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Prof. Dr. S.V. Zagraevsky

 

Methodological problems of study of the canon, symbolism and proportions in Orthodox church architecture

 

 

Annotation

 

In the research of Professor, Dr. S.V. Zagraevsky the methodological problems of study of the canon, symbolism and proportions in Orthodox temple architecture are summarized. Having considered the wide range of historical sources and points of view of different researchers, the author denotes the boundaries of what in this area may be related to science and what to speculations, "mystical revelations" and other non-scientific phenomena.

 

 

 Attention!

The following text was translated from the Russian original by the computer program

and has not yet been edited.

So it can be used only for general introduction.

   RUSSIAN VERSION

 

Introduction

 

The need in the article, summarizing the methodological problems in the study of the Canon, symbols and proportions in the Orthodox temple architecture, is long overdue. The interest in this topic nowadays extremely high, which is understandable from the theoretical and from a practical point of view. In theory there is a natural desire "to believe algebra harmony" and try to formalize aesthetic perception masterpieces of Russian Church architecture. In practicein a large number of construction of new Orthodox churches, and architects is important to know how their projects comply with the canons of the Church, what forms and proportions they should (or should not) implement what symbols can apply to justify the use of certain architectural forms and elements, and how this use is justified. It is important to know and the clergy and parishioners, and all those interested in the Orthodox architecture.

And as in any interesting and relevant topic for many, in the study of the Canon, symbols and proportions in the Orthodox temple architecture there are many myths, fueled by both professional and Amateur researchers. Therefore, the objective of this article is to delineate the boundaries of what is in this region can be attributed to science, and that myths, speculation, arbitrary claims of "mystical revelations" and other non-scientific phenomena.

 

1. The Canon in the strict sense

 

Definition Canon is given in "the Explanatory dictionary of the living great Russian language" V. I. dal: "Canon (Church.) establishment of the apostles, Ecumenical and local councils, about the faith and Church rites. Helmsman book contains the canons"1. No other meanings of the words V. I. Dal does not.

The definition in the Great Soviet encyclopedia (BSE), is broader:

"I. Canon (from the Greek. kanon norm, rule) a set of provisions, having dosmoticheski character. 1) Biblical Canon a set of books of the Bible, recognized by the Church "divinely inspired" (in distinction from the Apocrypha) and used in the Liturgy to as "sacred Scriptures"... 2) Church Canon the established Christian Church rules in the field of doctrine, cult, the organization of the Church and erected in "the law" the highest ecclesiastical authority (Church cathedrals, the main way of the Ecumenical councils, papal the decree). II. Canon in fine art a set of firmly established rules, determining in art the product of the norms of composition and color, a system of proportions, or the iconography of this type of image; the Canon is called also a workthat serves as a normative sample... III. Canon form of polyphonic music... IV. Canon stringed plucked musical instrument..."2.

Thus, TSB shares the notion of the Canon in Church life, in art and in music. Since our study is about temple architecture, before we only consider the second part of the first value: "EcclesiasticalCanon established the Christian Church rules in the field of doctrine, cult, the organization of the Church and erected in "the law" the highest ecclesiastical authority (Church cathedrals, the main way of the Ecumenical councils, papal the decree)". This is consistent with the definition this V. I. dal. Let's call it a Canon in the strict sense.

The canons, came to the Russian Orthodox Church (ROC) from the Byzantine Empire, are contained in "Rudder book" ("Nomocanon"), first printed in 1650 year3, the primary modern set of canons of the Russian Orthodox Church in the book "the Book the rules of the Holy apostles, Holy Ecumenical and local councils, and Church fathers4.

No "rudder book" nor in the "Book of rules..." does not say anything that directly or indirectly could be related to issues of architecture.

If direct appeal to Holy Tradition, in the "Apostolic decrees" was spoken: "let there be an oblong building, facing East, with pastafarian (auxiliary side rooms off the altar S. Z.) on both sides, to the East, like the ship"5.

From Tertullian found slightly different wording: "House of our Dove is simple, always on an elevated and open location and facing the light: the way FromV. spirit loves the East way Christ"6.

I. L. Buseva-Davydov believed that directly from temple architecture can be correlated words of Irenaeus Lyon: "it is Impossible that the Gospels were a number of more or less than as they are. For the four directions the world and four principal winds... and the pillar and ground of the Church is The gospel... then it should have four pillars"7.

This direct or indirect requirements of Church Canon to the architecture of the temples are exhausted.

Thus, according to Canon in a strict sense, the Church must stand on an elevated and open, to be simple, oblong, having four pillars, the altar (not the altar apse, and it is the altar), side room at the altar, and facing the altar on East.

We see that the Church Canon even in such a strict and unequivocal terms, I began to break down in antiquity. First of all it concerns the oblong the shape of the buildings: it is enough to remember such centric domed churches of the VI century, as Sergius and Bacchus in Constantinople and San Vitale in Ravenna. Four pillars were not the Sophia of Constantinople, the Nicene Church of the assumption, Constantinople the Church of Irene and many other Byzantine churches.To mandatory oblong form and chetyrehstennoy temples and did not return Ancient Rus: it is enough to remember numerous four-pillar temples (as Assumption Cathedral of Kiev-Pechersk Lavra, Uspensky cathedrals in Vladimir and Moscow and mn. etc.), octahedral (as the Church of the ascension in Kolomenskoye and many other tent churches), multileaf (as the Church of the Sign in Dubrovitsy), cross (like the Church of Metropolitan Peter in Pereslavl-Zalessky), pillars (like St. Peter the Metropolitan of vysokopetrovsky monastery), etc.

The orientation of the altar in the East (azimuth 90) or, at least, at sunrise, usually in Orthodoxy was maintained, but very roughly. The author in his time has devoted special study8, here we only note that the orientation of the altars of Orthodox churches is a very wide range from an average of 50º to 120º, and the number temples the azimuth of the altars don't even fits in the direction of the sunrise the sun above the horizon at any time of the year: this is St. Sophia Cathedral in Vologda (35º), the Church of Nativity in Pojarkovo, Moscow region (35º), Moscow Church of the Icon of the Mother of God of the Sign in'in (30º), Antipov at carriage yard (40º) at Uspensky Vrazhek (40º), Signs in the yard Sheremeteva (40º), Moscow Church of the Resurrection in Sokolniki (150º), the Cathedral Chernogorskogo St. Nicholas monastery in Maloyaroslavets (175º). Have several Orthodox churches the altars are directed not to the East, not on North-East and even to the North and North-West: it is, in particular, Riga Cathedral of the Nativity (315º) and Riga Church The beheading of the heads ofs IraNPA the Baptist (350º)9.

Easy temple the concept is very ambiguous, but it can hardly be called "simple" such masterpieces of engineering, as Sophia of Constantinople, the Cathedral of the assumption in Moscow or the Church of the ascension in Kolomenskoye. Unlikely may be called "simple" and so ornate Church buildings, as the Church of the Holy Apostles in Constantinople,10, St. George's Cathedral in Yuryev-Polsky or Pokrovsky Cathedral on the Moat.Relatively the location of the Church on an elevated and open situation, too, was ambiguous: the Orthodox churches were built in this way (there is no doubt that aesthetic considerations also played a role, and indeed tertulliano of the Canon, rather, was dictated by these considerations), but sometimes a lot of exceptions: there are numerous temples in the lowlands, and among the dense urban areas, and rocky, and embedded in the castle strengthening.

These disorders look so massive that we can conclude: a Church Canon, even in the strictest sense, neither in Byzantium or in Ancient Russia was not seen as practical leadership in the field of temple architecture. Accordingly, not seen it is necessary to recommend a mandatory and strict compliance with and modern yet.

 

2. Canon in broad interpretation

 

A the researchers of the XXXXI centuries interpret the Canon expansion. Variants of such interpretations are many, here are just some.

A. F. Losev: "Canon there is a quantitative and structural model of artwork such style, which, being a certain socio-historical index, interpreted as a construction principle the well-known set of works"11.

L. A. Uspensky: "the Holy fathers do not say what kind must be the temple, not to indicate where to place a particular subject of a painting, how must be the religious way, etc. All this follows from the General meaning of the temple, and therefore, subject to certain Canon, a certain framework, similar to the framework of liturgical creativity"12.

