Prof. Dr. S.V. Zagraevsky
About the predestination of choirs (galleries)
in ancient Russian temples
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In the study of Professor, Dr. S. V.
Zagraevsky it is shown that the galleries, also called choirs, in Ancient Russian
temples (as in Western Europe and in
The following text was translated from the Russian original by the computer program
and has not yet been edited.
So it can be used only for general introduction.
Architectural typology shelf (chorus) - open to the interior of the temple galleries of the second tier is considered in detail in a number of scientific works1 and we are here makes no sense to dwell on these issues. In this study we will focus exclusively on the purpose of the shelf (in the following, we will show that this is their name in the history of Russian architecture is the most adequate, although in the modern scientific and popular literature loft almost universally referred to as choirs). In other words, we will try to find out what (or whom) in the ancient temples were arranged shelf.
The most common stereotype is the purpose of the shelf in the old Russian architecture is the view of them as the seat of the aristocracy, who did not want during worship mixed with the crowd of people at the bottom. This stereotype has been fully decorated in the work NI Brunova 19282. The investigator wrote that the almost universal presence of the choir in the ancient temples to the XV century and their almost universal absence, since the third quarter of the XV century, is because choirs were "privileged part of the temple", "hall for noble", and in XVI-XVII centuries, NI Brunow, "feudal aristocracy" disappeared, "building society" has changed significantly, the inner space of the temple became a single, kings and patriarchs received a specially allocated places and to know during the service was standing in front, and the people were crowding behind"3.
Actually this theory is highly controversial even from the point of view of Orthodox Marxism, seeking to explain architectural phenomena development of the productive forces and the change of industrial relations: "feudal aristocracy" in XVI-XVII centuries, perhaps, has ceased to be a "feudal" (although in accordance with the same Marxist theory of "remnants of feudal relations" remained in Russia for a long time), but by no means ceased to be the aristocracy. Accordingly, it is unlikely princes, landowners or landowners in the XVI century were more "democratic"than they were in the XI-XV centuries.
The statement of the researcher that the emergence of the choir in a large number Palace churches and buildings, private individuals" (terminology NI Brunov4) second half of the XVII century, in the temples in taininskoye, Alekseyevka, Dubrovitsa, the Stroganov Church in Nizhny Novgorod and others, - is connected with the "typical for this century restoration of the feudal system and the preparation of a new feudalism of the XVIII century"5, contradicts the very basics of Marxism, according to which feudalism is one of the basic stages of development of society, and it cannot be "new" or "restored".
In order to show that point of view NI Brunova very controversial with the positions of Marxism, but also any other socio-economic or historical-architectural theory, let us remember that in the XVII-XVIII centuries, the loft was held not only in the Palace churches and buildings of private persons", but also a considerable number of monasteries and cathedrals, where feudalism was unlikely any significant impact on the characteristics of temple architecture. This assumption Cathedral of Goritsky monastery (XVIII century)and the Cathedral of the assumption of the Iveron monastery (1655), and the resurrection Cathedral in the New Jerusalem (1656-1697), and the Cathedral of Holy cross monastery on the Kiy-Island (1660), and others in order
Choirs everywhere erected in the monastery churches of the XIX-beginning of XX century, - in the Krestovozdvizhensky Cathedral of the Brusensky monastery (1858), the Holy Trinity Cathedral of Seraphim Diveevo monastery (1870), the Holy Trinity Cathedral of the Pochaev Lavra (1906-1911), the Cathedral of the resurrection Novodevichy monastery in Saint-Petersburg (early 1860s), Saviour Cathedral joy of all who sorrow monastery in Moscow (1891) and others of Course, at this time about any "feudal aristocracy, especially in the monasteries, there could be no question.
In fairness, we note that at the end of their work NI Brunow has made a reservation, that "it is a mistake to think that every form chorus certainly explains the elements of feudalism. It is enough to specify in this sense, the choir in the Byzantine and Western European architecture, where they sometimes must be interpreted quite differently"6. But this reservation has not found any development, except for some reason that is representative of the Novgorod system choir with two closed deaf aisles in the angular premises connected with each other narrow wooden bridge, which housed choristers", still has "a deep contrast to the choir feudal architecture"7 (i.e. from the gallery for the nobility). Noted with regret that, referring to "other times" the purpose of the chorus in Byzantium and Western Europe, the scientist does not develop this idea, thereby isolating the element of ancient Russian architecture from its origins.
However, this position NI Brunova predetermined stereotypical view of the shelves in the ancient temples as the "Royal box"8. This view was disseminated not only in a huge number of scientific and popular literature of a General nature, but in the special scientific works, where architectural history and typology choir was paid special attention9.
