Prof. Dr. S.V. Zagraevsky
Methodological problems of study of the canon, symbolism and proportions in Orthodox church architecture
In the research of Professor, Dr. S.V. Zagraevsky the methodological problems of study of the canon, symbolism and proportions in Orthodox temple architecture are summarized. Having considered the wide range of historical sources and points of view of different researchers, the author denotes the boundaries of what in this area may be related to science and what to speculations, "mystical revelations" and other non-scientific phenomena.
The following text was translated from the Russian original by the computer program
and has not yet been edited.
So it can be used only for general introduction.
The need in the article, summarizing the
methodological problems in the study of the Canon, symbols and proportions in
the Orthodox temple architecture, is long overdue. The interest
in this topic nowadays extremely high, which is understandable from the
theoretical and from a practical point of view. In theory there is a
natural desire "to believe algebra harmony" and try to formalize
aesthetic perception masterpieces of
And as in any interesting and relevant topic for many, in the study of the Canon, symbols and proportions in the Orthodox temple architecture there are many myths, fueled by both professional and Amateur researchers. Therefore, the objective of this article is to delineate the boundaries of what is in this region can be attributed to science, and that – myths, speculation, arbitrary claims of "mystical revelations" and other non-scientific phenomena.
1. The Canon in the strict sense
Definition Canon is given in "the Explanatory dictionary of the living great Russian language" V. I. dal: "Canon (Church.) – establishment of the apostles, Ecumenical and local councils, about the faith and Church rites. Helmsman book contains the canons"1. No other meanings of the words V. I. Dal does not.
The definition in the Great Soviet encyclopedia (BSE), is broader:
"I. Canon (from the Greek. kanon — norm, rule) – a set of provisions, having dosmoticheski character. 1) Biblical Canon – a set of books of the Bible, recognized by the Church "divinely inspired" (in distinction from the Apocrypha) and used in the Liturgy to as "sacred Scriptures"... 2) Church Canon – the established Christian Church rules in the field of doctrine, cult, the organization of the Church and erected in "the law" the highest ecclesiastical authority (Church cathedrals, the main way of the Ecumenical councils, papal the decree). II. Canon in fine art – a set of firmly established rules, determining in art the product of the norms of composition and color, a system of proportions, or the iconography of this type of image; the Canon is called also a workthat serves as a normative sample... III. Canon – form of polyphonic music... IV. Canon – stringed plucked musical instrument..."2.
Thus, TSB shares the notion of the Canon in Church life, in art and in music. Since our study is about temple architecture, before we only consider the second part of the first value: "EcclesiasticalCanon – established the Christian Church rules in the field of doctrine, cult, the organization of the Church and erected in "the law" the highest ecclesiastical authority (Church cathedrals, the main way of the Ecumenical councils, papal the decree)". This is consistent with the definition this V. I. dal. Let's call it a Canon in the strict sense.
The canons, came to the Russian Orthodox Church (ROC) from the Byzantine Empire, are contained in "Rudder book" ("Nomocanon"), first printed in 1650 year3, the primary modern set of canons of the Russian Orthodox Church – in the book "the Book the rules of the Holy apostles, Holy Ecumenical and local councils, and Church fathers4.
From Tertullian found slightly different wording: "House of our Dove is simple, always on an elevated and open location and facing the light: the way FromV. spirit loves the East – way Christ"6.
This direct or indirect requirements of Church Canon to the architecture of the temples are exhausted.
Thus, according to Canon in a strict sense, the Church must stand on an elevated and open, to be simple, oblong, having four pillars, the altar (not the altar apse, and it is the altar), side room at the altar, and facing the altar on East.
We see that the Church Canon even in such a strict and
unequivocal terms, I began to break down in antiquity. First of all it
concerns the oblong the shape of the buildings: it is enough to remember such centric domed churches of the VISergius and Bacchus in Constantinople and San
The orientation of the altar in the East (azimuth 90°) or, at least, at
sunrise, usually in Orthodoxy was maintained, but very roughly. The author in
his time has devoted special study8, here we only note that the
orientation of the altars of Orthodox churches is a very wide range – from an
average of 50º to 120º, and the number temples the azimuth of the
altars don't even fits in the direction of the sunrise the sun above the
horizon at any time of the year: this is St. Sophia Cathedral in Vologda
(35º), the Church of Nativity in Pojarkovo,
Moscow region (35º), Moscow Church of the Icon of the Mother of God of the
Sign in'in (30º), Antipov
at carriage yard (40º) at Uspensky Vrazhek (40º), Signs in the yard Sheremeteva
(40º), Moscow Church of the Resurrection in Sokolniki
(150º), the Cathedral Chernogorskogo St.
Nicholas monastery in Maloyaroslavets (175º). Have
several Orthodox churches the altars are directed not to the East, not on
North-East and even to the North and North-West: it is, in particular, Riga
Cathedral of the Nativity (315º) and
These disorders look so massive that we can conclude: a Church Canon,
even in the strictest sense, neither in
2. Canon in broad interpretation
A the researchers of the XX–XXI centuries interpret the Canon expansion. Variants of such interpretations are many, here are just some.
A. F. Losev: "Canon there is a quantitative and structural model of artwork such style, which, being a certain socio-historical index, interpreted as a construction principle the well-known set of works"11.
N. F. Hulanicki: "In particular the refraction at Russia, the idea of man is quite obvious also in search of the perfect structures and along with this giving them certain traits of personality, but simply the limits of vision only the sublime, the search for perfect harmony. Here certainly there is also a certain similarity with the ancient Greek ideals. The same relationship may also be seen in special care Russian on the streamlining of the architectural Canon, the utmost clarity structure and maximum positivenote its internal and external forms"15.
A. Y. Mainicheva: "We can also talk about canonicalization samples and rules as the embodiment of stability of some value orientations in architectural practice. In this case, the Canon acts as a set of rules having the form of instructional models, but not had taken shape in the theory, as has occurred in the system of classicism. Canon provides stability and a playing tradition that satisfies requirements preserve the constancy of the symbolic number as an essential characteristics of Orthodox architecture"16.
Ye Yu Raised: "Canonical" image of the temple is treated as a steady image, which have developed historically and entrenched in the minds of other people from viewing the architectural appearance of the temple"17.