Archpriest Lev (Lebedev): "According to patristic teaching, his spiritual logic, as it is reflected in the Tablets (we'll talk about it in p. 3 P. Z.), not only pictorial images (icons in the narrow sense of the word), but all images and symbols which we see in the Church... including the building of temples, their the internal structure and decoration, in the same way as icons, when canonically the correct execution(and the sanctification of water and the spirit, if the subject building or characters) are the owners of the same energies as the prototypes"13.

A. S. Puppies: "it Should be borne in mind that we are dealing with canonical art, focused on some models that serve a model and evaluation criterion to create works. As the researchers note, the basis of the Canon in the iconographic samples and the rules of construction of the works. In the field of Russian architecture we find fixed build rules (except, of course, technical recipes techniques of layout plan, etc.). But it is absolutely obvious role set iconographic models that define the canonical features of the structure and, in part, style of the work. Established Canon if necessary compensates for the lack of theological education or of a mystical experienceindividual artists, ensuring compliance of certain structures doctrinal norms and traditions"14.

N. F. Hulanicki: "In particular the refraction at Russia, the idea of man is quite obvious also in search of the perfect structures and along with this giving them certain traits of personality, but simply the limits of vision only the sublime, the search for perfect harmony. Here certainly there is also a certain similarity with the ancient Greek ideals. The same relationship may also be seen in special care Russian on the streamlining of the architectural Canon, the utmost clarity structure and maximum positivenote its internal and external forms"15.

A. Y. Mainicheva: "We can also talk about canonicalization samples and rules as the embodiment of stability of some value orientations in architectural practice. In this case, the Canon acts as a set of rules having the form of instructional models, but not had taken shape in the theory, as has occurred in the system of classicism. Canon provides stability and a playing tradition that satisfies requirements preserve the constancy of the symbolic number as an essential characteristics of Orthodox architecture"16.

Ye Yu Raised: "Canonical" image of the temple is treated as a steady image, which have developed historically and entrenched in the minds of other people from viewing the architectural appearance of the temple"17.

E. S. Medkova: "Drevnerusskie art took cross-domed pattern in finished form. Further thousand years of history the temple construction in Russia is the history of the development of national sacred code. This process began with interaction of the canonical typology of the temple with the mythopoetic imagery of the Russian model of the world"18.

M. J. Kessler: "the Composition of the temple of cross-dome type with a Central dome symbolizing the sky over the cubic volume, symbolizing the earth, embodied the basic idea of the Christian faith on the unity of the heavenly (spiritual) and earthly (material) made possible by coming to earth and of the cross the sacrifice of Christ. This is found composition became canonical for Eastern (Orthodox) Church"19.

Such expansion interpretations of the Canon it would be possible to cite many more, but note that they are all are applying to architecture the second part referred to in paragraph 1 of article BSE about the Canon in the visual arts (in fact, in this article the TSB we are talking about iconography): "II. Canon in fine art a set of firmly established rules, defining in artistic work, rules of composition and color, a system of proportions, or the iconography of this type of image; the Canon, called also work, serves as a normative sample...".

But in the study of icon painting Canon there is a serious methodological problem: it is almost stylistic amenable to rigorous formalization, and even within the canonical stories, of persons, objects, and compositional decisions there are a huge number variants, differing according to time and place.This leads to the fact that a single canonical iconographic style there is even in Orthodoxy (not to mention other Christian denominations), and work, for example, the Byzantine painters of the first Millennium B. C. in style differ significantly from the works of Andrei Rublev, the last from Simon Ushakov, and the last from the murals of the Cathedral of Christ the Savior.

Architectural Orthodox the Canon lends itself stylistically, and any other formalization even less (and much less) than the iconographic. The reasons for this the following:

the language of architecture, in unlike the language of visual art does not include a direct transfer any canonical subjects, persons and arrangements;

architecture, unlike fine art, is forced to navigate in urban planning, landscape and operational objectives, level construction equipment, the availability of significant financial resources and qualified frame.

And we see that the styles and Orthodox forms of temple architecture is much more diverse than styles and forms of iconography.Such masterpieces of ancient architecture, like St. Sophia, the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl, and of our Savior on the Nereditsa, St. George's Cathedral in Yuryev-Polsky, Trinity Cathedral of the Trinity-Sergius Lavra, Assumption and Archangel Cathedral in Moscow, the Church-belfry of St. John Climacus (Ivan the Great, Pokrovsky Cathedral on the Moat, the Cathedral of the resurrection in The new Jerusalem, the Church Trifon Naprudnom, of the ascension, The beheading of John the Baptist in Djakova, the Transfiguration in the Island, Christmas Of the virgin in Putinki, Cover in a Permanent Resurrection in Kadashi, of the Intercession at Fili, of the Sign in Dubrovitsy very far from each other and size, and proportions, and architectural solutions. And no a single module in this infinite variety to find impossible, as if we're sinking even to the level of the brick dimensions, it appears that these dimensions vary almost everywhere, but some of the masterpieces ancient architecture built from molded bricks, and from bricks and (or) stone.

And that's just the Orthodox old Russian stone architecture. Here again we have to add the Byzantine churches of Sofia Constantinople, Church of San Vitale in Ravenna, Sergius and Bacchus in Constantinople, of the Dormition in Nicaea, of the virgin Mary (Panagia Chalkeon) in Thessaloniki and many others. etc.), and still the Russian temples of the New age (Peter and Paul in the Peter and Paul fortress, Smolny and St. Isaac's cathedrals, etc.), and Yeshe many different forms of ancient wooden architecture, but still very important for the missionary activities of temporary temples (including arranged in railway carriages).

And it turns out that the vagueness and ambiguity of the architectural Canon in broad interpretation has very negative methodological consequences. For example, if we declare a canonical forms of any of the following seven masterpieces of Orthodox architecture Sophia of Constantinople, Church of Panagia Chalkeon in Thessaloniki, the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl, the Cathedral of the assumption in Moscow, churches of the ascension in Kolomenskoye, Of the resurrection in kadashi and Transfiguration in Kizhi, something we have to consider non-canonical forms of six others. Of course, this is unacceptable.

If we declare the canonical forms of all the proper sanctified Orthodox temples, it turns out that an expansive interpretation of the Canon so universal that do not apply for any historical-architectural assessments and conclusions.

Therefore, an expansive interpretation of the Canon for the history of architecture either absolutely fruitless, or even harmful then, when the researchers talking about the "canonicity" and "acanonical", to impose readers and yet their own philosophies, dictated solely by personal artistic preferences.

Here is just one, but perhaps the most vivid example of this theorizing professional art critic. N. M. Tarabukin wrote:"Church architecture has also its canons, but a violation of them, perhaps even more horrible than the retreat in iconography. Disregard of these canons by the ecclesiastical authorities almost has the limit. Somehow I had to hear from one priest praise the decoration of the altar of a Church of XVIII century, built in the Rococo style... The priest admitted that he felt like in a richly and exquisitely decorated living room. And that was not some provincial, "father", which in the eyes "were wearied" from this novel spectacle; the person said this is veryeducated... able to feel the intransigence of the Rococo style withthe spirit of Orthodox worship. But if such a priest showed their helplessness in such matters, thatwhat we talk at least and the highest hierarchs, the education of which was usually held without any influence of art. They usually every temple, no matter how he built and painted, being consecrated according to Canon, becomes a "Holy place", "to criticize" which from the point of view of external decoration was revered thing shameful. And here is the result of so understood "sin" in the Russian Church leaked heresy, embodied in the fine forms and accepted the enormous size, so now, through the thickness of this solid eretizm of the power ofthe Russian Church about three centuries, it is difficult to restore the truth. Already with so called Naryshkin style" of the late seventeenth century, the temples were decorated so as if it were a secular salons of beauty... the Cathedral of Christ the Savior in Moscow and St. Isaac's Cathedral in St. Petersburg were not canonical because all four sides are inputs. Consequently, the Eastern part, where would to be the altar apse, built in the form of input (although the actual entrance is not here). Due to this individuality the temple on all four sides...Imagine now that the temple is being built pillarless, as has already occurred in the The XIV century. This most of the symbols of the temple are eliminated, and evangelists, and the apostles as pillars of the Church. Imagine that the dome is replaced by a closed vault. Thereby disappear visually-symbolic expression of the unity of the Church, the head of which is Christ. Imagine that the severe simplicity and clarity the Christian faith, congeniality personified in ancient iconography times, issued the intricacies of the Rococo flourishes. What do you think: will be broken the meaning of faith in this form or not?Tetrahedral temple, adopted in ancient times (apparently, the researcher forgot about the Church of San Vitale in Ravenna and similar churches S. Z.) and disrupted in the XVII and XIX centuries (apparently the researcher forgot about the tent-architecture of XVI century Sz) represents equal the appeal of the Church preaching to all four countries in the world... Elliptical, rotondella and other forms of temple distort this sense, therefore, violate the dogma of the Church's teaching. It follows that buildings in the style of Baroque, Empire and other cannot be recognized as canonical"20.