Just a caveat: we do not in any way deny the fact that the location of the nobility during worship, indeed, was one of the functions of the shelf in the old Russian architecture. There are a number of confirmations in the Russian Chronicles ("on the shelf" was the service of the Prince of Galich vladimirka Volodarevich10; "in the Church and on the shelf" was offered to enter their Gentile foreigners Andrei Bogolyubsky, that they "saw true Christianity and were baptized"11), and at the Aachen chapel throne of Charlemagne is located on the gallery of the second tier, and in Byzantine Chronicles have mentioned many times that the Emperor and his entourage during the service were in the gallery12. But this is not the only function of the shelf, and certainly not something for which they were held in churches.
"Other times" the purpose of the choir in the churches of Byzantium and, accordingly, Ancient Russia was considered in fundamental research, which was published in the quarter century before NI Brunova (unfortunately, a scientist at him not only referred, but completely ignored the expressed therein point of view). We are talking about the book E.E. Golubinski dedicated to the history of the Russian Church13.
E.E. Golubinsky, referring to the Byzantine tradition, believed that in the ancient temples choirs was intended for use in women (in Byzantium in such cases they were called ginekeev as women's premises in homes), or for people preparing for baptism, and held the rank of the announcement, i.e. for the catechumens - catechumenal (E.E. the Golubinsky14; more common modern writing - the catechumens). Accordingly, the space for catechumens in the Byzantine churches called katihumeniyami (other spellings - catechumens, katehumena, katehumenon). However, the researcher in his book has made a reservation, that the Byzantium emperors, and the old Russian princes had also been on the shelf15but the main purpose of the chorus he still believed their use as ginekeev and (or) catechumenal.
The purpose of the chorus on NI Brunow and E.E. the Golubinsky looks so mutually exclusive, that it becomes clear why NI Brunow not only referred to the opinion of E.E. Golubinski, but completely ignored it. If choirs were designed for women involved in the Byzantine Empire, and in Ancient Rus secondary position compared with men, then stay on the gynoecium "feudal aristocracy" should be substantially impair the dignity of the latter. It is the same with the publication: hardly catechumens could be a worthy place for the nobility during the service.
In this position, E.E. Golubinski is no less legitimate and historical, liturgical, and from an architectural point of view, than the position NI Brunova. Both these positions are based on a large number of historical sources, both satisfactorily explained and mostly separate (not from the naos of the Church, and through the external stair tower or flush stairs) inputs to the choir in the Middle ages, and often occurred direct walkways to the loft of the adjacent Palace buildings (as, for example, in the Church of the Nativity of the virgin in the hierarchy or in the Vladimir the Cathedral of St. Demetrius), and architectural design
"To reconcile" point of view, these scientists, assuming that the right part of the shelf could be used for the nobility, and left for women and (or) the catechumens (this practice "longitudinal" separation of the first tier of the temple of the SPLA, the right men, left women, until recently occurred in some provincial churches16), it is hardly possible: in old Russian sources, there are no data on this division choir, also in the future, we will show that the set of functions of the loft is far more than those that have been named NI Bronovil and E.E. Golubinsky.
But in fact, these scientists are mutually exclusive only in case, if you count the chorus of any of these functions they (the bed for the nobility, gynoecium, catechumens) or all of these functions simultaneously. But in the future we will see that these functions - not more than a function and purpose of the shelf was much more versatile.
And we begin our study purpose shelf (chorus, error, the upper galleries) from Ancient Rome, where there was a Basilica, later played in the Western Church architecture without significant changes, and in the East with the changes are significant, but not affecting the main structure of the temple (the nave, transept, tribune, the narthex, the altar and the like).
As is known, in the pre-Christian era the Roman Basilica (Alpeeva, Ulieva, Konstantinova and mn. others) were the buildings that served for the public, judicial or trading purposes. In the Central nave is usually near the courtroom, in the apse is the Tribunal, and on the benches arranged in a semicircle (sometimes in some numbers), was designated for the judges or persons who control the trading process. Secondary, higher, the place occupied Consul, Quaestor and praetor. Before the apse of the altar for sacrifices before bidding or trial. 17.
Roman Basilica, as well as their more recent Western and Eastern Christian counterparts, were in the second tier of the gallery, which were used for various purposes. For example, with the galleries of the Basilica Julio Emperor Caligula threw money into the crowd amused arisen stampede. 18.
Later in Western Church architecture (and the Romanesque, Gothic and Baroque) typology galleries of the second tier in the Basilica was virtually unchanged. These galleries are located either on the three sides of the world - in the West, the North and South (usually in the "sign" of urban and monastic churches), or only in the West (in large numbers and large, and a small single-nave and three-nave basilicas). These galleries are gradually acquired the main function, which, apparently, and was named the chorus - the location of organ and choir.