E. S. Medkova: "Drevnerusskie art took cross-domed pattern in
finished form. Further thousand years of history the temple construction in
Such expansion interpretations of the Canon it would be possible to cite many more, but note that they are all are applying to architecture the second part referred to in paragraph 1 of article BSE about the Canon in the visual arts (in fact, in this article the TSB we are talking about iconography): "II. Canon in fine art a set of firmly established rules, defining in artistic work, rules of composition and color, a system of proportions, or the iconography of this type of image; the Canon, called also work, serves as a normative sample...".
But in the study of icon painting Canon there is a serious methodological problem: it is almost stylistic amenable to rigorous formalization, and even within the canonical stories, of persons, objects, and compositional decisions there are a huge number variants, differing according to time and place.This leads to the fact that a single canonical iconographic style there is even in Orthodoxy (not to mention other Christian denominations), and work, for example, the Byzantine painters of the first Millennium B. C. in style differ significantly from the works of Andrei Rublev, the last from Simon Ushakov, and the last – from the murals of the Cathedral of Christ the Savior.
Architectural Orthodox the Canon lends itself stylistically, and any other formalization even less (and much less) than the iconographic. The reasons for this the following:
– the language of architecture, in unlike the language of visual art does not include a direct transfer any canonical subjects, persons and arrangements;
– architecture, unlike fine art, is forced to navigate in urban planning, landscape and operational objectives, level construction equipment, the availability of significant financial resources and qualified frame.
And we see that the styles and Orthodox forms of temple architecture is much more diverse than styles and forms of iconography.Such masterpieces of ancient architecture, like St. Sophia, the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl, and of our Savior on the Nereditsa, St. George's Cathedral in Yuryev-Polsky, Trinity Cathedral of the Trinity-Sergius Lavra, Assumption and Archangel Cathedral in Moscow, the Church-belfry of St. John Climacus (Ivan the Great, Pokrovsky Cathedral on the Moat, the Cathedral of the resurrection in The new Jerusalem, the Church Trifon Naprudnom, of the ascension, The beheading of John the Baptist in Djakova, the Transfiguration in the Island, Christmas Of the virgin in Putinki, Cover in a Permanent Resurrection in Kadashi, of the Intercession at Fili, of the Sign in Dubrovitsy very far from each other and size, and proportions, and architectural solutions. And no a single module in this infinite variety to find impossible, as if we're sinking even to the level of the brick dimensions, it appears that these dimensions vary almost everywhere, but some of the masterpieces ancient architecture built from molded bricks, and from bricks and (or) stone.
And that's just the Orthodox old Russian stone architecture. Here again we have to add the Byzantine churches of Sofia Constantinople, Church of San Vitale in Ravenna, Sergius and Bacchus in Constantinople, of the Dormition in Nicaea, of the virgin Mary (Panagia Chalkeon) in Thessaloniki and many others. etc.), and still the Russian temples of the New age (Peter and Paul in the Peter and Paul fortress, Smolny and St. Isaac's cathedrals, etc.), and Yeshe many different forms of ancient wooden architecture, but still very important for the missionary activities of temporary temples (including arranged in railway carriages).
And it turns out that the vagueness and ambiguity of the architectural Canon in broad interpretation has very negative methodological consequences. For example, if we declare a canonical forms of any of the following seven masterpieces of Orthodox architecture – Sophia of Constantinople, Church of Panagia Chalkeon in Thessaloniki, the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl, the Cathedral of the assumption in Moscow, churches of the ascension in Kolomenskoye, Of the resurrection in kadashi and Transfiguration in Kizhi, something we have to consider non-canonical forms of six others. Of course, this is unacceptable.
If we declare the canonical forms of all the proper sanctified Orthodox temples, it turns out that an expansive interpretation of the Canon so universal that do not apply for any historical-architectural assessments and conclusions.
Therefore, an expansive interpretation of the Canon for the history of architecture either absolutely fruitless, or even harmful – then, when the researchers talking about the "canonicity" and "acanonical", to impose readers and yet their own philosophies, dictated solely by personal artistic preferences.
Here is just one, but perhaps the most vivid
example of this theorizing professional art critic. N. M. Tarabukin
wrote:"Church architecture has also its canons,
but a violation of them, perhaps even more horrible than the retreat in
iconography. Disregard of these canons by the ecclesiastical authorities almost
has the limit. Somehow I had to hear from one priest praise the decoration of
the altar of a
We see that N.M. Tarabukin felt entitled to declare uncanonical, even "heretical", a huge number churches, including the Church of the Resurrection in kadashi, the Sign in Dubrovitsy, Of the intercession at Fili, the Peter and Paul Cathedral in the Peter and Paul fortress, Smolny and St. Isaac's cathedrals, and even the Patriarchal Catedral – Yelokhovsky Epiphany Cathedral and the Cathedral of Christ the Savior. It is unlikely that such a position can be called justified.
Such a broad interpretation of Canon lead to sad consequences not only in theory but also in practice. For example, in the 1990-ies to originally bezuprechnoi tent of the resurrection Church of the XVI century in the village of Gorodnya Stupino district of the Moscow region was added "canonical" altar apse, for the sake of which was partially destroyed ancient wall. So in the name of wrongly understood canonicity the monument was suffered enormous damage.And that apses have not the Church of the ascension in Kolomenskoye, Church bell tower John Climacus (Ivan the Great), St. Peter the Metropolitan of vysokopetrovsky the monastery, the Church of Metropolitan Peter in Pereslavl-Zalessky, Trinity Church in Chashnikova and many other ancient temples, customers of construction works in Gorodnya ignored.
Thus, a broad interpretation of Canon in architecture due to its extreme blur either fruitless or lead to personal triumph tastes. Hence, we cannot to recommend the use of such interpretations either in theory or in practice.
3. Symbolic interpretation
No doubt that in ancient times, and in the Middle ages, symbolic interpretations of all aspects of Church life, including temple architecture, was attached a large value. This has a number of historical evidence, are just some.
Symbolic way of expression was inherent in early Christianity, known used in those days, symbolic image – a dove, fish, ship, lyre, anchor.
Maxim The Confessor wrote in the"Mystagogia", that the Church, first, there are image of the world as a whole; the altar in this case represents the celestial realm, and the room for praying Dolne. Secondly, the temple can only serve as a symbol of the sensual world, then the altar – heaven, and he the temple – ground. Thirdly, the temple is likened to man: the altar has a soul, the altar is the mind, and the temple is the body. Fourthly, the temple is the image of the soul. Note "global symbolism" the position of the monk:"The whole mental world in mysteriously symbolic the images seem to be depicted in the world of sense... and the whole world sensitive, if an inquiring mind to disassemble it in the basis, is in the world of thought"21.
