Church of St. Jacob in Regensburg (Regensburg, Germany.

 

 

Fragment of the portal of the Cathedral of St. Peter in Straubing (Straubing, Germany.

 

Silt. 120. Fragment of the portal of the Cathedral of St. Peter in Straubing (Straubing, Germany.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Cathedral in Bamberg (Bamberg, Germany.

 

Silt. 121. A fragment of decoration of the Cathedral in Bamberg (Bamberg, Germany.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Cathedral in Freising, Freising, Germany.

 

Silt. 122. A fragment of decoration of the Cathedral in Freising,Freising, Germany.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Cathedral in Moosburg (Moosburg, Germany.

 

Silt. 123. A fragment of decoration of the Cathedral in Moosburg (Moosburg, Germany.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church of St. Mary in Windberg-Hunderdorf (Windberg-Hunderdorf) near Straubing (Straubing, Germany.

 

Silt. 124. A fragment of decoration of the Church of St. Mary in Windberg-Hunderdorf (Windberg-Hunderdorf) near Straubing (Straubing, Germany.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church in Seibersdorf (Reibersdorf) in the area Mühldorf-Inn (Muhldorf-Inn), Germany.

 

Silt. 125. A fragment of decoration of the Church in Seibersdorf (Reibersdorf) in the area Mühldorf-Inn (Muhldorf-Inn), Germany.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church in Geisenfeld under Inau in the area of Pfaffenhofen an der ILM (Pfaffenhofen an der Ilm, Germany.

 

Silt. 126. A fragment of decoration of the Church in Geisenfeld under Inau in the area of Pfaffenhofen an der ILM (Pfaffenhofen an der Ilm), Germany.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church in Geisenfeld under Inau in the area of Pfaffenhofen an der ILM (Pfaffenhofen an der Ilm, Germany.

 

Silt. 127. A fragment of decoration of the Church in Geisenfeld under Inau in the area of Pfaffenhofen an der ILM (Pfaffenhofen an der Ilm), Germany.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church in Geisenfeld under Inau in the area of Pfaffenhofen an der ILM (Pfaffenhofen an der Ilm, Germany.

 

Silt. 128. A fragment of decoration of the Church in Geisenfeld under Inau in the area of Pfaffenhofen an der ILM (Pfaffenhofen an der Ilm), Germany.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church of St. Mary in Halberstadt (halbestadt), Germany.

 

Silt. 129. A fragment of decoration of the Church of St. Mary in Halberstadt (halbestadt), Germany.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church of the monastery in Groningen (Groeningen), Germany.

 

Silt. 130. A fragment of decoration of the Church of the monastery in Groningen (Groeningen), Germany.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Cathedral of St. Stephen's Cathedral in Vienna (Wien), Austria.

 

Silt. 131. A fragment of decoration of the Cathedral of St. Stephen's Cathedral in Vienna (Wien), Austria.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church in Rengraben (Schoengrabern), Austria.

 

Silt. 132. A fragment of decoration of the Church in Rengraben (Schoengrabern), Austria.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church in Avolsheim (Avolsheim), Alsace (Alsace), France.

 

Silt. 133. A fragment of decoration of the Church in Avolsheim (Avolsheim), Alsace (Alsace), France.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church in Rezhime (Rosheim), Alsace (Alsace), France.

 

Silt. 134. A fragment of decoration of the Church in Rezhime (Rosheim), Alsace (Alsace), France.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church in Nimes (Nîmes), the Department of the Gard (Gard), France,

 

Silt. 135. A fragment of decoration of the Church in Nimes (Noffmes), the Department of the Gard (Gard), France,

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church of St. trophime in Arles (Arles), the Department of Bouches-du-Rhone (Bouches-du-Rhone), France.

 

Silt. 136. A fragment of decoration of the Church of St. trophime in Arles (Arles), the Department of Bouches-du-Rhone (Bouches-du-Rhone), France.

 

 

The portal of the Church of St. trophime in Arles (Arles), the Department of Bouches-du-Rhone (Bouches-du-Rhone), France.