However, the choir is not only the name of the galleries of the second level in Western architecture. Although the word "choir" sounds almost the same in Greek and in Latin, and in English and in French, in German, in Germany these galleries are called Emporda ("Empore"), and the term comes from the Latin "empora" and is from the Greek "emporos": so in Ancient Greece they called shopping area, ranks, storage of goods19. We see that this word comes from one of the ancient Roman Basilica of appointments, i.e. in the name of the upper galleries remained the memory of the original style of the temple. The very Greek word "choir" means not only of people gathered for singing, but any meeting or the crowd.
And in Italian choirs called "matroneo", meaning "female part of the temple". This indicates that the choirs in medieval Western Europe, at least for some time been used as ginekeev, as in Byzantium.
According to the Abbot Daniel, in Jerusalem during the time of the crusaders in the loft housed people who do not have enough space at the bottom during the service20. In addition, "withthe same folder in it (in the Jerusalem Church of the resurrection of Christ, i.e. the Church of the Holy Sepulchre - SZ) shelf postranni, and there was sorrow lives Patriarch"21 (last observation, though made at the time of the crusaders is related more to the East than to the Western Church, but in the future we will see that the use of the chorus there was almost the same).
As we have already noted, the choir Aachen chapel located throne of Charlemagne. And other European rulers often observed during the Liturgy with galleries, arranged in westerbach22.
In addition, in Western Europe in the upper galleries were arranged throughout the storerooms, sometimes the sacristy (as in the Tallinn Church of St. Olaya XIII-XV centuries). In the gallery were located and a small chapel (as in vestverke Church of Saint-Denis 1130-ies, as in the Florentine Church of Santa Croce in 1320-1325 years).
We see in Western European architecture is very diverse set of functions fine But since the latter has a direct, immediate architectural origins in the form of the upper galleries of the Roman basilicas, we can not consider the chorus of any of the above functions (like any other function that may escape our attention). Choirs - a traditional element in the architecture of any of the Basilica as the nave, transept, or the altar. But the nave in Ancient Rome, served as a main hall of the building, the altar was the place, with well-defined, most sacred, functions, and choirs were additional space, extends the usefulness of the square of the Basilica and used for a variety of purposes. In this sense, the closest analogue of the choir is the transept, which also extends the useful area of the building and used chapels, and for burials, and to accommodate the additional number of believers throughout the services, and for kiosks with Church literature, etc.
The primary function of the chorus in medieval Western Europe was (and still is to this day) Church singing, but still there's architectural tradition, established in the pagan Roman times, has been the primary, and the main (not only) function, which later, in Christian times, too, gradually turned into a tradition, is secondary.
The functions of the choir in the churches of Byzantium were no less, and perhaps more diverse than in the West.
The use of the chorus as ginekeev described in "Pimenov journey to Constantinople": "Gathered a great many people, men inside the Holy Church in Sofia, and women in the gallery. And it was so amazing and lyubomudrenno. All the women stood in the gallery for sheanime curtains, and their faces are decorated with pretty, and deaths of people anyone could see them"23.
R. Taft, spending their fundamental study of location of women in the Byzantine churches24 along the way on a large number of documentary material considered various options choir and found that using the latter as ginekeev was not always and not everywhere. By R. Taft, "fessentially, we see that the gallery perform a variety of functions, relevant or not, including temporary accommodation and romantic rendezvous. Women and the Royal entourage were in the gallery during the Liturgy and the sacraments brought them right there. Mother superior of the convent during menstruation could be in the choir during the service in the monastery Church. Ordination to the priesthood, the oath of allegiance, spiritual hearing, miraculous healings and exorcisms also occurred there.
Concerning the fact that the Byzantine upper galleries at least sometimes sang in the Church choir, message sources we still could not be found. But there is an indirect confirmation: Church singing in the choir at present often takes place in the Serbian Orthodox Church (in particular, in the Nativity Church in Zemun and in the Dormition Church in Zrenjanin25); later we will see that the choir was singing and singing and the Russian Orthodox Church.
Thus, in Byzantium options choir were not only not the less diverse than in Western Europe, but among them were missing and some of the main, priority function: such cannot be considered a use of the chorus nor for the gynoecium, neither as katehomena, nor as the "Royal Lodge", and especially as a place for the Church choir. Hence, there choirs were exclusively traditional temple architecture and played the role of an additional multi-purpose rooms.
Let us turn to the use of the shelf (chorus) in the temples of Ancient Russia.