The attempt to establish the correspondence between architectural forms and their sacred prototypes were made by Sophronius of Jerusalem, German of Constantinople. In these works explained the symbolism of the temple as a whole, the altar, the throne, the arch over the altar, kivoriy, Cosmit, the pulpit, etc.,22 I. L. Buseva-Davydova has identified three main interpretations:
– "the old Testament", compiled in relation to the concept of old Testament temple and the cult, as the prototype of the temple and worship of the new Testament, Christian. On this interpretation, Christian Church is arranged like the tent of information that the altar is Holy saints, kivoriy is an image of the ark of the Covenant, kosmit – the way old Testament kosmiya, the clothing of the priest the image of the long garment of Aaron, etc.;
– istoriko-topographical", sostavlennoe in relation to the concept of Liturgy as about the remembering the suffering, death, burial, and the resurrection of Jesus Christ. On this interpretation the Church portrays him The crucifixion, Tomb and Resurrection, the conch is the image of the cave where Christ was buried, Holy table is the place where is put inthe Coffin Christ, kivoriy depicts the place where the crucified Christ was, of the lattice depict lattice around the cave of the Sepulchre in the Church of the Resurrection, pulpit depicts the stone, rolled away from the door of the Sepulchre, etc.;
– "mystical", compiled in relation to the concept of Christian worship as the way the service of God of the heavenly powers. On this interpretation the Church is not an earthly sky, where dwells the God of heaven, beat – the pipes of angels, the altar is the image prepackage and mental altar, etc.23
All these interpretations occur in later ecclesiastical writers of the first century BC, in particular, Eusebius of Caesarea, Dionysius the Areopagite and Maximus the Confessor.
The temple is dedicated the symbolism of the works of the Fathers of the
Church were known in
A more complete presentation this object gives the current in the XV–XVII
centuries "Intelligent service": "the Church is the earthly
heaven and the temple Of God the bride of Christ... the Altar is the throne of
God... the Altar the image is of the Nativity scene, the VDA also buried there
was the Christ... the Altar is the place of the cross, it is history blood and
water... the Meal is Percy Gospodnya it Christ, on the
Mysteryof the last supper the way open... the Ark
over a meal at Craney mount on it also raspada Christ. Near BAA place idezhe
podolny, pogreba. There are
also on skrine Of the Covenant of the Lord... the
Throne is for the meal stupinskoe place, it is still
the Bishop will sit down with presbytery. The image is of the second coming,
when thou shall come and sit on the throne... Jesus Christ with the apostles...
The upper Church is the Head of the Lord. The head of the
A monk of Constantinople John Nathaniel in 1653 was "a Book about
the mysteries of the Church", which was sent to Moscow, translated into
Russian language Arseniy Greek and printed in 1656,
under the title "the Tablet"26. It was the most complete
and systematic exposition of the symbolism of the temple, liturgical objects
and garments, existed in Ancient Russia. Quote: "the
In The tablets explained that the altar is the Holy of holies and the throne
of God, arch above the altar marks Bethlehem "Nativity, where Christ was
born, and the cave where he was buried, see (table) symbolizes the burial of
Christ and the throne of God, kivoriy over the altar
the martyrdom and the Shrine of the Covenant, the high place (Episcopal seat) –
the Ascension of Christ, and his level – the angelic ranks. The altar is the
symbol of the Holy Sepulchre, actually the vestry of
Circular tiled the inscription 1668 under the arches of the rotunda over
the Holy Sepulchre and the resurrection the Cathedral
of the New Jerusalem reads: "the legend of the sacraments of the Church,
like a temple or Church world is, this Holy place – God's village and the great
house of prayer, meeting human; the sanctuary of the same mystery that is the
altar, it is the service takes place; Trapeza (the
altar – S. Z.) is
Large the spread had and numeric symbols. So, Maximus the Confessor suggested ratio of numbers 1, 4 and 10 over the four virtues and the ten commandments: "the Tetrad can be a decad, if you gradually fold it with one; but she, on the other hand, there are unit, as the unit embraces all that is good and is easy and the inseparability of divine action"30. Even more complex was interpretation of the apocalyptic action – 12 thousand furlongs in the walls of the Heavenly Jerusalem in "the Interpretation of the Apocalypse of Andrew of Caesarea:"Dvadeset same disashi stages, which is shed and maligrad, negli UBS mark of this Majesty... the same Negli and for the number of dvenadtsati Apostles... And sedmice same number of mysterious things, nechim resolution seems required. Recessa Bo tiasa stages, tiama seven hundred chetyrnadtsat signs glagolemaya miles, make. They are also tiasa UBS beskonechnogo belly is perfection. Semsot the same perfection to the room. Chetyrnadtsat, purely Sabbath, soul and Telese (dwasi Bo Seda, chetyrnadtsat is)"31.
Ancient tradition emphasized the symbolic "military" traits of the temples. Dome called "helmets" (hats), drums – "necks", arches – "shoulders" and "head" is the "head". N. N. Voronin rightly pointed out that finish the drums temples crenate belts reminded decoration real helmets and stressed "the idea of military forces"34.
Given the list of examples is far from exhaustive medieval ideas about Orthodox symbolism, says that with high probability every form and every architectural element ancient temple could at one time or another have a certain symbolic interpretation.
But the methodological problem here is that on the specific interpretations in the absence of historical sources we can only guess. Options for each form and each object can be set, and any modern the study of the symbolism of certain shapes and elements of temples, not supported links to historical sources, leading to an extremely subjective opinions at the level of "I see", it is easily refuted not only by statistics and facts, but and by extension other so the same subjective opinions, looks no less convincing.
Even the seemingly so obvious at first glance option as the fact that three chapters of the temple symbolize the Holy Trinity35, actually is ambiguous, as head of the triceps in the temples are usually of different size, and more it is logical that the big head symbolizes Christ Pantokrator, and two small – virgin and John the Forerunner (in accordance with the Deesisrank the iconostasis). In accordance with the Deesis rank can be interpreted and heads the five-domed churches – not as the Christ and evangelists, as Christ, the virgin, John and two archangels – Michael and Gabriel. Chapter seven-headed temples can symbolize andthe seven sacraments of the Church, and the seven gifts of the Holy spirit and the seven Ecumenical councils.