 

Silt. 137. The portal of the Church of St. trophime in Arles (Arles), the Department of Bouches-du-Rhone (Bouches-du-Rhone), France.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church of Santa Maria de Vallespir in Arles-sur Teich (Arles-sur-Tech), Department of Eastern Pyrenees-Orientales, France.

 

Silt. 138. A fragment of decoration of the Church of Santa Maria de Vallespir in Arles-sur Teich (Arles-sur-Tech), the Department of the Eastern Pyrenees (Pyrenees-Orientales), France.

 

 

Column in the Church in Souillac (Souillac), Department Lot (Lot), France.

 

Silt. 139. Column in the Church in Souillac (Souillac), Department Lot (Lot), France.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of St. Demetrius Cathedral in Vladimir.

 

Silt. 140. A fragment of decoration of St. Demetrius Cathedral in Vladimir.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of St. Demetrius Cathedral in Vladimir.

 

Silt. 141. A fragment of decoration of St. Demetrius Cathedral in Vladimir.

 

 

The portal of the Church in Moissac (Moissac), Department of tarn et Garonne (Tarn-et-Garonne, France.

 

Silt. 142. The portal of the Church in Moissac (Moissac), Department of tarn et Garonne (Tarn-et-Garonne, France.

 

 

The tympanum of the portal of the Church in Conques-EN-Ruark (Conques-en-Rouergue), Department Aveyron (Aveyron), France.

 

Silt. 143. The tympanum of the portal of the Church in Conques-EN-Ruark (Conques-en-Rouergue), Department Aveyron (Aveyron), France.

 

 

The capital of the column in the Church in Saint-Benoit-sur-Loire (Saint-Mademoiselle-sur-Loire), the Department of the Loire Loiret), France.

 

Silt. 144. The capital of the column in the Church in Saint-Benoit-sur-Loire (Saint-Mademoiselle-sur-Loire), the Department of the Loire Loiret), France.

 

 

 

Silt. 145. The capital of the pillar in the Church of Saint-MENA in the Moulin (Moulins), Department of Allier (Allier), France.

 

 

The capital of the pillar in the Church of Saint-MENA in the Moulin (Moulins), Department of Allier (Allier), France.

 

Silt. 146. A fragment of decoration of St. Demetrius Cathedral in Vladimir.

 

 

The tympanum of the portal of the Church in Beaulieu-sur-Dordogne (Beaulieu-sur-Dordogne), Department of Correze (Corrèze), France.

 

Silt. 147. The tympanum of the portal of the Church in Beaulieu-sur-Dordogne (Beaulieu-sur-Dordogne), Department of Correze (Correze), France.

 

 

Fragment of the portal of the Church of Saint-Ur in Loches (Loches), the Department of Indre-et-Loire (Indre et Loire), France.

 

Silt. 148. Fragment of the portal of the Church of Saint-Ur in Loches (Loches), the Department of Indre-et-Loire (Indre et Loire), France.

 

 

The capital of columns the Church of Saint-Ur in Loches (Loches), the Department of Indre-et-Loire (Indre et Loire), France.

 

Silt. 149. The capital of columns the Church of Saint-Ur in Loches (Loches), the Department of Indre-et-Loire (Indre et Loire), France.

 

 

The portal of the Church in Hotton (Autun), Department of Saone et Loire (Saône-et-Loire), France.

 

Silt. 150. The portal of the Church in Hotton (Autun), Department of Saone et Loire (Saône-et-Loire), France.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church of Saint-Philibert in Turnu (Tournus), Department of Saone et Loire (Saône-et-Loire), France.

 

Silt. 151. A fragment of decoration of the Church of Saint-Philibert in Turnu (Tournus), Department of Saone et Loire (Saône-et-Loire), France.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church of Saint-Andes in Soulier (Saulieu), a Department of the Gold Coast (Cote-d'or, France.

 

Silt. 152. A fragment of decoration of the Church of Saint-Andes in Soulier (Saulieu), a Department of the Gold Coast (Côte-d'Or, France.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church of Mary Magdalene in the Abbey of Vezelay (Vézelay), the Department of Yonne (Yonne, France.

 

Silt. 153. A fragment of decoration of the Church of Mary Magdalene in the Abbey of Vezelay (Vézelay), the Department of Yonne (Yonne, France.