First of all, as we mentioned, there is some evidence that the princes during worship stood in the gallery. This message Chronicles ("on the shelf" stood service vladimirka Volodarevich26; "in the Church and on the shelf" was offered to enter their Gentile foreigners Andrei Bogolyubsky27), and is already considered Byzantine and Western European counterparts.
We must agree with E.E. Golubinsky is that in the ancient temples loft at least for some time been used as ginekeev and (or) catechumenal: if this was one of their functions in Byzantium, then it is very likely that this function took place in Russia (at least in the pre-Mongol epoch). E.E. Golubinsky brought another indirect confirmation of its position: in little Russia of the end of XIX century the Western part of the Church was called "the babynets'"; the Serbs at the same time "male" and "female" half of the temple was divided by partitions28. From here, the researcher concluded that in the ancient Church men and women could stand separately, and in this case it is likely that for women, stood place not only in the Western part of the SPLA, but also in the gallery. Of course, this evidence is indirect, but, for example, V.I. Dal was sure that "old women stood in Church the choir"29.
But if the use in the ancient temples choir as ginekeev and (or) catechumenal is moot, then stay on the shelf chapels indisputable. The side-altars in the loft are found in many of the Novgorod churches, beginning with the pre-Mongolian time30; the chapel in the choir was in the Church of Peter and Paul in Smolensk XII century31; two side-chapels - in the gallery of the Dormition Cathedral in Kolomna XIV century32; Spassky chapel on the shelf Izborsk Nikolskaya Church 1349; many of the chapels in the choir and Moscow architecture of the XVI century33. The chapels in the loft there is a direct analogue in the West-European architecture - the choir Capella34.
Indisputable and has many unique architecture of Western Europe another
fact - finding on the shelf of ancient temples storerooms, vestries and even
libraries. So, in 1391 Novgorod after the great fire took
from the shelf Sophia Cathedral ten thousand silver rubles accumulated by
Archbishop Alexei, and divided by 1000 rubles for each end35. In
the assumption Cathedral of Kiev-Pechersk Lavra in pre-Mongol times "are
the same and now their retinue on the chamber and knigi their Greek
We have reason to believe that the shelves in the temples of Ancient Russia were used as upper choir" - the place for the Church choir. This is confirmed by the message Vladimir chronicle under the year 1515: "That same summer, the Grand Prince Vasily Ivanovich at soba in the yard destroyed the stone Church of Christmas we of the Holy virgin on the door, Yes again get up from dveri of Vverh and the porch was attached and Pete put at the top, and the old was on earth"39. What the Church of St. George in Old Ladoga in the gallery between the aisles were the singers, said NI Brunow40. Singing on the "top choir" is practiced in our time, especially on holidays41 (as in Semipalatinsk resurrection Cathedral42, in the Cathedral of the Iveron monastery in Rostov-on-don43in the Cathedral Vorontsov monastery near Toropets44 and in many other churches, where there is an upper gallery).
Consequently, we and Russia can see a variety of functions choir, quite comparable with Byzantium and Western Europe. This allows us to conclude that the shelf of ancient temples (as Byzantine and Western) were self-contained traditional elements of Church architecture and played the role of an additional multi-purpose rooms. In fact, choirs were "attic floor" of the temple.
This conclusion is confirmed by the fact that choirs in all the ancient Chronicles it is called the loft. This is a traditional Russian word (in contrast to foreign terms "choirs" and "empore") has one root with the word "gender" means any and wooden flooring - and choir in the temple, and a couch or a store room in the house, and combat ground along tikovoi wall from the inside of a wooden fortress45. This old Russian name of the choir also shows us that they had additional space, extends the usefulness of the temple area and used for a variety of purposes.
Another important (although, of course, in any case not primary) function choir was constructive. The pillars and walls aisles any Basilica (both Western and Eastern types) extinguish raspor and upstream arch and vault of the Central nave much better if they are in the middle of the "intercepted" choirs. In fact, choirs and played the role of the arc-boutants, transmitting raspor vault of the nave from the middle of the pillars on the walls, and air links, limiting the spreading of codes aisles. 46.
Why, then number of ancient temples from the shelf, from the XV century, was sharply reduced?
Apparently, it was in that choir, despite their functional and structural benefits, yet significantly black and setesdal the inner space of the temples. The trend towards the abolition of the Church interiors from the pillars, which also prevented the integrity and illumination of the SPLA, in Ancient Russia was observed during the XIV-XVII centuries - from the classic four - and six pillars of the temple's cross to the churches " pylon, then to pillarless temples, covered with groin vaults47, then to the tent-roofed architecture, and then to the temples with dense canopy. The same tendency toward wholeness of the interior could not raise and choruses.