And because in not only inancient sources, but even in the sources of the XVIII – first half XIX century references about the symbolism of the heads of the temple no36, any from Mascalucia on this topic can be only speculative.
In reasoning modern researchers on the topic of the Orthodox symbols meet and direct the contradictions of historical sources. So, according to Dionysius the Areopagite, the red color symbolizes the fire, yellow – "latebrosa", green – youth and bloom, white – sincerity, black – hidden secrets of God37. However, in the "Table book the priest is shown in an exemplary position Vladimir Bychkov: "In iconography The divine light symbolized not only gold, but also white color which means the radiance of eternal life and purity in opposition to black the color of hell, death, spiritual darkness (and howsame monks"monks"? – S. Z.). Therefore, in the iconography of the black painted only image of the cave, where white linen cloths rests Born the divine child, the tomb from which in white shrouds out of the resurrected Lazarus, the hole of hell, from of depth which plagued the Risen Christ the righteous (also in white the swaddling). When the icons needed to portray something of the everyday life of black earth color, I tried the color replace some others. For example, a black horse painted blue. It should be noted that for the samereason in ancient iconography was trying to avoid and brown, because it is essentially the color of the dirt. And when the old icons we we meet sometimes brown, it is possible to think that the painter still had in mind dark yellow, ocher color, sought to convey a certain physicality, but not earth, corrupted by sin"38.
We present a one example. On the website of the Moscow Sretensky monastery "www.pravoslavie.ru"
hieromonk job (Gumerov),
referring to a kind of "tradition", writes: "the Golden domes
symbolize the divine glory. Therefore, the gold-domed most satisfied with
temples dedicated to Lord holidays. Blue or blue dome
symbolically represent the heavenly purity and chastity. These the dome is
crowned with temples dedicated to the Mother of God. Domes of temples dedicated
to The most Holy Trinity, have, as a rule, green.
But to understand that such "traditional symbols" in Ancient
Russia was not enough to look collected by the author of this study in the
scientific work "the Color solutions of chapters
ancient temples"41 statistical illustrative material, where
color heads does not depend on the dedications. So, of the 24 icons Nicholas 7
we see "gold" color chapters, 13 black, 4 – brown, 3 – red, 2 – gray,
etc. of the 11 icons of the virgin Mary: 5 – gold, 5 – black, 3 – red, 2 –
blue, etc. At all three icons "rejoices About
you" – different colors of heads: gold, black and blue. No separation of
colors of the heads on temple dedications we see the plans In
Such "traditions" was not in the beginning of XX century. In
the study we cited statistics on photos of S. M. Prokudin-Gorsky,
which presented the temples
– "Golden" color heads – 1 Church, dedication – Alexander Nevsky;
– silver color of the heads 26 of the temples of initiation – Transformation (3 temples), The intercession of the virgin, the Nativity of Christ (temple 2), Save the all-merciful, Peter and Paul (2 temple), the assumption of the virgin (2 temple), the Epiphany (the 3 temples), The Annunciation, the Resurrection of Christ (temple 3), the Tikhvin icon of the virgin, The Trinity (2 temple), the Praise of the virgin, John the Baptist, Paraskeva Friday, Sign Nicholas The Wonderworker;
green the color of the heads 19 of the temples of initiation – Nicholas the Wonderworker (3rd temple), to All the saints, The intercession of the virgin, the Resurrection, the Ascension, Zosima and Savvatiy, John Climacus, Euphemia, the assumption of the virgin, John the Baptist (2 temple), Sergius Radonezh, the Introduction in the Temple, a miraculous Save The image of the Tikhvin icon of the mother of God, the Clement;
chapters (with the stars) – 3 temple of initiation, the Trinity, the
brown color heads – 1 Church, dedication – Peter and Paul.
So, the fact that in Ancient Russia (and Russian Empire) symbolism played a role in the choice of colors chapters, we may take for granted, and any modern theory of "traditional" the symbolism of the color chapters is historically unfounded.
In the most part arbitrary and not based on historical sources) and are widespread in our time lists symbolic interpretations of various temple forms and elements.
M. P. Kudryavtsev and tn. Kudryavtseva has even written about the symbolic value of such a small architectural details, as a cushion. According to these researchers, the cushion, as a sign of connection pillars, walls, arches and the top of the temple carries the image of unity of the whole construction of the temple, that is, in a symbolic sense – a sign of unity, the unification of the earthly and heavenly Church, all the hierarchical steps which marked architectural forms of Russian Orthodox Church45.
Y. V. Linnik: "DLa the Russian North is typical the octagon. The most
powerful of them delivered in Kizhi. By setting the
frame configuration, asymptotically approaching the circle line, the architects
emphasized the sacredness structures. It belongs to the sky. The
above-mentioned Aristotelian opposition live
round and was perceived by Christianity. Ascend this opposition to the
well-known table of opposites, composed By Pythagoras, we find there the
antithesis of straightness and curvature, which Plato and Aristotle gives a
clear sense of values... starogradskoj literature we
find this statement: "it is not uncommon for the instructions on the
universal meaning of the cross of Christ as the microverse
cross portrayed inscribed in a circle, symbolizing the heavenly sphere kosmologicheskie"... Plan of the Kizhi of the Transfiguration similar to this symbolism: the
archetype of the cross here, combined with the archetype of the circle. The
archetype of the pyramid also brilliant said yourself
in the silhouette of the Church of the Transfiguration. Pyramid is considered
one of allomorphs World Axis. Since ancient times it is the instrument of
spiritual ascending – taking people from the empirical plane, contributes the
establishment of its connection with the sky. Kizhi
Transfiguration successfully performs this task. It symbolizes the burning
spirit. The flame rushes up vertically... The archetype of
the pyramid apologin closely with the archetype of
the stairs. In somearchitectural structures
these archetypes are the same. This is the step pyramid Of Djoser
E. S. medkova: "
O. V. Starodubtsev: "Bringing Together The Church, the living
O. V. Starodubtsev also talked about the
symbolism of building materials, of which temples were erected, – about the
stone and the tree (ignoring the brick – apparently identifying it to the stone
that, strictly speaking, incorrect, since the nature of these materials is completely
different). Quote: "the Stone – a symbol primarily Withamogo
of Christ... the Great Isaiah calls Christ "the stone of stumbling and a
rock of offense", on which many stumble and fall and crash... a tried
Stone, a precious cornerstone, firmly approved, he that believeth on him shall
not be ashamed" (ISA. 8:14; 28:16; ROM. 9:33).