We see that N.M. Tarabukin felt entitled to declare uncanonical, even "heretical", a huge number churches, including the Church of the Resurrection in kadashi, the Sign in Dubrovitsy, Of the intercession at Fili, the Peter and Paul Cathedral in the Peter and Paul fortress, Smolny and St. Isaac's cathedrals, and even the Patriarchal Catedral Yelokhovsky Epiphany Cathedral and the Cathedral of Christ the Savior. It is unlikely that such a position can be called justified.

Such a broad interpretation of Canon lead to sad consequences not only in theory but also in practice. For example, in the 1990-ies to originally bezuprechnoi tent of the resurrection Church of the XVI century in the village of Gorodnya Stupino district of the Moscow region was added "canonical" altar apse, for the sake of which was partially destroyed ancient wall. So in the name of wrongly understood canonicity the monument was suffered enormous damage.And that apses have not the Church of the ascension in Kolomenskoye, Church bell tower John Climacus (Ivan the Great), St. Peter the Metropolitan of vysokopetrovsky the monastery, the Church of Metropolitan Peter in Pereslavl-Zalessky, Trinity Church in Chashnikova and many other ancient temples, customers of construction works in Gorodnya ignored.

Thus, a broad interpretation of Canon in architecture due to its extreme blur either fruitless or lead to personal triumph tastes. Hence, we cannot to recommend the use of such interpretations either in theory or in practice.

 

3. Symbolic interpretation

 

No doubt that in ancient times, and in the Middle ages, symbolic interpretations of all aspects of Church life, including temple architecture, was attached a large value. This has a number of historical evidence, are just some.

Symbolic way of expression was inherent in early Christianity, known used in those days, symbolic image a dove, fish, ship, lyre, anchor.

Maxim The Confessor wrote in the"Mystagogia", that the Church, first, there are image of the world as a whole; the altar in this case represents the celestial realm, and the room for praying Dolne. Secondly, the temple can only serve as a symbol of the sensual world, then the altar heaven, and he the temple ground. Thirdly, the temple is likened to man: the altar has a soul, the altar is the mind, and the temple is the body. Fourthly, the temple is the image of the soul. Note "global symbolism" the position of the monk:"The whole mental world in mysteriously symbolic the images seem to be depicted in the world of sense... and the whole world sensitive, if an inquiring mind to disassemble it in the basis, is in the world of thought"21.

The attempt to establish the correspondence between architectural forms and their sacred prototypes were made by Sophronius of Jerusalem, German of Constantinople. In these works explained the symbolism of the temple as a whole, the altar, the throne, the arch over the altar, kivoriy, Cosmit, the pulpit, etc.,22 I. L. Buseva-Davydova has identified three main interpretations:

"the old Testament", compiled in relation to the concept of old Testament temple and the cult, as the prototype of the temple and worship of the new Testament, Christian. On this interpretation, Christian Church is arranged like the tent of information that the altar is Holy saints, kivoriy is an image of the ark of the Covenant, kosmit the way old Testament kosmiya, the clothing of the priest the image of the long garment of Aaron, etc.;

istoriko-topographical", sostavlennoe in relation to the concept of Liturgy as about the remembering the suffering, death, burial, and the resurrection of Jesus Christ. On this interpretation the Church portrays him The crucifixion, Tomb and Resurrection, the conch is the image of the cave where Christ was buried, Holy table is the place where is put inthe Coffin Christ, kivoriy depicts the place where the crucified Christ was, of the lattice depict lattice around the cave of the Sepulchre in the Church of the Resurrection, pulpit depicts the stone, rolled away from the door of the Sepulchre, etc.;

"mystical", compiled in relation to the concept of Christian worship as the way the service of God of the heavenly powers. On this interpretation the Church is not an earthly sky, where dwells the God of heaven, beat the pipes of angels, the altar is the image prepackage and mental altar, etc.23

All these interpretations occur in later ecclesiastical writers of the first century BC, in particular, Eusebius of Caesarea, Dionysius the Areopagite and Maximus the Confessor.

The temple is dedicated the symbolism of the works of the Fathers of the Church were known in Russia even in pre-Mongol times. "History computerization Svyatoslav" 1073 year contains an article "Maximus the monk Ching image holds the Cathedral Church," to set out the relevant passages from Maxim The Confessor, and the "Izbornik" 1076 acquainted with the understanding of the Church as the Coffin The Lord of the earth and the sky. The interpretation of the words of Maximus the Confessor "of the Church of God is... (image) a reasonable peace, and chuvstvennogo person;reasonable W the world Pritcha is Socialista (sanctuary), and chuvstvennogo of the Church, a man W image there are specialista, slaughter of the soul, W Church body" is often found in manuscript collections XIXVI centuries, and in the "Golden chain" of the fourteenth century called "the Word of St. Basil the Great, sense priestly rank" there was information about the symbolism of the temple, Dating back to Herman Constantinople ("Cerci is the temple of God. The altar is the Coffin Of the Lord. The meals of the tomb there is a gate. Alternia the top is The shroud Yuzha buy Joseph. Ambon has rolled away the stone from the Tomb"). Thus, the most common ideas about the symbolism of architecture had been sufficiently known to the Russian the reader in the XIXIV centuries24.

A more complete presentation this object gives the current in the XVXVII centuries "Intelligent service": "the Church is the earthly heaven and the temple Of God the bride of Christ... the Altar is the throne of God... the Altar the image is of the Nativity scene, the VDA also buried there was the Christ... the Altar is the place of the cross, it is history blood and water... the Meal is Percy Gospodnya it Christ, on the Mysteryof the last supper the way open... the Ark over a meal at Craney mount on it also raspada Christ. Near BAA place idezhe podolny, pogreba. There are also on skrine Of the Covenant of the Lord... the Throne is for the meal stupinskoe place, it is still the Bishop will sit down with presbytery. The image is of the second coming, when thou shall come and sit on the throne... Jesus Christ with the apostles... The upper Church is the Head of the Lord. The head of the DRC Church holds Christ, and shiya Apostoli, and sinus evangelists. And the belt, praznici. Door to the altar the way Spasov"25.

A monk of Constantinople John Nathaniel in 1653 was "a Book about the mysteries of the Church", which was sent to Moscow, translated into Russian language Arseniy Greek and printed in 1656, under the title "the Tablet"26. It was the most complete and systematic exposition of the symbolism of the temple, liturgical objects and garments, existed in Ancient Russia. Quote: "the Temple of the way of the world chuvstvennogo, Gornji of the temple, that is to say top marks to the sky, the platform is the same, that is to say Dolne, marks the ground and Paradise. Zane like a well, in the midst of Paradise there is a tree of life, tacos and in the midst of the Church there is a tree the life that is to say the cross, who bears the fruit of life, that is to say Christ. The outside of the Church mark merely the earthly part of the earth, which mark the add man, I live your whole belly thou dumb animal, and not one thing high in heaven and in mind accept... the temple is divided into three, Zane, and God the Trinity is. UBO of this Church, that is to say the Church, obrazovce tabernacle of Moses, vsegda BAA divided into three, and the temple of Solomon thou says of the divine Paul... three is and the our Church share. A single place to the wives, husband second, and third the altar. In it are merely of the priests..."27.

In The tablets explained that the altar is the Holy of holies and the throne of God, arch above the altar marks Bethlehem "Nativity, where Christ was born, and the cave where he was buried, see (table) symbolizes the burial of Christ and the throne of God, kivoriy over the altar the martyrdom and the Shrine of the Covenant, the high place (Episcopal seat) the Ascension of Christ, and his level the angelic ranks. The altar is the symbol of the Holy Sepulchre, actually the vestry of Bethlehem and the Nativity scene, the arch of the altar the transfer of cross and pillars, supporting it, is working wonders. The pulpit is likened to the stone, rolled away from the sepulchre, and places the preaching of Christ28.