 

 

The tympanum of the portal of the Church of Mary Magdalene in the Abbey of Vezelay (Vézelay), the Department of Yonne (Yonne, France.

 

Silt. 154. The tympanum of the portal of the Church of Mary Magdalene in the Abbey of Vezelay (Vézelay), the Department of Yonne (Yonne, France.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church in Anzy-Le-Duc (Anzy-le-Duc), Department of Saone et Loire (Saône-et-Loire), France.

 

Silt. 155. A fragment of decoration of the Church in Anzy-Le-Duc (Anzy-le-Duc), Department of Saone et Loire (Saône-et-Loire), France.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of St. Demetrius Cathedral in Vladimir.

 

Silt. 156. A fragment of decoration of St. Demetrius Cathedral in Vladimir.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church of Sainte-Genevieve in the Abbey of Cluny (Cluny) Department of Saone et Loire (Saône-et-Loire), France.

 

Silt. 157. A fragment of decoration of the Church of Sainte-Genevieve in the Abbey of Cluny (Cluny) Department of Saone et Loire (Saône-et-Loire), France.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church in Arezzo, Italy.

 

Silt. 158. A fragment of decoration of the Church in Arezzo (Arezzo), Italy.

 

 

Column baptismal font from the Church of San Caciano in Val di Pesa (Val di Pesa, near Florence, Italy.

 

Silt. 159. Column baptismal font from the Church of San Caciano in Val di Pesa (Val di Pesa, near Florence, Italy.

 

 

Column in the Church in the city of Luke (Lucca), Italy.

 

Silt. 160. Column in the Church in the city of Luke (Lucca), Italy.

 

 

The tympanum of the portal of the Church of Santa Maria Maggiore in Sovana (Sovana), Italy.

 

Silt. 161. The tympanum of the portal of the Church of Santa Maria Maggiore in Sovana (Sovana), Italy.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church of San Andrea in Pistoia (Pistoia), Italy.

 

Silt. 162. A fragment of decoration of the Church of San Andrea in Pistoia (Pistoia), Italy.

 

 

Marble antependium VIII-IX centuries of Italian origin. The Louvre.

 

Silt. 163. Marble antependium VIII-IX centuries of Italian origin. The Louvre.

 

 

The capital of the column in the Church in the Abbey Lester (Leominster), England.

 

Silt. 164. The capital of the column in the Church in the Abbey Lester (Leominster), England.

 

 

The capital of the column in the Cathedral in Hereford (Hereford, Herefordshire (Why), England.

 

Silt. 165. The capital of the column in the Cathedral in Hereford (Hereford, Herefordshire (Why), England.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church of St. Mary and David in Cilice (Kilpeck), Herefordshire (Why), England.

 

Silt. 166. A fragment of decoration of the Church of St. Mary and David in Cilice (Kilpeck), Herefordshire (Why), England.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church of St. Mary and David in Cilice (Kilpeck), Herefordshire (Why), England.

 

Silt. 167. A fragment of decoration of the Church of St. Mary and David in Cilice (Kilpeck), Herefordshire (Why), England.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church in the Abbey hill Bridon (Hill Breedon), England.

 

Silt. 168. A fragment of decoration of the Church in the Abbey hill Bridon (Hill Breedon), England.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church in the Abbey hill Bridon (Hill Breedon), England.

 

Silt. 169. A fragment of decoration of the Church in the Abbey hill Bridon (Hill Breedon), England.

 

 

Cap pillars of the Church in Canterbury (Canterbury), England.

 

Silt. 170. Cap pillars of the Church in Canterbury (Canterbury), England.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Cathedral in Lincoln (Lincoln), England.

 

Silt. 171. A fragment of decoration of the Cathedral in Lincoln (Lincoln), England.

 

 

Adam baptizes animals. The parchment from English "Bestiary".

 

Silt. 172. Adam baptizes animals. The parchment from English "Bestiary".

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Cathedral in Santiago Compostela (Compostela), the region of Galicia (Galicia, Spain.

 

Silt. 173. A fragment of decoration of the Cathedral in Santiago Compostela (Compostela), the region of Galicia (Galicia, Spain.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church of San Vicente in Avila (Avila), Castile and Leon (Castilla y Leon), Spain.