Symbolizing Christ, the stone symbolizes both the and
solid faith in Christ... Eif the walls of the temple
– all Nations from which Christ has created His Church, according to St. John
Chrysostom, and the stone – symbol true to the Lord Christian (according to the
AP. Peter), the stones in temple wall symbolize the souls of the righteous are
the people who make up the Church of Christ. The tree is a symbol of the Tree
of life in
And in the work of L. V. golovachova "design Basics Orthodox churches" even a table of "Symbols architectural forms of the temple" from dozens of titles51. Of course, this "comprehensive" modern approach has nothing to do historically sound understanding of the Orthodox temple symbolism.
A similar situation takes place with the proposed
number of researchers symbolic numerical ratios,
which, being unconfirmed historical sources are equally arbitrary. For example, V.
E. Larionov and M. N. Gorodova
counted as the numeric ratio for Saint Sophia Cathedral in
For the history of architecture this approach is futile, as in any measurement, the date and other parameters of any building it is possible by a simple mathematical calculation to isolate almost any "symbolic number". And on the basis of such ambiguous modern calculations (not taking into account the irregularity of the breakdown of plans of ancient temples) in any case impossible to make such global conclusions as the following, made by V. E. Larionov and M. N. Policeman:"Proportional analysis of medieval ancient temples showed that the basic dimensions of the temple (longitudinal, transverse, vertical, and diagonal) contain a symbolic number, traditionally correlated with the Christian doctrine of the image of Christ the Savior or Of The Blessed Virgin. In every single Church, with different methods build forms, use different combinations of numbers. These features depend from the history of the construction of the temple, from the nature of initiation, i.e., what episode from a life dedicated to the temple, but also from the artistic flair of the wizard... erthe whole set of conditions and rules"53.
Some researchers saw in the Orthodox churches even non-Christian symbols. So, S. D. Sulimenko wrote:"And the sun and the sky, and the fire be in Christianity characters of supernatural divine world. Gold and copper, respectively gold and copper color cover, symbolizing mythic-creative era "sun – fire", get the symbolic color of the sun of the Kingdom of heaven. From here the gold background of Byzantine mosaics and Russian icons, Golden halo, Golden crown, Golden face, Golden glow. Now let us turn directly to form a Solar window rannemodernoj cave temple... Form of the Solar window is based on interchangeable mythological images"fire" – keeled form and "sun" – wheel, the chariot, this form is symbolized and solarthe fire and the sun itself, and his compound in the cave and the liberation of the sun from the cave. A Sunny window is the canonization in architecture of the Buddhist temple images of the solar light in Vedic mythology... Thus, the striking similarity of the form "barrels" – traditional Russian wooden architecture with the shape of the Solar window, having a wooden prototypes in the architecture of the Vedic age, is not accidental. Both forms, on our hypothesis, genetically back to the architectural-symbolic mythological images of the fire, which occupied an important place in the once common cultural traditions of Indo-Aryan peoples"54.
As the above research based interpretation not on historical sources and on surface observations and formal ratios, we have to consider them no more scientifically sound than grotesque humorous description of the "car symbols" shown in the novel Umberto eco "Foucault's Pendulum". Play it here as Umberto eco was not only an outstanding writer, but also a scholar-Medievalist, and reflected not only the thinking of "commentators universal symbols", but typical of their labors verbosity and the ornateness.
"And if the car exists only as a metaphor of creation the world? Only one should not dwell on his appearance or restricted a view of the instrument panel, you need to see in him what I have planned Creator what is hiding under. The fact that undermeets what is above. The tree of Sephiroth... Let's follow the dialectics of the Tree. At its apex is the Engine, Omnia Movens, which can be said, is the Source of Creation. From it energy Majestic reported two Wheels – the Wheel of Intelligence and the Wheel of Wisdom... Za Motor and two Wheels should Grip, Sephira Grace, which activates or deactivates the flow of Love, linking the rest of the Tree with Higher Energy... And then the Casket The vicissitudes, or change, say the positivists, which is the source of Evil, because it gives mankind the power to speed up or slow down a continuous process of emanation. This quite well explains why automatic transmission is more expensive in this case, the Tree itself takes the solution corresponding to the principle of the Great Balance. This is followed by a Hinge,which, please note, accidentally bears the name of the great magician of the era Renaissance – Cardan shaft and Bevel Gear, it is noteworthy opposition to the four Cylinders of the engine, which is the Crown (Keter, Lower Crown), informing the movement of the earth the wheels. And here it becomes obvious the purpose of the sephirah in the same manner Differences, or differentials, which with majestic sense of beauty distributes and space forces between the two Wheels of Glory and the Victory of the Great... the Motor comes to life when the action of the Suction and Exhaust... the process of breathing in the First Cylinder (the first not hierarchy, and those who happened to be at the place of location) of the Piston or the Piston (etymologically from "Pistis Sophia") makes a movement from the Top Dead Point and Lower Dead Point, and at this time the Cylinder is filled with energy. Of course, I simplified, because here we would have more to mention the angelic hierarchies, that is, control Valves... the Heart of the Motor interacts with the rest of the Space only through this mechanism, and here, I believe, emerges, but I wouldn't want them to think I washeretic, the primary constraint is one, which in a sense depends in his creative activity from the Great Eccentrics... TAK or otherwise, when the Cylinder is filled with Energy, the Piston rises to the Top Dead Point and creates Maximum Compression. And here comes the Big Bang, Bang and Expansion of... Woe, if in a Combustible The mixture will get foreign particles, these drops of impure matter like water or "Coca-Cola". The extension does not occur or it occurs weak shocks... In any case, after Expansion comes the Divine breath, called in the most ancient manuscripts of the Exhaust. The piston returns to the Top Dead center and pushes the burned formless matter. And only when this purification is possible, there comes a New Cycle. This suggests Neoplatonism about the mechanism of Exod and Paroda, beautiful dialectic Way leading to the Top, and the Way Inbottom... By tomorrow I prepare a mystical interpretation of the phone book..."55.