Circular tiled the inscription 1668 under the arches of the rotunda over the Holy Sepulchre and the resurrection the Cathedral of the New Jerusalem reads: "the legend of the sacraments of the Church, like a temple or Church world is, this Holy place God's village and the great house of prayer, meeting human; the sanctuary of the same mystery that is the altar, it is the service takes place; Trapeza (the altar S. Z.) is Jerusalem, it is The Lord podvorica and sede, thou on the throne, and was slain for us. Offer (an altar in the modern designation S. Z.) Bethlehem is, it is born The Lord..."29.

Large the spread had and numeric symbols. So, Maximus the Confessor suggested ratio of numbers 1, 4 and 10 over the four virtues and the ten commandments: "the Tetrad can be a decad, if you gradually fold it with one; but she, on the other hand, there are unit, as the unit embraces all that is good and is easy and the inseparability of divine action"30. Even more complex was interpretation of the apocalyptic action 12 thousand furlongs in the walls of the Heavenly Jerusalem in "the Interpretation of the Apocalypse of Andrew of Caesarea:"Dvadeset same disashi stages, which is shed and maligrad, negli UBS mark of this Majesty... the same Negli and for the number of dvenadtsati Apostles... And sedmice same number of mysterious things, nechim resolution seems required. Recessa Bo tiasa stages, tiama seven hundred chetyrnadtsat signs glagolemaya miles, make. They are also tiasa UBS beskonechnogo belly is perfection. Semsot the same perfection to the room. Chetyrnadtsat, purely Sabbath, soul and Telese (dwasi Bo Seda, chetyrnadtsat is)"31.

Common in Russia and was "popular", "common" symbolism. For example, protopod Habakkuk formulated it so: "the Church Bo is heaven, the Church the Holy Spirit dwelling with the cherubim the Lord reclines on the throne, the Seraphim Lord rests on the paten"32. Regarding bell ringing there was a riddle: "What there are: the living dead BIASE, dead same carcase, at the voice of him, harbored many of the people of stenosis?"33.

Ancient tradition emphasized the symbolic "military" traits of the temples. Dome called "helmets" (hats), drums "necks", arches "shoulders" and "head" is the "head". N. N. Voronin rightly pointed out that finish the drums temples crenate belts reminded decoration real helmets and stressed "the idea of military forces"34.

Given the list of examples is far from exhaustive medieval ideas about Orthodox symbolism, says that with high probability every form and every architectural element ancient temple could at one time or another have a certain symbolic interpretation.

But the methodological problem here is that on the specific interpretations in the absence of historical sources we can only guess. Options for each form and each object can be set, and any modern the study of the symbolism of certain shapes and elements of temples, not supported links to historical sources, leading to an extremely subjective opinions at the level of "I see", it is easily refuted not only by statistics and facts, but and by extension other so the same subjective opinions, looks no less convincing.

Even the seemingly so obvious at first glance option as the fact that three chapters of the temple symbolize the Holy Trinity35, actually is ambiguous, as head of the triceps in the temples are usually of different size, and more it is logical that the big head symbolizes Christ Pantokrator, and two small virgin and John the Forerunner (in accordance with the Deesisrank the iconostasis). In accordance with the Deesis rank can be interpreted and heads the five-domed churches not as the Christ and evangelists, as Christ, the virgin, John and two archangels Michael and Gabriel. Chapter seven-headed temples can symbolize andthe seven sacraments of the Church, and the seven gifts of the Holy spirit and the seven Ecumenical councils.

And because in not only inancient sources, but even in the sources of the XVIII first half XIX century references about the symbolism of the heads of the temple no36, any from Mascalucia on this topic can be only speculative.

In reasoning modern researchers on the topic of the Orthodox symbols meet and direct the contradictions of historical sources. So, according to Dionysius the Areopagite, the red color symbolizes the fire, yellow "latebrosa", green youth and bloom, white sincerity, black hidden secrets of God37. However, in the "Table book the priest is shown in an exemplary position Vladimir Bychkov: "In iconography The divine light symbolized not only gold, but also white color which means the radiance of eternal life and purity in opposition to black the color of hell, death, spiritual darkness (and howsame monks"monks"? S. Z.). Therefore, in the iconography of the black painted only image of the cave, where white linen cloths rests Born the divine child, the tomb from which in white shrouds out of the resurrected Lazarus, the hole of hell, from of depth which plagued the Risen Christ the righteous (also in white the swaddling). When the icons needed to portray something of the everyday life of black earth color, I tried the color replace some others. For example, a black horse painted blue. It should be noted that for the samereason in ancient iconography was trying to avoid and brown, because it is essentially the color of the dirt. And when the old icons we we meet sometimes brown, it is possible to think that the painter still had in mind dark yellow, ocher color, sought to convey a certain physicality, but not earth, corrupted by sin"38.

We present a one example. On the website of the Moscow Sretensky monastery "www.pravoslavie.ru" hieromonk job (Gumerov), referring to a kind of "tradition", writes: "the Golden domes symbolize the divine glory. Therefore, the gold-domed most satisfied with temples dedicated to Lord holidays. Blue or blue dome symbolically represent the heavenly purity and chastity. These the dome is crowned with temples dedicated to the Mother of God. Domes of temples dedicated to The most Holy Trinity, have, as a rule, green. Temples, consecrated in honor of saints, also have green dome"39. On the website of the Kyiv temple St. Theodosius of Chernigov given a slightly different version of "traditional" symbolism color chapters: "Gold symbol of heavenly glory. Golden domes were the main temples and have churches dedicated to Christ and the major feasts, the dome with blue stars are crowned with temples dedicated to the Theotokos, because the star is reminiscent of the birth of Christ from the virgin Mary; Trinity churches had green dome, because green is the color of the Holy spirit; the churches dedicated to the Saint, often topped with green or silver domes; in the monasteries there are black dome is color of monasticism"40.

But to understand that such "traditional symbols" in Ancient Russia was not enough to look collected by the author of this study in the scientific work "the Color solutions of chapters ancient temples"41 statistical illustrative material, where color heads does not depend on the dedications. So, of the 24 icons Nicholas 7 we see "gold" color chapters, 13 black, 4 brown, 3 red, 2 gray, etc. of the 11 icons of the virgin Mary: 5 gold, 5 black, 3 red, 2 blue, etc. At all three icons "rejoices About you" different colors of heads: gold, black and blue. No separation of colors of the heads on temple dedications we see the plans In Moscow late XVI the beginning of the XVII century. And decorated with Golden stars on a blue head appeared first on at the assumption Cathedral of the Trinity-Sergius Lavra in the beginning The nineteenth century42, that is, to the ancient traditions do not apply.

Such "traditions" was not in the beginning of XX century. In the study we cited statistics on photos of S. M. Prokudin-Gorsky, which presented the temples Vologda and Olonets provinces along the Mariinskaya water system43:

"Golden" color heads 1 Church, dedication Alexander Nevsky;

silver color of the heads 26 of the temples of initiation Transformation (3 temples), The intercession of the virgin, the Nativity of Christ (temple 2), Save the all-merciful, Peter and Paul (2 temple), the assumption of the virgin (2 temple), the Epiphany (the 3 temples), The Annunciation, the Resurrection of Christ (temple 3), the Tikhvin icon of the virgin, The Trinity (2 temple), the Praise of the virgin, John the Baptist, Paraskeva Friday, Sign Nicholas The Wonderworker;

green the color of the heads 19 of the temples of initiation Nicholas the Wonderworker (3rd temple), to All the saints, The intercession of the virgin, the Resurrection, the Ascension, Zosima and Savvatiy, John Climacus, Euphemia, the assumption of the virgin, John the Baptist (2 temple), Sergius Radonezh, the Introduction in the Temple, a miraculous Save The image of the Tikhvin icon of the mother of God, the Clement;

blue color chapters (with the stars) 3 temple of initiation, the Trinity, the Introduction in Temple of the Kazan icon of the virgin;

brown color heads 1 Church, dedication Peter and Paul.

So, the fact that in Ancient Russia (and Russian Empire) symbolism played a role in the choice of colors chapters, we may take for granted, and any modern theory of "traditional" the symbolism of the color chapters is historically unfounded.

In the most part arbitrary and not based on historical sources) and are widespread in our time lists symbolic interpretations of various temple forms and elements.