 

Silt. 174. A fragment of decoration of the Church of San Vicente in Avila (I partvila), Castile and Leon (Castilla y Leon), Spain.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Cenotaph in the Church of San Vicente in Avila (Avila), Castile and Leon (Castilla y Leon), Spain.

 

Silt. 175. A fragment of decoration of the Cenotaph in the Church of San Vicente in Avila (I partvila), Castile and Leon (Castilla y Leon), Spain.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Cathedral of the convent of Santo Domingo in the Silo (Silos), in the province of Burgos (Burgos), the region of Castile and Leon (Castilla y Leon), Spain.

 

Silt. 176. A fragment of decoration of the Cathedral of the convent of Santo Domingo in the Silo (Silos), in the province of Burgos (Burgos), the region of Castile and Leon (Castilla y Leon), Spain.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church of Santa Maria La real in Sanguesa (Sanguesa), the region of Aragon (Aragon, Spain.

 

Silt. 177. A fragment of decoration of the Church of Santa Maria La real in Sanguesa (Sanguesa), the region of Aragon (Aragon, Spain.

 

 

The capital of the column in the Cathedral in Pamplona (Pamplona, Navarra (Navarre, Spain.

 

Silt. 178. The capital of the column in the Cathedral in Pamplona (Pamplona, Navarra (Navarre), Spain.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church of San Isidoro in Puerta de Cordero (Puerta del Cordero, province of Leon (León), Castile and Leon (Castilla y Leon), Spain.

 

Silt. 179. A fragment of decoration of the Church of San Isidoro in Puerta de Cordero (Puerta del Cordero, province of Leon (León), Castile and Leon (Castilla y Leon), Spain.

 

 

The decor of the Lion's gate. Jerusalem. Israel.

 

Silt. 180. The decor of the Lion's gate. Jerusalem. Israel.

 

 

Psalm Queen Melisende. Israel.

 

Silt. 181. Psalm Queen Melisende. Israel.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church of the virgin in Studenica, Serbia.

 

Silt. 182. A fragment of decoration of the Church of the virgin in Studenica, Serbia.

 

 

Silt. 183. A fragment of decoration of the Church of the virgin in Studenica, Serbia.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church of the virgin in Studenica, Serbia.

 

Silt. 184. A fragment of decoration of the Church of the virgin in Studenica, Serbia.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church Small Metropolis in Athens, Greece.

 

Silt. 185. A fragment of decoration of the Church Small Metropolis in Athens, Greece.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church of St. Mines in Thessaloniki, Greece.

 

Silt. 186. A fragment of decoration of the Church of St. Mines in Thessaloniki, Greece.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the unknown Church on the territory of Asia Minor. The archeological Museum in Istanbul. Turkey.

 

Silt. 187. A fragment of decoration of the unknown Church on the territory of Asia Minor. The archeological Museum in Istanbul. Turkey.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of a temple of the Holy cross on Akhtamar island, Armenia.

 

Silt. 188. The facade of the temple of the Holy cross on Akhtamar island, Armenia.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of a temple of the Holy cross on Akhtamar island, Armenia.

 

Silt. 189. A fragment of decoration of a temple of the Holy cross on Akhtamar island, Armenia.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of a temple of the Holy cross on Akhtamar island, Armenia.

 

Silt. 190. A fragment of decoration of a temple of the Holy cross on Akhtamar island, Armenia.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the temple of Watching forces in Zvartnots Armenia.

 

Silt. 191. A fragment of decoration of the temple of Watching forces in Zvartnots Armenia.

 

 

The facade of the temple of Svetitskhoveli in Mtskheta, Georgia.

 

Silt. 192. The facade of the temple of Svetitskhoveli in Mtskheta, Georgia.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the gravestones of X-XI centuries in the village of Cala Korach, Dagestan.

 

Silt. 193. A fragment of decoration of gravestones X-XI cc. in the village of Cala Korach, Dagestan.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of St. Demetrius Cathedral in Vladimir.

 

Silt. 194. A fragment of decoration of St. Demetrius Cathedral in Vladimir.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Royal Palace of the VII century, proceed to Mahabalipuram, near the city of Chennai, India.