4. Symbolic interpretation and the Genesis of architectural forms and elements
Another significant methodological problem of using symbols in questions the history of architecture is the point of view of some researchers, allowing the possibility that a symbolic interpretation could directly influence the Genesis of architectural forms and elements.
Undoubtedly, the intervention of the Orthodox Church in the process of designing temples took place always, because the temples were built for her. Of course, had a place creative the participation of the clergy in the creation of new forms, was the place of the Church project requirements, prohibitions and restrictions56. But many the researchers of the symbolism goes further, suggesting a direct effect on the creative process of theological theories, expressed in symbolic interpretations.
So, Archpriest Lev (Lebedev)
wrote: "Above the main and Central chapel in the
name of Of the intercession of the Mother of God
stands and the main Central tent of the
G. Y. Mokeev: "the desire of the Church
builders was always to create a temple that would embody the image of all creation, the Universal The Church displays the beauty of
the heavenly world, the heavenly
A. I. Komech, analyzing the causes the evolution of the Byzantine domed Basilica to the cross-domed, made the following considerations related to the symbolism of the temples:"The spread of cross-domed temples with certainty testifies to their highest, in comparison with other composite types, the adequacy of the requirements of a new era... In VI and the following centuries increased role in the liturgical rite of the offertory demanded adjacent to the main altar the arrangement of the altar and diakonia. Three-part and emerged as the most common variant, trehapsidnoy the structure of the altar of the temple. Such a transformation is not required, however, radical changes in the structure, they were quite feasible in the basilicas.Moreover, cross-domed churches look even less comfortable – due to brevity in the overall size and the lack of aisles – for Grand entrances and marches.It is impossible to doubt that the prevalence of cross-domed churches associated with their specific philosophical foundations, where great importance was symbolic ideas and aesthetic expression of ritual, even in spite of some inconvenience. (My italics – Sz) will Try to allocate from the General system of the Christian Outlook VI–VII centuries the view of the world, the rites of the Church, which could be a source of such selection... For Christians the rites were a tabernacle for the sacred values available the person in this world. During the Liturgy the believer believed that achieves the close as possible to the person, the communication with the deity... Nand over VII–IX centuries. especially important was the idea the Church as a microcosm, uniting two spheres of the heavenly in the earthly, or, to put it otherwise, the Church is "heaven on earth". This is related to the desire to the completeness of compositional decisions and to synthesize artistic ideas. The architecture of the temples was regarded as a "fingerprint invisible beauty" and "order of visible jewelry" was to point to the slender and the permanent order in the heavens, on the highest beauty... the Cross-domed type of Church its clear antichnosti was relevant to the concepts of "single", "easy", "peaceful without soprotivlenie", "alien to any blemish", "lack of plurality and motion", "cool fun", "steadfast and the fixed hardness". The dome and vaults associated with the world highest... Grouped around the center of the curvilinear motion surfaces turned the uniting Church in overshadowing and would like blessing the cover. Born in Justinian architecture concept covering of the canopy was the fundamental idea of the whole Byzantine architecture, most fully revealed in the structure of the cross-domed churches59.
A. E. Kuchma: "Now consider the symbolism of architectural forms domed temples played a significant role in the spiritual reorientation of art started in catacomb painting. A. I. Komech believes that it is possible to trace the development of religious architecture in the V–VI centuries, on the basis of common in the III–IV century analogies, Podobnaya the world created by God – the temple. This idea is gradually assimilated by the people for IV–VI centuries, defining the specifics artistic creations and public tastes.... We can say that the symbolism domes in temple architecture, apparently, is connected with the interpretation of the sky as archAnd...moving from the perception of the Universe as "artistic the temple of God's creation", it becomes clear the kind of transfer principles divine creativity on the creativity of the human in the construction of the cult structures. Largely thanks to this as if suspended composition occurs feeling a certain disembodiment of architectural material, ease of interior of the building, so that even large size dome seems to be weightless, floating in the air, as if suspended from the sky...TAK of assimilation the temple of the universe grows gradually reverse the analogy: the architects built the temples, the relevant religious beliefs about the Universe. As a result, in development of dome architecture consists of special symbols the architectural forms produced by certain ways of creating a "disembodied" atmosphere hovering inside places of worship. All is answered spiritual orientation of a new religion"60.
But the history of Russian architecture unknown facts that a theologian has decided that in the interests of the symbolism (or any theological theory, the Church should have another new item, or a particular new form, have agreed on its position with churchwarden and ordered the architect to build this way and not otherwise. Such facts are unknown even in concerning the priestly vestments and liturgical equipment, and much more costly and complex from a technical and organizational point of view, region – architecture – this situation is almost impossible to imagine. Especially in region so complex is the design and labor-intensive typologies, as dome and cross-dome.
Symbolic ideas, as a theological theory, and philosophical foundations in General, could affect the formation of the architectural tradition only indirectly. Havelike speaking, the churchwarden order, the architects building, the society evaluates, interpreters interpret assessment results and interpretations are perceived in varying degrees considered the next generation of builders and architects, etc.
Innovations in temple architecture always to some extent represents a departure from the tradition, and, accordingly, they cannot be generated by any symbolic interpretations. They can produce and the talent of the architects, and the artistic taste of the customers, and the progrSS of stroteley technology, and changing aesthetic preferences of society, and ideological tasks, and borrowing from other cultures and styles, and more, until purely utilitarian purposes (for example, the need to increase capacity of the temple). A certain role can play and financial, personnel and other limitations that may have non-standard solutions.
I use the researchers symbols as justification of the ways the Genesis of architectural forms and elements of the temples there is one negative methodological aspect. If the ancient symbols ever had direct and immediate influence on the Genesis (which, as we have seen, not proven), we still don't know what symbolism as it affected. No documentary evidence on this subject has not survived, so any the efforts of contemporary researchers in finding the symbolism of certain architectural the features and elements of the temples, as we have seen in section 3, lead to exceptionally subjective opinions on the level of "I see", not only easily refuted the statistics and facts, but also by extension other such the same subjective opinions, looks no less convincing.