For example, M. P. Kudryavtsev and T. N. Kudryavtseva believed that the symbolic significance of the temple drum is the image of the heavenly Church through the apostles, the prophets, the patriarchs, archangels, cherubim and Seraphim. Window of the drum symbolize the light of the teachings The Church, piers the ranks of the saints, crowning the cornice drum celestial forces. Gables and tiers of corbel arches, surrounding a head (or heads), create an image the Church in heaven (angels and saints), the forthcoming the throne of God.The diversity in outline of the forms of Gables and corbel arches of different temples, and sometimes different tiers of one temple, can mean different kinds of service and confession of faith of numerous hierarchies of celestial Church of the nine orders of angels and the nine ranks of the righteous. The basis forms an octagonal tent lies 9 the number formed by the eight corners (or edges) and the geometric center tent, respectively, this also reflects the nine ranks of angels and saints, which have a three-part hierarchy. The blind arcades of ancient temples poetic story about the lives of saints in the garden of Eden. The pillars that support the arches inside the temple, and pillars built into the walls and projecting from them in the form of blades (or pilasters), the image of the "pillars of the Church" apostles, saints, teachers Church. The Windows of the temple have received architectural and pictorial symbolsangelic forces that tells us the light of divine insights and guarding the temple from does not enter the "spirits of darkness" the fallen angels.Input promising the portal reminds her device the words of the gospel "Enter through the narrow gate" (Matt. 7:13)44.

M. P. Kudryavtsev and tn. Kudryavtseva has even written about the symbolic value of such a small architectural details, as a cushion. According to these researchers, the cushion, as a sign of connection pillars, walls, arches and the top of the temple carries the image of unity of the whole construction of the temple, that is, in a symbolic sense a sign of unity, the unification of the earthly and heavenly Church, all the hierarchical steps which marked architectural forms of Russian Orthodox Church45.

A. Y. Mainicheva: "the Tobolsk Cathedral of the Holy Wisdom of had five chapters and three the altar, the combination of these elements gives the basic numeric symbolic image of the temple. The significance of the number three is traditionally that is that this "full and perfect number" (Augustine).This number the divine Trinity and the soul number, arranged according to its design, the symbol of all spiritual (three annual feast, bequeathed to Moses on mount Sinai, the words of Christ about three-day the exaltation of the Church the miraculous, the resurrection of Christ on the third day three-fold denial of Peter, three stars on the cloak of our lady)... So, in the image of the temple is symbolically transferred to the combination of the edification of the desire soul to spirituality, commitment to the Trinity, unity of the earth Church and God, the acquisition of eternal life all Christians, that is the fact of Christianity that should make these temples do the lead on of importance... Thus, the semantics of the architectural image wooden Tobolsk Cathedral of Sofia Wisdom of the word of God, built in 20-ies of the XVII century, was due to a complex and elitist theological Filosofem, reflected in the architecture as znamenovanie the livability of existence, the harmonization of the chaos, the power of powers, and symbols numbers three and five, which incorporates motifs of pagan and Christian beliefs"46.

Y. V. Linnik: "DLa the Russian North is typical the octagon. The most powerful of them delivered in Kizhi. By setting the frame configuration, asymptotically approaching the circle line, the architects emphasized the sacredness structures. It belongs to the sky. The above-mentioned Aristotelian opposition live round and was perceived by Christianity. Ascend this opposition to the well-known table of opposites, composed By Pythagoras, we find there the antithesis of straightness and curvature, which Plato and Aristotle gives a clear sense of values... starogradskoj literature we find this statement: "it is not uncommon for the instructions on the universal meaning of the cross of Christ as the microverse cross portrayed inscribed in a circle, symbolizing the heavenly sphere kosmologicheskie"... Plan of the Kizhi of the Transfiguration similar to this symbolism: the archetype of the cross here, combined with the archetype of the circle. The archetype of the pyramid also brilliant said yourself in the silhouette of the Church of the Transfiguration. Pyramid is considered one of allomorphs World Axis. Since ancient times it is the instrument of spiritual ascending taking people from the empirical plane, contributes the establishment of its connection with the sky. Kizhi Transfiguration successfully performs this task. It symbolizes the burning spirit. The flame rushes up vertically... The archetype of the pyramid apologin closely with the archetype of the stairs. In somearchitectural structures these archetypes are the same. This is the step pyramid Of Djoser in Ancient Egypt... Another example Babylonian the ziggurats. Parallel to such combination gives the Kizhi Transfiguration. Four flights cascade converge at the noumenal point. The key to understanding this structure give The "areopagitum"... How exactly this philosophy reflects the structure of the Transfiguration Church! It is remarkable that in Russian translation "Areopagitic" enhanced Hesychast point: below congregational singing, at the top absolute silence. Naturally, this transition simulates the Kizhi stairs-tetractid: the foot admiring "Oh!" at the climax silence and amazement. Trinitarianthe archetype is in the "Areopagitica" goes hand in hand with the archetype stairs. For its hierarchical structure characterized by the triad division... Tri hierarchically decreasing octagon, additionally, voicing the archetype of the staircase, are projected concentric traektoria. This is one of the symbols of the Trinity. Kizhi Transfiguration implies Trinitarian dogma. The semantics of this construction bottomless"47.

E. S. medkova: "Cross-domed Church appeals to the three basic geometric symbols: circle of the dome, the cross and to the absolute point center (the shape and the circle and cross is focused on the center). It says increased concentration of symbolism in the Orthodox Church. With the concept of center is associated with the beginning began any creation as well as the absolute end of the coiled to the point of the universe. The center is the absolute sacredness, and the center of the described circle is the limit peace, unity, infinity and completeness, the highest limit of perfection...In the center of the temple, where the logic of the ritual involved was a believer, he was left alone with Christ the Pantokrator, which is the "alpha and omega, the beginning and the end" (Rev. 1:8), and as the earthly center of the universe man had directly to feel the mysticism of communion with the divine absolute peace and harmony source of world dynamics. the Circle is the projection of the sphere, and the sphere shape, all accept ideal geometrical body, since antiquity, was thought of as the body of the Universe. In the mythopoetic tradition of many ancient cultures there was a version about the origin of the cosmos from the cosmic egg... Withpacificas cross-domed the Orthodox Church is a kind of doubling centricity round the dome is also a centre of sacred cross. Thus, the very position the circle in the center of the cross indicates sverhsekretnoj... the structure of the cross-domed temple in which space is modeled cross horizontal (plan) and vertical (cross - dome space), the process of the exaltation of the cross takes place continually, as if in the eyes of the believer himself"48.

O. V. Starodubtsev: "Bringing Together The Church, the living temple of God with the very building of the temple, St. John Chrysostom teaches that each and all believers together are the temple, and all Nations are the four walls of which Christ established a single Church... Thus, the walls of the temple is the image the Church's Ministry in heaven for us, the Church of the earth: the protection of the purity of Orthodoxy and Cathedral intercession on living before God... ToAK it is seen from the above, the temple has four walls corresponding to four sides light, they are equal and form a cube. This symbol is consistent with the ancient architectural style of churches like Byzantine and Byzantine-Russian (Kiev, Novgorod, Vladimir, Moscow). (Note that O. V. Starodubtsev ignores the fact that the bulk of the the vast majority of Orthodox churches does not have a cubic form S. Z.). If the temple is the image of the world, each wall must meet one of the countries of the world and at the same time a particular area of Church life. part of the temple symbolizes the created world, but is already deified, sanctified,justified. This is in the full sense of the "new heavens" and "new earth"... the Porch (corresponds to the court of the tabernacle) is a symbol of peace unpatched, still lyingin sin, even hell itself. Therefore the porch is located in the Western part of the Church, opposite the altar the symbol of Paradise (there are forechurches temples, and which then symbolize the Northern and southern arches, the author is not specified S. Z.)... If the temple body of the Church, the head, the seat of divine of wisdom..."49.

O. V. Starodubtsev also talked about the symbolism of building materials, of which temples were erected, about the stone and the tree (ignoring the brick apparently identifying it to the stone that, strictly speaking, incorrect, since the nature of these materials is completely different). Quote: "the Stone a symbol primarily Withamogo of Christ... the Great Isaiah calls Christ "the stone of stumbling and a rock of offense", on which many stumble and fall and crash... a tried Stone, a precious cornerstone, firmly approved, he that believeth on him shall not be ashamed" (ISA. 8:14; 28:16; ROM. 9:33). Symbolizing Christ, the stone symbolizes both the and solid faith in Christ... Eif the walls of the temple all Nations from which Christ has created His Church, according to St. John Chrysostom, and the stone symbol true to the Lord Christian (according to the AP. Peter), the stones in temple wall symbolize the souls of the righteous are the people who make up the Church of Christ. The tree is a symbol of the Tree of life in Eden, in which dwell the righteous soul"50.