 

Silt. 195. A fragment of decoration of the Royal Palace VII century proceed to Mahabalipuram, near the city of Chennai, India.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Palace Ardashir I Naksh-e-Rustam, III century Iran.

 

Silt. 196. A fragment of decoration of the Palace Ardashir I in Naksh-e-Rustam, III century Iran.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Church of San Michele in Pavia (Pavia), Italy.

 

Silt. 197. A fragment of decoration of the Church of San Michele in Pavia (Pavia), Italy.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Transfiguration Cathedral in Pereslavl-Zalessky.

 

Silt. 198. A fragment of decoration of the Transfiguration Cathedral in Pereslavl-Zalessky.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Cathedral in Speyer (Speyer, Germany.

 

Silt. 199. A fragment of decoration of the Cathedral in Speyer (Speyer, Germany.

 

 

A fragment of decoration of the Cathedral in Speyer (Speyer, Germany.

 

Silt. 200. A fragment of decoration of the Cathedral in Speyer (Speyer, Germany.

 

 

The Church in Oberravelsbach (Oberrehrensbach), Bavaria

 

Silt. 201. The Church in Oberravelsbach (Oberrehrensbach), Bavaria

 

 

Belfry of the Church of San Giovanni Battista in Ravenna, Italy.

 

Silt. 202. Belfry of the Church of San Giovanni Battista in Ravenna, Italy.

 

 

Babylonian Ishtar gate (the Bode Museum, Berlin).

 

Silt. 203. Babylonian Ishtar gate (the Bode Museum, Berlin).

 

 

NOTES

 

1. After the Mongol invasion zooantropomorfny decor was arranged only sporadically (see Zagraevsky SV Architecture of North-Eastern Russia the end of the XIII century to the first third of the XIV century. M., 2003.)

2. Message NR. Tatishchev on the construction of the assumption Cathedral in Vladimir is: "On making Bo him (Andrew Bogolyubsky - SZ) Dadi him God masters for the construction thereof, of the smart lands that were built and adorned her way over all churches... stavshemu in Vladimir structure, and above the gate of the city seems that the architect was sufficient. The far caves of the ancient buildings are very few, and repair of new very canceled. The Church, of course, must be preimuschestvovat. But as aforesaid, after nikakim bricklayer of perestraivaya, now has no sign of architectural science in it. IV (VI - SZ). Hsieh also mentions ambassadors from the Caesar's and architects sent than friendship says this". (Tatischev V.N. History Of Russia. So 3. M.-Leningrad, 1964. C. 244-245 (notes on the second part of the history of Russian [Chapter 20 [22]th, 483]); C. 253 [Chapter 22 [31]th, 547]; also see: Tatischev V.N. History of Russia since the most ancient times. M., 1768-SPb, 1784. KN. 3. C. 127, 487, 500; also see: Tatischev V.N. History Of Russia. M., 2005. So 2. C. 319, 687, 703. In the 2005 edition of the text partially and not always justified modernized). Fidelity information V.N. Tatishchev the author of this study showed here: Zagraevsky SV Architect Frederick Barbarossa. In collected articles: "the Praises worthy...". Andrey Bogolyubsky in Russian history and culture.

3. Voronin N.N. The architecture of North-Eastern Russia XII-XV centuries. M., 1961-1962. So 1. C. 329-342.

4. The A.I. Komech Architecture of Vladimir 1150-1180's. Artistic nature and Genesis of the "Russian romanik. In the book. Old Russian art. Russia and the countries of the Byzantine world. XII century. SPb, 2002. C. 232-254.

5. O.M. ioannisyan Vladimir-Suzdal architecture and Lombard Romanesque. In the book: The 2000 anniversary of Christianity. The Byzantine world: the art of Constantinople and national traditions. Abstracts of the international conference. SPb, 2000. C. 19-24; O.M. ioannisyan Romanesque origins of the architecture of Vladimir-Suzdal time of Andrei Bogolyubsky (Germany or Italy?). In the book: The Byzantine world: the art of Constantinople and national traditions. The 2000 anniversary of Christianity. SPb., 2005. C. 31-69.