This suggests to us the answer to the question why the collapsing Moscow's Dormition Cathedral Myshkin and Krivtsov (1472-1474) were bunk, but in the Cathedral Fioravanti (1475-1479) is not. Aristotle has made tremendous efforts to create a sense of wholeness (zalnosti) interior: with him in Russian architecture first appeared and groin vaults of the thickness of one brick, and metal-wall and communication proemnyh48. With the erection of the altar additional arches East compartments of the temple Fioravanti has actually become a monolith, perceiving a significant part of the burden of huge drums, and, accordingly, the opportunity to build in the Central and Western parts of the Cathedral on thin round pillars that with equal diameters of "large" and "small" Barabanov stressed "zolnosti" interior and ease of construction.
Characteristically, the specifics of the Church warden of the order for the construction of the Moscow Cathedral of the assumption is not focused on the presence or absence of the choir, otherwise they are or were, or were not in both churches, and Myshkin, and Fioravanti.
This once again confirms the fact that the shelves in the ancient temples (as in Western Europe, as in the Byzantine Empire) had no special purpose and were self-sufficient architectural phenomenon. The construction of the choir or rejection of them were primarily the responsibility of the architect, and when making decisions about their device takes into account both aesthetic, structural and functional considerations, and architectural tradition.
1. The A.I. Komech
in Ancient Russian architecture. M., 1987; Voronin N.N. The architecture of
North-Eastern Russia XII-XV centuries. M., 1961-1962. So
2. Brunow NI ABOUT
choirs in the old Russian architecture. In the book: Tr. section of theory and
methodology (sociological) RAYON. M., 1928. Vol.
3. Ibid. C. 94.
4. Ibid. C. 95.
6. Ibid. C. 96.
9. The history of
Russian art. M., 1953. So
10. PSRL 2:455.
11. PSRL 2:591.
12. For more
information, see: R. Taft Women in the
13. E.E. Golubinsky history of
14. Ibid. C. 241.
15. Ibid. C. 86.
16. Archbishop. Averky
(Taushev). Questions and answers
the explanation of the Church piety
and counselling. In Ukr.: Orthodox
17. Giro P. Private and public life of the Romans. SPb., 1995.
19. Vlasov V.G. Architecture. The dictionary of terms. M., 2004.
20. The life and Daniil Abbot of the Russian land. In the book: Orthodox Palestinian collection. SPb, 1883. Vol. 3, vol. 9.
22. Chronicle of Christianity.
23. Book journey. Notes of Russian travelers of the XI-XV centuries M, 1984.
24. Taft P. ibid.
25. Kindly communicated A. Bokarev on the Internet forum www.sobory.ru.
26. PSRL 2:455.
27. PSRL 2:591.
28. E.E. Golubinsky Decree. back With. 241.
29. V.I. dal
Explanatory dictionary of the living great Russian language.
30. Sedov VLV chapel in the choir... S. 52.
32. Voronin N.N. To
the characteristic architectural monuments of Kolomna time of Dmitry Donskoy.
In the book: Materials and researches on archeology of the
33. V.V. Kavelmaher
34. Monitoring CENTURIES Kavelmahera (see previous. note.).
35. PSRL 3:233; 4:98.
36. Paterik of Kiev-Pechersky
37. Voronin N.N. To the characteristic architectural monuments of Kolomna... S. 231.
38. Themselves the chorus of the Church of the Nativity of the virgin in Gorodnya (probably taken the form of wooden flooring) is not preserved.
39. Tikhomirov, MN.
From "the chronicle of Vladimir. In the book: Historical notes #
40. Brunow NI Decree. back With. 96.
41. Kindly communicated L. Kleshnina and M. Meshaninov on the Internet forum "www.sobory.ru". To quote the message L. Kleshnina: "real parish life: professional choir holiday is always sings in the choir; constant (few) daily parish choir usually at the bottom on the kliros on the Solea; if no permanent singers and singing parishioners whenever possible, by everyday voices, bottom, side, before the exaltation of the Solea".
42. The information was taken on web site www.orthodox.kz.
43. The information was taken on web site www.pravoslavie.ru.
44. The information was taken on web site www.toropets.net.
45. Kradin I.E. Russian wooden defense architecture. M., 1988.
46. Voronin N.N.
The architecture... So
47. For more
information, see: Zagraevsky SV Architectural history of the Church Trifon
Naprudnom and origin groin vault. M.,
CENTURIES on the initial appearance of the assumption Cathedral of the Moscow
Kremlin. In the book: Architectural heritage. No.
© Sergey Zagraevsky