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Prof. Dr. S.V. Zagraevsky

 

Redetermination of the reconstruction of Golden Gate in Vladimir

 

 

Published in Russian: .. . : www.rusarch.ru ( ), 2015 .

 

 

Annotation

 

The article studies the issues of the original form of Golden Gate in Vladimir and of the adjacent walls and shafts, offers two variants of their graphic reconstruction.

 

 

Attention!

The following text was translated from the Russian original by the computer program

and has not yet been edited.

So it can be used only for general introduction.

 RUSSIAN VERSION

 

Golden gate was located on the West side of the fortifications of Vladimir, the construction of which began in 11581 (Fig. 12). The Church of deposition of the robe, situated on the Golden gate, was consecrated in 11643. Accordingly, we can follow NN Voronin4 to date the Golden gate (and still not come down to us from Vladimir gate times of Andrei Bogolyubsky) that time period.

 

The plan of Vladimir XII-XIII century (by N.N. Voronin)
 The numbers on the plan identifies: I - the town of Monomakh (Picerni city); II - Vecanoi city; III - the New city; IV - the citadel; 1 - Church of the Saviour; 2 - the Church of St. George; 3 - the assumption Cathedral; 4 - the Golden gate; 5 - Originy gate; 6 - gates of Brass; 7 - Silver gate; 8 - Volga gate; 9 - Demetrius Cathedral; 10 - ascension monastery; 11 - Christmas monastery; 12 - Uspensky (the Princess) monastery; 13 - Trading gate; 14 - t gate; 15 - the gates of the citadel; 16 - the Church of the exaltation on Bargaining.

 

Fig. 1. The plan of Vladimir XII-XIII century (by N.N. Voronin)

 The numbers on the plan identifies: I - the city of Monomakh (Picerni city); II - Vecanoi city; III - the New city; IV - the citadel; 1 - Church of the Saviour; 2 - the Church of St. George; 3 - the assumption Cathedral; 4 - the Golden gate; 5 - Originy gate; 6 - gates of Brass; 7 - Silver gate; 8 - Volga gate; 9 - Demetrius Cathedral; 10 - ascension monastery; 11 - Christmas monastery; 12 - Uspensky (the Princess) monastery; 13 - Trading gate; 14 - Ivanovskit gate; 15 - the gates of the citadel; 16 - the Church of the exaltation on Bargaining.

 

Gate Rizpolozhenskaya the Church was repaired in 1691-1695 years and was completely rebuilt in 1795-1810 years (the history of these repairs and reconstructions, which was passed the top of the arch and added decorative corner towers, discussed in detail in the works of N.N. Voronin5 and TP Timofeeva6). In the end, from the ancient Golden gate, only the principal amount of travel arch.

General view of the Golden gate shown in Fig. 2 of the plan and the section on the stairs of the southern wall - Fig. 37, axonometric view on Fig. 48.

 

The Golden gate in Vladimir. General view.

 

Fig. 2. The Golden gate in Vladimir. General view.

 

The Golden gate. Section and plan.

 

Fig. 3. The Golden gate. Section and plan.

 

The Golden gate. Axonometric view.

 

Fig. 4. The Golden gate. Axonometric view.

 

On an absolutely fair words Voronin, Golden gates at the same time "allowed the military engineering tasks and purely architectural plan - high triumphal arch in the city, introducing his princes-the aristocratic part"9.

Indeed, the passage arch has a huge excess height - 14 m (taking into account the fact that to date, the Golden gate "rooted in the ground" about 1.5 m)10. For the purposes of fortification under the arch had to arrange a wooden gallery, which significantly reduces the reliability of strengthening. Note that some part of the buildings immediately after construction collapsed: according to the Personal annalistic code of the XVI century and the later Life of Andrei Bogolyubsky, it was part of the arch11and according to "the Tale of miracles of the icon of our lady of Vladimir", fell only portal sites12.

However, compared with the surrounding wooden and earthern fortifications of Vladimir (the XIII century already very old, typologically similar fortifications of ancient Gauls, who massively took Caesar13) high white-stone Golden gate was such a powerful feudal structure that in 1238 the Mongols chose not to attack them, and to break through the wall close to14.

According to Tatischev, the Golden gates were built by the masters sent by Frederick Barbarossa15. It is characteristic that in the pre-Mongolian time when the major trading posts were carried out not on the roads and rivers, decorations for the Golden gate entrance to the city is not from the Klyazma, but directly from Western Europe. In this difficult not to notice some symbolic concept, confirming the Imperial ambitions of Grand Prince Andrey Bogolyubsky.

The bulk of the Golden gate consists of two white stone walls with blades on the inside, turning in the arch. These walls around 17 m, thickness from 1.5 to 3 m, the initial height is about 15 m the overall width of the building reaches 15 m. Blades end cornices with the profile in the form of a double shaft with shelf. In the side walls of the buildings are carved a niche with the arched over. In the South wall is a staircase that led to the battle site gates and city walls (see Fig. 3).