And in the work of L. V. golovachova "design Basics Orthodox churches" even a table of "Symbols architectural forms of the temple" from dozens of titles51. Of course, this "comprehensive" modern approach has nothing to do historically sound understanding of the Orthodox temple symbolism.

A similar situation takes place with the proposed number of researchers symbolic numerical ratios, which, being unconfirmed historical sources are equally arbitrary. For example, V. E. Larionov and M. N. Gorodova counted as the numeric ratio for Saint Sophia Cathedral in Kiev:"Central link the dome of the Cathedral has a length of 7.7 m, Afanasiev K. N. this module 25 of the Greek feet. If we take the Greek foot is "big span" or "span with somersault", then, accordingly, the module can Afanasyev to be equal to 25 "large spans". Analysis of the width of the St. Sophia Cathedral brought the following results: the width of the Cathedral in 29,30 m corresponds to 12 fathoms at 2.44 m... Cathedral Length without the apse to 24.30 m corresponds to 10 fathoms. pabout of 2.43 m... Cathedral Length with the apses 29.55 m is 25 fathoms. at 1.18 m... Full length of the Cathedral in 41,75 m corresponds to 25 fathoms. at 1,661,67 m... Metric parameters Saint Sophia Cathedral in Kiev is based on modular numbers 10, 12, 15, 21, 24, 25, 30. Repeated many times the modules of the numbers 12, 15, 25. The semantics of these numbers sophiological. Numbers 15 and 25 in the ancient Sophist temples are regular structural modules, including typical components for pre-Mongolian architecture, as they later became for the temples in honor of The Mother Of God"52.

For the history of architecture this approach is futile, as in any measurement, the date and other parameters of any building it is possible by a simple mathematical calculation to isolate almost any "symbolic number". And on the basis of such ambiguous modern calculations (not taking into account the irregularity of the breakdown of plans of ancient temples) in any case impossible to make such global conclusions as the following, made by V. E. Larionov and M. N. Policeman:"Proportional analysis of medieval ancient temples showed that the basic dimensions of the temple (longitudinal, transverse, vertical, and diagonal) contain a symbolic number, traditionally correlated with the Christian doctrine of the image of Christ the Savior or Of The Blessed Virgin. In every single Church, with different methods build forms, use different combinations of numbers. These features depend from the history of the construction of the temple, from the nature of initiation, i.e., what episode from a life dedicated to the temple, but also from the artistic flair of the wizard... erthe whole set of conditions and rules"53.

Some researchers saw in the Orthodox churches even non-Christian symbols. So, S. D. Sulimenko wrote:"And the sun and the sky, and the fire be in Christianity characters of supernatural divine world. Gold and copper, respectively gold and copper color cover, symbolizing mythic-creative era "sun fire", get the symbolic color of the sun of the Kingdom of heaven. From here the gold background of Byzantine mosaics and Russian icons, Golden halo, Golden crown, Golden face, Golden glow. Now let us turn directly to form a Solar window rannemodernoj cave temple... Form of the Solar window is based on interchangeable mythological images"fire" keeled form and "sun" wheel, the chariot, this form is symbolized and solarthe fire and the sun itself, and his compound in the cave and the liberation of the sun from the cave. A Sunny window is the canonization in architecture of the Buddhist temple images of the solar light in Vedic mythology... Thus, the striking similarity of the form "barrels" traditional Russian wooden architecture with the shape of the Solar window, having a wooden prototypes in the architecture of the Vedic age, is not accidental. Both forms, on our hypothesis, genetically back to the architectural-symbolic mythological images of the fire, which occupied an important place in the once common cultural traditions of Indo-Aryan peoples"54.

As the above research based interpretation not on historical sources and on surface observations and formal ratios, we have to consider them no more scientifically sound than grotesque humorous description of the "car symbols" shown in the novel Umberto eco "Foucault's Pendulum". Play it here as Umberto eco was not only an outstanding writer, but also a scholar-Medievalist, and reflected not only the thinking of "commentators universal symbols", but typical of their labors verbosity and the ornateness.

"And if the car exists only as a metaphor of creation the world? Only one should not dwell on his appearance or restricted a view of the instrument panel, you need to see in him what I have planned Creator what is hiding under. The fact that undermeets what is above. The tree of Sephiroth... Let's follow the dialectics of the Tree. At its apex is the Engine, Omnia Movens, which can be said, is the Source of Creation. From it energy Majestic reported two Wheels the Wheel of Intelligence and the Wheel of Wisdom... Za Motor and two Wheels should Grip, Sephira Grace, which activates or deactivates the flow of Love, linking the rest of the Tree with Higher Energy... And then the Casket The vicissitudes, or change, say the positivists, which is the source of Evil, because it gives mankind the power to speed up or slow down a continuous process of emanation. This quite well explains why automatic transmission is more expensive in this case, the Tree itself takes the solution corresponding to the principle of the Great Balance. This is followed by a Hinge,which, please note, accidentally bears the name of the great magician of the era Renaissance Cardan shaft and Bevel Gear, it is noteworthy opposition to the four Cylinders of the engine, which is the Crown (Keter, Lower Crown), informing the movement of the earth the wheels. And here it becomes obvious the purpose of the sephirah in the same manner Differences, or differentials, which with majestic sense of beauty distributes and space forces between the two Wheels of Glory and the Victory of the Great... the Motor comes to life when the action of the Suction and Exhaust... the process of breathing in the First Cylinder (the first not hierarchy, and those who happened to be at the place of location) of the Piston or the Piston (etymologically from "Pistis Sophia") makes a movement from the Top Dead Point and Lower Dead Point, and at this time the Cylinder is filled with energy. Of course, I simplified, because here we would have more to mention the angelic hierarchies, that is, control Valves... the Heart of the Motor interacts with the rest of the Space only through this mechanism, and here, I believe, emerges, but I wouldn't want them to think I washeretic, the primary constraint is one, which in a sense depends in his creative activity from the Great Eccentrics... TAK or otherwise, when the Cylinder is filled with Energy, the Piston rises to the Top Dead Point and creates Maximum Compression. And here comes the Big Bang, Bang and Expansion of... Woe, if in a Combustible The mixture will get foreign particles, these drops of impure matter like water or "Coca-Cola". The extension does not occur or it occurs weak shocks... In any case, after Expansion comes the Divine breath, called in the most ancient manuscripts of the Exhaust. The piston returns to the Top Dead center and pushes the burned formless matter. And only when this purification is possible, there comes a New Cycle. This suggests Neoplatonism about the mechanism of Exod and Paroda, beautiful dialectic Way leading to the Top, and the Way Inbottom... By tomorrow I prepare a mystical interpretation of the phone book..."55.

 

4. Symbolic interpretation and the Genesis of architectural forms and elements

 

Another significant methodological problem of using symbols in questions the history of architecture is the point of view of some researchers, allowing the possibility that a symbolic interpretation could directly influence the Genesis of architectural forms and elements.

Undoubtedly, the intervention of the Orthodox Church in the process of designing temples took place always, because the temples were built for her. Of course, had a place creative the participation of the clergy in the creation of new forms, was the place of the Church project requirements, prohibitions and restrictions56. But many the researchers of the symbolism goes further, suggesting a direct effect on the creative process of theological theories, expressed in symbolic interpretations.