As for aesthetics, it is even more conventional than the symbolism, and the use of aesthetic arguments to justify the emergence of new architectural forms and elements as unjustified from a methodological point of view. That aesthetic preference at all times influenced the architecture, there is no doubt (in otherwise mankind has never built anything, except for purely utilitarian buildings), but to judge medieval tastes we can only indirectly – through already accomplished facts of their full-scale implementation. Accordingly, any effortmodern researchers in the search for the aesthetic reasons of the occurrence of certain forms and elements of ancient temples, as a rule, lead only to the finding, the architect and churchwarden wanted to build a beautiful building61.
Concluding the consideration methodological problems of the use of symbolism in the history of the Orthodox architecture, remember the words perfectly fair I. L. Busevac-Davydova: "The study of symbolic representations of Ancient Rus – is definitely an important task for historians culture, but for architectureweek it is peripheral. The knowledge of the marks influenced the perception of the interior of the temple, but not to build a specific the architectural forms that developed according to its own laws"62.
"To confide harmony with algebra", calculating the proportions of temples, for the historian of architecture it is often very useful. Proportional analysis is applied when reconstructions and Dating of the temples with the involvement of counterparts, as to the source masters, in justifying why one temple is similar to others. In such cases, if verbal description is added to the calculation of proportions, it enriches scientific works63.
But the use of proportional analysis has its limits. Attempts to use it on a global scale to identify ways of development of architecture, and even more for the attainment of the universal laws of beauty and harmony, is futile. We show this by the number of characteristic examples.
While K. N. Afanasiev used the proportions of
St. Sophia for reconstruction of the original form galleries of Sophia of
Novgorod64, fundamentally argue there was nothing. But when he
measured the upper edge of the stylobate of the
Parthenon, put a single module world architecture", equal one hundred
Greek Olympic feet (
So, the researcher wrote: "We met with 100-foot size of the
Parthenon; six centuries (!) the same 100-foot size applied builders of the
Pantheon of Rome; two centuries later in the same Rome constructed Basilica of Maxentius and its size is determined by the same one
hundred feet; still two centuries later the dome of the Sophia of
Constantinople is equal to the same
But apart Sofia Sofia of Kyiv and of Novgorod, Kievan Rus ' there were many other temples the vast majority of which had no relation to the rendered K. N. Afanasyev "single module". The same can be said about Ancient Greece, and about Ancient Rome, and about Byzantium and post-Mongol Rus about: it many thousands of temples. And is it possible to make such global conclusions "about a kind of discipline of urban planning, a single scale of magnitude and sustainability measures of length", relying only on a few examples, componentsa negligible fraction of the overall scope of the construction of the temple?
The same methodological problem we see in the study A. F. Chernyaev, dedicated to the "Golden proportions"
of ancient architecture66. The researcher believed that in Ancient
Russia, as in Ancient Egypt, there existed "extraordinary somereally tool that defines the whole the process of
architectural creativity of ancient times. Tool that provides
a receipt a fundamentally new (or rather, completely lost) numeric
relationships, displaying proportional "gold" the combination of the
lengths of fathoms"67. But the whole complex
mathematical apparatus of this study is based on a proportional the analysis of
only four churches – the assumption Cathedral of Kiev-Pechersk
Lavra churches of the ascension, of our Saviour on Nereditsa and Paraskeva in
Another example – position Rachinsky
A. V. and A. E. Fedorov, consisting in that Russian
architecture over 4000 years, and it has Indo-Iranian the origin of69.
In support of its position, the authors cite the similarities a range of
proportions, forms and elements of ancient wooden architecture and churches
But The Baptism Of Rus
occurred only in the late X century until
V. A. Raczynski and E. A. Fedorov for a justification of their position was also attracted by the genetic relationship of the Slavs and Aryans. We will refrain from anthropological review and say that even if such the relationship had indeed taken place, it is in any case is not proof of relationship architecture.
Therefore, the point of view these authors cannot be considered proven. If the mutual influence of ancient and Iranian-Indian architecture and was the place (that deserves a separate research involving historical sources70), then prove this effect is theoretically possible only during the last Millennium, but not four thousand years.
Let us give another example. Archpriest Lev (Lebedev)
wrote: "the resurrection Cathedral of the New
Jerusalem was created by a native Russian system of proportioning, having in
the anthropomorphic basis of its beginning, that is, the
proportions of the human body. We used some of the dimensions of already
existing Russian temples. Thus, the height of the rotunda around the Holy Sepulchre was 16 or folk measuring fathoms (for...
When reading these numerological calculations inevitably the question arises: what is common, except close (and very tentatively) some sizes, between new Jerusalem rotunda, Church of the ascension in Kolomenskoye, Cathedral Kiya Cross monastery and the Intercession on the Moat? From the point of view architecture – almost nothing, not even a tent cannot be a unifying sign, as the cue-Ostrovsky Holy cross Cathedral is not marquee.
Therefore, all the above reasoning
for the history of architecture fruitless.
If to argue in this manner, since practically equal to the altitude (
And last example. In
Everything Russian logs
that hut were girth,
there were three fathoms – exactly
millionth part of the Earth.
It is not clear what this is for
man in the
knew with all my heart milionnuju radius
immense universal Land?
And the Kremlin Cathedral of the Annunciation,
and the pearl on the Nerl
kept a man and a woman
melonnie two shares of Land.
And as their brother birch Rodin,
brilliant at the same size
The Parthenon Doric order
in height six fathoms had.
with millions of proportionality
human common Ground!
for fashion because the architect of
those six hundred thirty-seven centimeters
gave, as a module of beauty and love.
Give me, fate, I share the hard –
test any go –
pain be and milandou a share
and my and universal the Earth.
Won't touch of the poetic merits of this poem, just analyze said it from the point of view of the topic of our study.
In this case for us not so important very strange understanding of the
poet-architect length of logs in Russian huts: because the size of the latter
in any case not were everywhere the same, and girth of the logs were the length
of an average of 6 up to 9 m73. Not so important, in fact, the
height of a warrant The Parthenon is not 12.8, and 13.7 m74 and
which part of the Church Of the intercession on the Nerl
and the Annunciation Cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin have dimensions of
What is more important: how actually it looks like this sung in the poem
"the model" the building in which the module
Il. 1. The building
of CEMI RAS at the address:
Photos D. Esakova76.
It remains only to note, what is the typical panel
"Khrushchev" five-storey building is one of the common series –
1605/5, built in the years 1958-1966 (Il. 2), has a
height of about 13 m-2 "ppm of the Earth." Chetyrehchastnaya building of this type has a length of
Il. 2. Typical "five-storey building" series 1605/5.