The monument is built of white stone of average quality (more porous and yellow than the one of the temples of Dolgoruky and the Cathedral of the assumption of Andrei Bogolyubsky). It is treated somewhat coarser than the listed stone temples, but still at a very high level. The vaults of the niches in the side walls of the Golden gate made of light porous tufa16.

Let us consider the reconstruction of the original form of the Golden gate in conjunction with the city walls and ramparts.

In the twentieth century were offered two reconstruction: "scientific" (architect AV century, Fig. 517) and "popular science"which is a diorama "Storm of Vladimir by the army of Batu Khan in February 1238" (author - artist ei deshalyt, Fig. 618).

 

The Golden gate. Reconstruction AV Stoletov.

 

Fig. 5. The Golden gate. Reconstruction AV Stoletov.

 

The Golden gate. Reconstruction E.I. Deshalyt.

 

Fig. 6. The Golden gate. Reconstruction E.I. Deshalyt.

 

It should be noted that the author of the second reconstruction more seriously approached the reconstruction of the city walls and side walls of the Golden gate (AV century, unlike E.I. deshalyt, not depicted on the shafts city walls, under the arch of the gate - additional combat ground, and the door leading to the battle sites of the city walls, greatly raised about its real location). As we will see later, ei deshalyt more adequately reproduced and the height of the trees.

The advantage of the reconstruction of AV Stoletov is more accurate reproduction of the size and proportions of the gate of the temple: the researcher has represented the Church of deposition of the robe is almost the same as it is shown on the drawing Berk and Gusev 1779 (Fig. 7 and 8), is relatively large (which occupies almost the entire upper platform of the gate), four-column one-dome, trehapsidnoy, its forms of repeating the temples of Yuri Dolgoruky.

 

The Golden gate. Drawing by Berk and Guseva. General view.

 

Fig. 7. The Golden gate. Drawing by Berk and Guseva. General view.

 

The Golden gate. Drawing by Berk and Guseva. The plans.

 

Fig. 8. The Golden gate. Drawing by Berk and Guseva. The plans.

 

The same Church, though shown much more conventionally, we see on the detected TP Timofeeva figure 1764, depicting the Golden gate with Rizpolozhensky Church19 (Fig. 9). The researcher showed that this drawing as a drawing Berk and Gusev, reproduces the pre-Mongol gate Church20.

 

Golden gate by drawing in 1764.

 

Fig. 9. Golden gate by drawing in 1764.

 

But in regard to the height of trees and walls, adjacent to the Golden gate, both reconstructions require major revisions.

On the reconstruction of AV Stoletov we see shafts height of about 11 m. Apparently, the researcher proceeded from approximation profile nearby Kozlov shaft (calculated height of about 9 m relatively modern surface21 adjusted for the fact that the building of the Golden gate "rooted in the ground" about 1.5 m).

It turns out that the top of the shaft was much higher battle site, hosted on the floor in the doorway arches at the height of about 6 m (respectively, in pre-Mongol times - about 7.5 m). In this case, it is unclear purpose brick doorway in front of the exit to the combat ground under the arch with an average platforms stairs, as this doorway leading into the thickness of the embankment of the shaft (it was paid attention Voronin22).

On the reconstruction of E.I. deshalyt we see lower ramparts (about 8 m), but in this case, the specified doorway is below combat areas of the walls.

Our position on this issue comes from the fact that many of the extant city walls, traditionally considered to be the pre-Mongolian, resulting in numerous sprinklings of the soil in the XV-XVII centuries has received much their increased height than in pre-Mongol times. Here are some examples:

inside the shaft in Suzdal near ancient Ilyinsky gate (extrapolated current height is more than 6 m) pre-Mongolian rampart was only at a height of 1.5 m23;

- the initial height of the shafts of Dmitrov was 1.5-2 m extrapolated current height of 18 m24;

- the initial height of the shafts Peniscola (Smotrokovsky) town of XV century was 2.4 mand in our time it is approximately 4 m25;

- shafts of Pinsk in the final period of their existence had a height of up to 18-20 m, and in the start - 3 m26;

- traces of numerous sprinklings the author observed in 2003 in the context of the shaft in Przemysl Moscow.

In many cases pre-Mongolian trees, if they continue not podtipa were generally disappeared from the face of the earth, even if around in the new time was not conducted no more or less intensive construction works (as in Kideksha, Vyshgorod Yakhroma, Gorodnya Tver region, Kamenskoye Naro-Fominsk district of the Moscow region and others in order)27.

Apparently, in comparison with the pre-Mongol times were significantly spiked and city walls of Vladimir (in particular, we know the repair of the walls in 1536, as well as walls and trees in 1670-1674 years28). And laid the doorway of the Golden gate just tells us the level of combat areas of the city walls in the pre-Mongolian time is not wasted on average the stairs of the Golden gate, where it was hybrid into two streams of people (with city walls and battle site), there was a significant bell white-stone walls29.

Since we do not know the height of walls (cages, Tarasov), shaped the city walls, we can determine the height of the shaft only approximately. If to take the height of the walls for 1.5-2 m, the height of the shaft from the base of the gate did not exceed 4.5 m (to clarify these figures may new archaeological research Kozlov rampart of the Golden gate).