So, Archpriest Lev (Lebedev) wrote: "Above the main and Central chapel in the name of Of the intercession of the Mother of God stands and the main Central tent of the Church of Basil the Blessed. It is octagonal, crowned with a Golden head.If the Golden head is, in the words of our rudder, "the head of the Lord, the head of the Bo the Church holds Christ" (He is "the Sun of righteousness", and is marked by a gold the head of the temple) then an octagonal tent symbolizes our lady as the mistress and mother The Church covering it "the Holy with His omophorion" (by the way, "omophorion" ever-virgin Mary in Orthodox icons is the eight-pointed star on the head part and aplacian). But the number eight also means "the eighth" century eternal life in the Kingdom of heaven, where there is a mysterious marriage of the lamb with His bride Hence the Church... in the Orthodox consciousness the blessed virgin Mary is at the same time a sign of the Church, and the sign of the "New Jerusalem". This the identity was reflected and in the Russian Church architecture. Cross-domed Church of the Russo-Byzantine type (as it was in Russia, the main with X to XVII century;there were also circular temples and temples complex composition, and Basil was not at all) (it is strange that Leo O. (Lebedev) does not relate to basilicam four-column and four-pillar temples, as is customary in the history architecture Sz), it was said, at the same time two views about the Church as the Assembly of the faithful and of the Kingdom of heaven as the end result of faith in Christ... the symbolism of the octagon, the octagon symbol fromNotre Dame enters the symbol of the Kingdom of Heaven ("osimage" century).This octal symbols is repeated in the Cathedral of the intercession repeatedly: and in eight core chapters, surrounding a Central ninth (hip), and small Chapter eight who were in XVIXVII centuries on the headdress of the Central tent, and in the octagonal layout of the entire Cathedral, where the four aisles were are strictly oriented to the cardinal points and four others in between these parties, so that the shape of the two squares combined at an angle of 45, that is, eight-pointed star. All this along with eight facets Central tent evidenceconscious, the deliberate pursuit of (my italics Sz) to represent the temple as a symbol The virgin and symbol of the New Jerusalem, a life ", osimage", "future age". And if we add to this that in the XVIXVII centuries the total number of all the chapters St. Basil's Cathedral was 25 (several small cupolas was on the Western head of the temple), it is even more clearly indicates the original "new Jerusalem" the symbolism of the temple... Marian symbolism, coinciding with the symbols of the Kingdom of Heaven, in the center of Moscow is not accidental: Moscow and all Russia has long perceived as the "house of the blessed virgin Mary". Russian spirituality is all notice mother of God in nature. Special part Virgo Mary in the fate of the Russian land is manifested from ancient times in all parties Russian life and, in particular, in the spiritual and mysterious of Its leadership in creation of Russian cities, temples, monasteries"57.

G. Y. Mokeev: "the desire of the Church builders was always to create a temple that would embody the image of all creation, the Universal The Church displays the beauty of the heavenly world, the heavenly Paradise. In the search for this ideal has been tried and applied, it would seem, everything: gigantism and extraordinary splendor inside and outside (Gothic churches), various, supposedly heavenly shapes (arches, domes); icon painting, mural, sculpture represented the faces of the triumphant heavenly Church of the saints, and angels ' singing, "divine" music was sacrificing the spirit to the sky. These searches witnessed a lot of surviving and not surviving monuments Christian religious architecture of the past. But the creation of a synthetic type the perfect image of the universe, the Universal Church and of the heavenly Paradise always met a lot of difficulties. Only over a period of 700 years (until the baptism of Rus) the Christian churches of Europe and Asia changed a lot of types, shapes, images. It was found, however, and something symbolically the permanent"58.

A. I. Komech, analyzing the causes the evolution of the Byzantine domed Basilica to the cross-domed, made the following considerations related to the symbolism of the temples:"The spread of cross-domed temples with certainty testifies to their highest, in comparison with other composite types, the adequacy of the requirements of a new era... In VI and the following centuries increased role in the liturgical rite of the offertory demanded adjacent to the main altar the arrangement of the altar and diakonia. Three-part and emerged as the most common variant, trehapsidnoy the structure of the altar of the temple. Such a transformation is not required, however, radical changes in the structure, they were quite feasible in the basilicas.Moreover, cross-domed churches look even less comfortable due to brevity in the overall size and the lack of aisles for Grand entrances and marches.It is impossible to doubt that the prevalence of cross-domed churches associated with their specific philosophical foundations, where great importance was symbolic ideas and aesthetic expression of ritual, even in spite of some inconvenience. (My italics Sz) will Try to allocate from the General system of the Christian Outlook VIVII centuries the view of the world, the rites of the Church, which could be a source of such selection... For Christians the rites were a tabernacle for the sacred values available the person in this world. During the Liturgy the believer believed that achieves the close as possible to the person, the communication with the deity... Nand over VIIIX centuries. especially important was the idea the Church as a microcosm, uniting two spheres of the heavenly in the earthly, or, to put it otherwise, the Church is "heaven on earth". This is related to the desire to the completeness of compositional decisions and to synthesize artistic ideas. The architecture of the temples was regarded as a "fingerprint invisible beauty" and "order of visible jewelry" was to point to the slender and the permanent order in the heavens, on the highest beauty... the Cross-domed type of Church its clear antichnosti was relevant to the concepts of "single", "easy", "peaceful without soprotivlenie", "alien to any blemish", "lack of plurality and motion", "cool fun", "steadfast and the fixed hardness". The dome and vaults associated with the world highest... Grouped around the center of the curvilinear motion surfaces turned the uniting Church in overshadowing and would like blessing the cover. Born in Justinian architecture concept covering of the canopy was the fundamental idea of the whole Byzantine architecture, most fully revealed in the structure of the cross-domed churches59.

A. E. Kuchma: "Now consider the symbolism of architectural forms domed temples played a significant role in the spiritual reorientation of art started in catacomb painting. A. I. Komech believes that it is possible to trace the development of religious architecture in the VVI centuries, on the basis of common in the IIIIV century analogies, Podobnaya the world created by God the temple. This idea is gradually assimilated by the people for IVVI centuries, defining the specifics artistic creations and public tastes.... We can say that the symbolism domes in temple architecture, apparently, is connected with the interpretation of the sky as archAnd...moving from the perception of the Universe as "artistic the temple of God's creation", it becomes clear the kind of transfer principles divine creativity on the creativity of the human in the construction of the cult structures. Largely thanks to this as if suspended composition occurs feeling a certain disembodiment of architectural material, ease of interior of the building, so that even large size dome seems to be weightless, floating in the air, as if suspended from the sky...TAK of assimilation the temple of the universe grows gradually reverse the analogy: the architects built the temples, the relevant religious beliefs about the Universe. As a result, in development of dome architecture consists of special symbols the architectural forms produced by certain ways of creating a "disembodied" atmosphere hovering inside places of worship. All is answered spiritual orientation of a new religion"60.

But the history of Russian architecture unknown facts that a theologian has decided that in the interests of the symbolism (or any theological theory, the Church should have another new item, or a particular new form, have agreed on its position with churchwarden and ordered the architect to build this way and not otherwise. Such facts are unknown even in concerning the priestly vestments and liturgical equipment, and much more costly and complex from a technical and organizational point of view, region architecture this situation is almost impossible to imagine. Especially in region so complex is the design and labor-intensive typologies, as dome and cross-dome.

Symbolic ideas, as a theological theory, and philosophical foundations in General, could affect the formation of the architectural tradition only indirectly. Havelike speaking, the churchwarden order, the architects building, the society evaluates, interpreters interpret assessment results and interpretations are perceived in varying degrees considered the next generation of builders and architects, etc.

Innovations in temple architecture always to some extent represents a departure from the tradition, and, accordingly, they cannot be generated by any symbolic interpretations. They can produce and the talent of the architects, and the artistic taste of the customers, and the progrSS of stroteley technology, and changing aesthetic preferences of society, and ideological tasks, and borrowing from other cultures and styles, and more, until purely utilitarian purposes (for example, the need to increase capacity of the temple). A certain role can play and financial, personnel and other limitations that may have non-standard solutions.

I use the researchers symbols as justification of the ways the Genesis of architectural forms and elements of the temples there is one negative methodological aspect. If the ancient symbols ever had direct and immediate influence on the Genesis (which, as we have seen, not proven), we still don't know what symbolism as it affected. No documentary evidence on this subject has not survived, so any the efforts of contemporary researchers in finding the symbolism of certain architectural the features and elements of the temples, as we have seen in section 3, lead to exceptionally subjective opinions on the level of "I see", not only easily refuted the statistics and facts, but also by extension other such the same subjective opinions, looks no less convincing.

As for aesthetics, it is even more conventional than the symbolism, and the use of aesthetic arguments to justify the emergence of new architectural forms and elements as unjustified from a methodological point of view. That aesthetic preference at all times influenced the architecture, there is no doubt (in otherwise mankind has never built anything, except for purely utilitarian buildings), but to judge medieval tastes we can only indirectly through already accomplished facts of their full-scale implementation. Accordingly, any effortmodern researchers in the search for the aesthetic reasons of the occurrence of certain forms and elements of ancient temples, as a rule, lead only to the finding, the architect and churchwarden wanted to build a beautiful building61.

Concluding the consideration methodological problems of the use of symbolism in the history of the Orthodox architecture, remember the words perfectly fair I. L. Busevac-Davydova: "The study of symbolic representations of Ancient Rus is definitely an important task for historians culture, but for architectureweek it is peripheral. The knowledge of the marks influenced the perception of the interior of the temple, but not to build a specific the architectural forms that developed according to its own laws"62.