6. Zagraevsky SV Architect Frederick Barbarossa... S. 190.

7. PSRL 1:351.

8. Wagner G.K. Sculpture of Ancient Russia XII century Vladimir, Bogolyubovo. M., 1969. C. 8-35.

9. Smooth MS Reliefs Dmitrievsky Cathedral in Vladimir. The experience of integrated research. M., 2009. C. 12-15.

10. Dobrokhotov V.I. Monuments of antiquity in Vladimir Klasiskam. M., 1849.

11. Viollet Le Duc EE Russian art, its sources, its constituent elements, its highest development, its future. M., 1879;

12. Halle F. Die Bauplastik von Wladimir-Ssusdal. Russische Romanik. Berlin, 1929.

13. I.A. Orbeli Albanian reliefs and bronze cauldrons XII-XIII centuries In the book: I.A. Orbeli Selected works. Yerevan, 1963. C. 354-361.

14. Lelekov L.A. art of the Ancient Russia and the East. M., 1978.

15. Hakobyan Z.A. the Image of "Paradise" in the external decoration of the monuments of medieval Armenia and Ancient Russia. In the book: The fifth conference in memory of Professor Kotereva. Moscow, October 30-31 2007. M., 2007.

16. Mansvetov I.D. On the question about the architecture of XII century in Suzdal Principality. In the book: Proceedings of the I Archaeological Congress in Moscow 1869. M., 1871. C. 272-276.

17. Stasov V.V. works. St. Petersburg, 1894. So 1.

18. Pokryshkin P.P. Orthodox Church architecture of XII-XIII centuries in the current Serbian Kingdom. St. Petersburg, 1906.

19. The Buslaev FI Historical essays on Russian ornament in the manuscripts. PG, 1917.

20. Nekrasov A.I Of the Suzdal-Vladimir impressions. In Proc.: Among collectors. M., 1924. 5-6. C. 33-40.

21. Halle F. The decree. cit.

22. Grabar A.N. The secular art of the pre-Mongol Rus ' and "the Word about Igor's regiment". M-Leningrad, 1962. C. 233-271.

23. L.V. dal On the question about the architecture of XII century In Suzdal Principality. In the book: Proceedings of the I Archaeological Congress in Moscow 1869. M., 1871. C. 277-281; L.V. Dal Historical study of the monuments of Russian architecture. In collection: the Architect, 1875. 11-12. C. 132-134.

24. N.V. Sultanov Russian architecture in the Western assessment. In collection: the Architect, 1880. 1-2. C. 6-12.

25. Peacocks A.M. the History of Russian architecture. M., 1894.

26. Fishermen B.A. in Applied art and sculpture. In the book: History of culture of Ancient Russia. M-Leningrad, 1951. So 2. C. 396-464.

27. Lazarev V. N.. Sculpture Of Vladimir-Suzdal Russia. In the book: The history of Russian art. M., 1953. T 1. C. 396-441.

28. Alpatov M.V. General history of art. M., 1955. So 3. 65-91.

29. Wagner G.K. Sculpture of Ancient Rus...

30. Stroganov YEAR Demetrius Cathedral in Vladimir (on Klyazma). M., 1849.

31. Artleben N.A. On the question about the architecture of XII century in Suzdal Principality. In the book: Proceedings of the I Archaeological Congress in Moscow 1869. M., 1871. So 1. C. 288-289.

32. Bykovsky A.M. Ancient Russian art - architecture. Speech at the session II, Department of Archaeological Congress. In the book: Proceedings of the I Archaeological Congress in Moscow 1869. M., 1871. Section VII.

33. A.S. Uvarov View of architecture of XII century in Suzdal Principality. In the book: Proceedings of the I Archaeological Congress in Moscow 1869. M., 1871. C. 252-271.

34. I.I. Tolstoy, N.P. Kondakov Russian antiquity in the art. Monuments of Vladimir, Novgorod and Pskov. St. Petersburg, 1899. Vol. 6.

35. DMITRY Berezhkov. About the churches of Vladimir-Suzdal Principality (XII-XIII centuries). Vladimir on Klyazma. Vladimir, 1903.