So, we opportunities outlined the boundaries of what in the study of the Canon, symbols and proportions in the Orthodox temple architecture can be classified as science, and as to the speculation, arbitrary claims, "mystical revelations" and other non-scientific phenomena.
And in conclusion our study we recall the basic the methodological principle of any debate between "traditionalists" and "innovators": the burden of proving his innocence lies on last.And since in this case the "innovators" are the supporters of the widespread use in the history of Orthodox architecture the canonical analysis of specimens, symbols, numerical ratios and proportions (in the traditional history of architecture of the XX century these issues were given relatively little attention), the task of these researchers is quite complex, and allegations, and especially some "mystical insight, is available only for the elite"77, evidence of their theories serve not can. In each case you must create a full-fledged research unit with based on historical sources.
1. Dal V. I. Explanatory dictionary of the living great Russian language. M., 1989.
2. The great Soviet encyclopedia. M., 1969-1978.
3. The text is on the web-site http://oz-gora.ru/korm.
4. Book rules saints Apostlew, in, saints ñîáîðwâú universal and pomestnyh, saints and father. Sergiev Posad, 1992. Reprint reproduction of the edition of 1893.
S. V. About the scientific basis
of "azimuth method" (method definition of dates and dedications of
ancient temples in azimuth their altars) // Architect. City.
Time. The proceedings of the Annual
international scientific-practical conference (Velikiy
10. This destroyed in the XV century, the temple the time of Constantine the Great, according to the testimony of Eusebius of Caesarea, was decorated pieces of stone of different colors from the base to the roof, the last was decorated with exquisite carvings and gilded, the dome was surrounded by an openwork stone carving bronze and gold (Church of the Holy Apostles, Istanbul. Cm. The Internet site http://www.sacred-destinations.com/turkey/istanbul-church-of-holy-apostles).
11. Losev A. F. On the notion of the artistic Canon. // From creative heritage. Contemporaries, the thinker. M., 2007. P. 348.
A. Y. Wooden churches of
17. Riding E. Y. Canon in the architecture of an Orthodox Church // the Academic Bulletin of Uralniiash RAASN. No. 4, 2010.
18. Medkova, E. C. In search of new of the sacred. The formation of the typology of cross-domed Church // Gas. "Iskusstvo", ¹ 5, 2008.
19. Kesler M. Y. the Development of building
the temple in
21. Prep. Maximos The Confessor. Mystagogia. Text located on the Internet site:
35. This interpretation is today, the most widespread and occurs in large quantity popular literature. For example, cm.: Yurasova I. V. the symbolism of the architectural forms of Russian Orthodox Church (link to the idea an Orthodox Church). Text nahoditsya on the Internet site: http://rusarch.ru/jurasova1.htm
44. Kudryavtsev M.
P., Kudryavtseva T. N. Russian Orthodox Cathedral.
Symbolic the language of architectural forms // To Light. No.
46. Mainicheva A. Y. On the semantics architectural image cequi Sophia the Wisdom of God's Word in Tobolsk (1622-1643.). The text is on the website: http://rusarch.ru/mainicheva3.htm
Yu. V. the Archetypes of the
48. Medkova, E. C. In search of new of the sacred. The formation of the typology of cross-domed Church. In gas. "Iskusstvo", ¹ 5, 2008.
52. Larionov V. E., M. Gorodova N. Sacred legacy. M., 2010.
54. Sulimenko, S. D. Architecture and dialogue of cultures (on example of symbolizing the forms of the completions of the Russian Orthodox of the temple). The text is on the website: http://rusarch.ru/sulimenko1.htm
55. Humberto eKo. Foucault's Pendulum. M, 2012. S. 428.
56. About the
number of these claims and limitations and wrote to the author of this study.
For example, on Church the ban on zooantropomorfny
sculptures of the temples cm.: Zagraevsky SV Yuri Dolgoruky and
old white-stone architecture. M., 2001. GL. 6:
"Sculptures". The ecclesiastical requirement of the device in the
stone Orthodox the temples of the dome of cm.: Zagraevsky S. V. Typological formation and basic
59. Komech A. I. Ancient Russian architecture of the end of X – the beginning of XII century Byzantine heritage and the establishment of an independent tradition. M., 1987.
60. Kuchma A. E. Symbolism in the early Christian art // the Moscow University Herald. Series 7. Philosophy. No. 1. 1995. P. 57.
64. Afanasiev K. N. The experience of proportional analysis. M., 1998.
66. Chernyaev A. F. The Gold Of Ancient. The Russian matrix the basis of Golden proportions. M., 1998.
69. Rachinsky, A. V., Fedorov A. E. the Tops of the Slavonic-Aryan temples // System "planet Earth". The twentieth years of the Seminar "the System "planet Earth". M., 2014. S. 535-579.
70. Uhthat question touched upon and the author of this study in the article "the Origin of ancient Russian tent-roofed architecture: a return to the problem." The text is on the website: http://rusarch.ru/zagraevsky44.htm
72. Andrei Voznesensky. Superintendents of the spirit. M., 1984.
74. Chernov A. Gold Of The Parthenon. The text is on the website: http://chernov-trezin.narod.ru/Parfenon-2.htm.
75. Ershova N. M. Pereverzev Yu. S. Gravity constant and the radius of the Earth. The text is on the website:
77. For example, O. V. Starodubtsev wrote: "the Visible embodiment of the Church's symbolism – the Orthodox Church, which represents the most "open", knowledgeable, an elaborate system of meanings. The Orthodox Church embodies a complex, inexhaustible in its transparency a symbol ofP...so speaking of Christian symbolism, it should be noted that the understanding of it outside the Church it is impossible in principle" (V. Starodubtsev, O. the Symbolism of the Orthodox Church...) And we have already quoted the words of A. F. Chernyaev: "quality And composition constructed as the Church of Christ as a spiritual structure in their secret the proportions include elements of sacrednessAnd...included so, do not let into the secret of religious buildings of Christianity are not notice any of stvennosti nor multiplicity... These rules were so conspiratorial and with this caution observed (this led, apparently, their loss), and today... even big architects guess double dimensional structuring of these masterpieces and Suginoi the sacredness of their proportions of sacred number 7" (Chernyaev A. F. Decree. fromPTS.)
© Sergey Zagraevsky