Thus, we have the right to make changes in the reconstruction of AV Stoletov and E.I. deshalyt and offer two images of the Golden gate in our reconstruction.

In the first, shown in Fig. 10, we took the reconstruction AV Stoletov. In accordance with the foregoing provisions, we have changed the height of the trees and marked by the dashed line of the city walls and fortifications of additional combat area under the arch of the gate.

 

The Golden gate. Reconstruction of the author (option).

 

Fig. 10. The Golden gate. Reconstruction of the author (option).

 

The second image of the Golden gate in our reconstruction (Fig. 11) based on the reconstruction of E.I. deshalyt. We have increased the size of the gate of the Church of deposition of the robe, drawing it closer proportion to the reconstruction of AV Stoletov, downgraded the city walls, closed by a wooden wall the combat area under the arch of the gate, depicted ditches (reconstruction E.I. deshalyt had not been considered) and "razmeshanny" in connection with the siege of the bridge leading to the gate.

 

The Golden gate. Reconstruction of the author (option).

 

Fig. 11. The Golden gate. Reconstruction of the author (option).

 

In our reconstruction of Golden gate on the background of lower city fortifications are much higher and more monumental; the gate Church of the deposition, ascended to a height of about 15 m (about the height of the apses of Vladimir assumption Cathedral, on 6-7 m above the city walls, literally flying over the city. Accordingly, the building has become even more "Grand" appearance, is fully consistent with the Imperial ambitions of Andrei Bogolyubsky.

 

NOTES

 

1. PSRL 9:211.

2. Voronin. The architecture of North-Eastern Russia XII-XV centuries. M., 1961. So 2, 129 S..

3. PSRL 1:351; 7:77.

4. Voronin. The decree. cit., S. 132.

5. Ibid., C. 135-138.

6. T.P. Timofeeva. The Golden gate in Vladimir. M., 2002 (hereinafter - Timofeeva, 2002). C. 29-54.

7. Voronin. The decree. cit., S. 139.

8. Ibid., C. 137.

9. Ibid., C. 145.

10. Ibid., C. 138.

11. Ibid., C. 134.

12. PSRL 21:2:424-440; Vaucluse. The tale of miracles of the Vladimir icon of the Mother of God. St. Petersburg, 1878.

13. Information obtained on the forum web site http://twow.ru.

14. PSRL 7:141.

15. "By remaining in Vladimir structure, and in addition to the gates of the town, apparently, that the building was of considerable size. From the aforesaid ancient buildings are very few, and repair of new very different. The Church, of course, must be preimuschestvovat. But as aforesaid, after a certain bricklayer rebuilt, now has no sign of architectural science in it. The wizard also have been sent by the Emperor Frederick the First, with which Andrew was in friendship, as will be seen below" (V.N.Tatischev. History Of Russia. M., 2005. So 2, S. 687). com.

16. Voronin. The decree. cit., S. 139.

17. Reconstruction AV Stoletov given in the book.: T.P. Timofeeva. The decree. cit., S. 25.

18. Diorama is on display at the Golden Gates of Vladimir-Suzdal Museum-reserve. Photo the Central part of this diorama given in the book.: Timofeeva, 2002, the 4th page of the cover.

19. T.P. Timofeeva Architectural image of the city of Vladimir on the picture 1764. In the book: Monuments of culture. New discoveries. M., 1994. C. 548-558; T.P. Timofeeva. An unknown image of the Golden gate XII century in Vladimir. Theses of the report. In the book: Voroninsky read-94. Materials of the regional conference. Vladimir, 1995. C. 259-261.

Researchers believe that the figure 1764 (Fig. 9) a vertical bar on the bulk of the gate represent the scapula (Timofeeva, 2002, S. 31). According to the drawing, the blades would have to pass on the Western facade of buildings from top to bottom, but no trace of masonry blade is not saved. Therefore, we have to take these blades fantasy of the artist. However, it is possible that the vertical lines in the figure represent no blades, and anything else-for example, traces of water under a water cannon.

20. Timofeeva, 2002. C. 30.

21. Voronin. The decree. cit., S. 131.

22. Ibid., C. 140.

23. M.Vsedov. Suzdal in X-XV centuries. M., 1997. C. 52.

24. Information gleaned on the Internet site www.dmitrov.su.

25. Avisanco. Fortified manor XIV-XV centuries, as the monuments of military architecture of the Russian North. In the book: Brief reports of the Institute of archaeology, vol. 172, S. 97-104.

26. The information was taken on web site http://pinskhistory.by.ru

27. It is characteristic that in Kolomna pre-Mongolian trees not only survived, but traces of them are still not found - in a very intensive archaeological works conducted in the twentieth century (A. Mazurov. Detintsa the location and size of Kolomna in the XII-XIII centuries. In the book: Local lore notes. Sat. scientific works of Kolomenskoye Museum of local lore. Kolomna, 2001. C. 28).

28. Voronin. The decree. cit., S. 135.

29. Ibid., C. 140.

 

Moscow, 2008.

 

Sergey Zagraevsky

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