36. Voronin N.N. The decree. cit.

37. The A.I. Komech Architecture of Vladimir 1150-1180's. Artistic nature and Genesis of the "Russian romanik. In the book: Old Russian art. Russia and the countries of the Byzantine world, xii century. SPb, 2002. C. 231-254.

38. Ioannisyan O.M. Romanesque architecture of Lombardy and of the architecture of Vladimir-Suzdal Russia (to the question of the origin of the masters of Andrei Bogolyubsky). In the book: Scientific conference in memory of M. A. Gook. St. Petersburg, 1998. C. 27-28; O.M. ioannisyan Vladimir-Suzdal architecture and Lombard Romanesque... S. 19-23; O.M. ioannisyan Romanesque origins of the architecture of Vladimir-Suzdal... S. 47-65.

39. The A.I. Komech Architecture of Vladimir...

40. O.M. ioannisyan TO the question of the origin of the masters of the Dmitrievsky Cathedral in Vladimir. In the book: The works of Russian history: the collection of articles in memory of the 60th anniversary of Igor V. Dubova. M., 2007. C. 277-315.

41. Gordin A.M. TO the question about the origins of the Vladimir white-stone carving. In collected articles: "the Praises worthy...". Andrey Bogolyubsky in Russian history and culture. International scientific conference. Vladimir, 5-6 July 2011. Vladimir, 2013. C. 178.

42. Ibid.

43. Ioannisyan O.M. Romanesque architecture of Lombardy and of the architecture of Vladimir-Suzdal Russia... S. 27-28; O.M. ioannisyan Vladimir-Suzdal architecture and Lombard Romanesque... S. 19-23; O.M. ioannisyan Romanesque origins of the architecture of Vladimir-Suzdal... S. 47-65.

44. Ioannisyan O.M. Romanesque architecture of Lombardy and of the architecture of Vladimir-Suzdal Russia... S. 27-28.

45. For more information, see: A.I. Komech in Ancient Russian architecture of the end of X-the beginning of XII century Byzantine heritage and the development of independent traditions. M., 1987; Zagraevsky SV Typological formation and basic classification of the old Russian Church architecture. M., 2012.

46. O.M. ioannisyan TO the question of the origin of the masters of the Dmitrievsky Cathedral... S. 289.

47. Ibid.

48. Ibid. C. 292.

49. Ibid. C. 305.

50. Ibid.

51. Voronin N.N. The decree. back With. 329-342.

52. The A.I. Komech Architecture of Vladimir... With. 231-254.

53. Romanische Kunst. London, 1995. C. 179.

54. More info about the dogmatic party decorations Christian churches sculptural decoration and the rejection of the Orthodox Church zooantropomorfnogo temple decor as in Byzantium and in Russia in the Yuri Dolgoruky, see: Zagraevsky SV Yuri Dolgoruky and old white-stone architecture. M., 2002. C. 114-139.

55. Wagner G.K. Sculpture of Ancient Rus... S. 30.

56. O.M. ioannisyan TO the question of the origin of the masters of the Dmitrievsky Cathedral... S. 292.

57. Ibid. C. 287.

58. Sources of the illustrations are: photographs of the author of this study; Wagner G.K. Sculpture of Ancient Rus...; Voronin N.N. The architecture of North-Eastern Russia...; Die Kunst der Romanik. Koeln, 1996; Romanische Kunst. London, 1995; O.M. ioannisyan TO the question of the origin of the masters of the Dmitrievsky Cathedral...; Balloon Delaunay S.A. Men and stones North-Eastern Russia. XII century. M., 2007; zvezdina YU.N. Time cycles in the decoration of the French Basil. In the book: The art of the Christian world. Sat. articles. Vol. 11. M., 2009. C. 110-120; Pucko V.G. Sujet zobrazena ornamental reasons shall be given in hudojnika remesl Kiev XI-XIII century In the book: Material that spiritual culture Pivdenno Rusi. Proc. of International polovogo archeologicznego school, privezennogo 100-LTU from day narodjennja V.. Dovzhanka (Cherng - Shestovitsa, 16 - 19 Lipno 2009 R.). Kyiv - Cherng, 2012. C. 122-130; informational web sites.

 

 

Sergey Zagraevsky

 

To the page Scientific works

To the main page