 

5. Proportions

 

"To confide harmony with algebra", calculating the proportions of temples, for the historian of architecture it is often very useful. Proportional analysis is applied when reconstructions and Dating of the temples with the involvement of counterparts, as to the source masters, in justifying why one temple is similar to others. In such cases, if verbal description is added to the calculation of proportions, it enriches scientific works63.

But the use of proportional analysis has its limits. Attempts to use it on a global scale to identify ways of development of architecture, and even more for the attainment of the universal laws of beauty and harmony, is futile. We show this by the number of characteristic examples.

While K. N. Afanasiev used the proportions of St. Sophia for reconstruction of the original form galleries of Sophia of Novgorod64, fundamentally argue there was nothing. But when he measured the upper edge of the stylobate of the Parthenon, put a single module world architecture", equal one hundred Greek Olympic feet (30 m 83 cm), the fundamental the objections appeared.

So, the researcher wrote: "We met with 100-foot size of the Parthenon; six centuries (!) the same 100-foot size applied builders of the Pantheon of Rome; two centuries later in the same Rome constructed Basilica of Maxentius and its size is determined by the same one hundred feet; still two centuries later the dome of the Sophia of Constantinople is equal to the same 100 g f.; Sophia in Thessaloniki has a size equal to 100 g. f.; Sophia and Sofia Novgorod, as well as Sophia in Thessaloniki, have a 100-foot sizes... We have accumulated many examples of the use of this size.The fact the distribution of this measure a hundred Greek feet in time from the Parthenon V. V BC to the Kievan Rus of the XI-XII centuries ad and in the territory from Rome to Novgorod testifies to the peculiar discipline of urban planning, single scale the scale and sustainability of measures of length65.

But apart Sofia Sofia of Kyiv and of Novgorod, Kievan Rus ' there were many other temples the vast majority of which had no relation to the rendered K. N. Afanasyev "single module". The same can be said about Ancient Greece, and about Ancient Rome, and about Byzantium and post-Mongol Rus about: it many thousands of temples. And is it possible to make such global conclusions "about a kind of discipline of urban planning, a single scale of magnitude and sustainability measures of length", relying only on a few examples, componentsa negligible fraction of the overall scope of the construction of the temple?

The same methodological problem we see in the study A. F. Chernyaev, dedicated to the "Golden proportions" of ancient architecture66. The researcher believed that in Ancient Russia, as in Ancient Egypt, there existed "extraordinary somereally tool that defines the whole the process of architectural creativity of ancient times. Tool that provides a receipt a fundamentally new (or rather, completely lost) numeric relationships, displaying proportional "gold" the combination of the lengths of fathoms"67. But the whole complex mathematical apparatus of this study is based on a proportional the analysis of only four churches the assumption Cathedral of Kiev-Pechersk Lavra churches of the ascension, of our Saviour on Nereditsa and Paraskeva in Novgorod. Of course, such a meager field data are insufficient to evidence of such global conclusions, including "conspiracy", and unrelated to the history of architecture, as, for example, the following: "The Number Of Christ 7. The number sacred, meaning sacred. Quality and composition constructed the Church as the Church of Christ as a spiritual structure in their secret proportions include elements of sacredness that contains the combined number of pairs measures: worldly, open to all, and hidden that are multiples of 7. And included so that is not let into the secret of religious buildings of Christianity did not notice any stvarnosti nor multiplicity. As well as was not noticed and then, in the split of the Church having a higher status of Holiness, was not involved less than 7 fathoms of varying lengths. These rules were so conspiratorial and with this caution observed (this led, apparently, their loss), and today... even the big architects have no idea about the double dimensional the structuring of these masterpieces and Suginoi about the sacredness of their sacred proportions number 7... nature around us is living, pulsing, breathing. Throbbing stars, planets, asteroids, rocks... the Elements of buildings, parts of buildings and their designalso pulsate. Pulsing walls, ceilings, furniture, various machines, etc. And in its ripple emit standing waves in the room. These waves almost cannot be detected by the instrument (or rather instruments, catching them, not yet created because the phenomenon is not allowed), but very well felt the human body. Moreover, these waves affect the body man, suppressing it and forcing it to spend its energy on resistance wave action, weaken it and contribute to diseases. And the morestanding waves in the living space, the more energy you need to spend the body her blanking out"68.

Another example position Rachinsky A. V. and A. E. Fedorov, consisting in that Russian architecture over 4000 years, and it has Indo-Iranian the origin of69. In support of its position, the authors cite the similarities a range of proportions, forms and elements of ancient wooden architecture and churches ancient Iran and India.

But The Baptism Of Rus occurred only in the late X century until Russia was predominantly pagan, and whether there is generally any temples a question disputable. And even if to suggest that build, it is unknown what they looked like. And even more it is impossible to establish such a global theory only on the similarity of the proportions, shapes and elements of the temples, with an emphasis on not the basic branches of the Russian architecture wooden, shape which also we known only from the XIV century. Proven a large amount of historical and field data of Byzantine and Romanesque roots "pillar" stone ancient architecture by these philosophers are ignored.

V. A. Raczynski and E. A. Fedorov for a justification of their position was also attracted by the genetic relationship of the Slavs and Aryans. We will refrain from anthropological review and say that even if such the relationship had indeed taken place, it is in any case is not proof of relationship architecture.

Therefore, the point of view these authors cannot be considered proven. If the mutual influence of ancient and Iranian-Indian architecture and was the place (that deserves a separate research involving historical sources70), then prove this effect is theoretically possible only during the last Millennium, but not four thousand years.

Let us give another example. Archpriest Lev (Lebedev) wrote: "the resurrection Cathedral of the New Jerusalem was created by a native Russian system of proportioning, having in the anthropomorphic basis of its beginning, that is, the proportions of the human body. We used some of the dimensions of already existing Russian temples. Thus, the height of the rotunda around the Holy Sepulchre was 16 or folk measuring fathoms (for... 176 centimeters each). In modern units 16 such fathoms equal 28,17 meters. This is exactly the same height the famous octagonal tent-roofed Church of the ascension in the village of Kolomenskoye (XVI century). It is particularly noteworthy that the height of the tents and the Church of the ascension and New Jerusalem (tent 1685) is also the same; it was 22,37 meter, what is 12 fathoms Church (186,4 cm...). The use of different fathoms in the construction of one building a common and natural phenomenon. The same size 12 fathoms Church is the length of the Cross Cathedral Kiya monastery built by Patriarch Nikon. Tent Cathedral in the New Jerusalem crowned in 1685 the head with a cross, height 6 in people's yards (at 176centimeters), so that the total height of the tent parts from the finished floor level was equal to 61 meters, and if you count from ground level, and more. Not note that some high-rise options, the dimensions of this Cathedralwas very close to the size of the Church of the Intercession (Vasiliy The blessed in Moscow, where, for example, the height of the Central part of the tent equal to 63.2 metra71.

When reading these numerological calculations inevitably the question arises: what is common, except close (and very tentatively) some sizes, between new Jerusalem rotunda, Church of the ascension in Kolomenskoye, Cathedral Kiya Cross monastery and the Intercession on the Moat? From the point of view architecture almost nothing, not even a tent cannot be a unifying sign, as the cue-Ostrovsky Holy cross Cathedral is not marquee.

Therefore, all the above reasoning for the history of architecture fruitless. If to argue in this manner, since practically equal to the altitude (81 m) have Ivan the Great of Moscow, St. Petersburg Church on spilt Blood and the bell tower of the assumption The Sarov Hermitage, it is possible to draw any General conclusions about the architecture of these buildings. Of course, this is illegal.

And last example. In 1984, A. A. Voznesensky published a poem "Proportion"72. Because the poet was a graduate of the Moscow architectural Institute that is a professional architect, and this poem is a typical illustration of what we have said concerning the very the limited applicability of proportional analysis, we present it here.


Everything Russian logs

that hut were girth,

there were three fathoms exactly

millionth part of the Earth.


It is not clear what this is for

a man in the Vologda and Tver

knew with all my heart milionnuju radius

immense universal Land?


And the Kremlin Cathedral of the Annunciation,

and the pearl on the Nerl

kept a man and a woman

melonnie two shares of Land.


And as their brother birch Rodin,

brilliant at the same size

The Parthenon Doric order

in height six fathoms had.


Learned tenderly-

pastoral artisan,

with millions of proportionality

human common Ground!


Lomonosovskiy Prospekt

not for fashion because the architect of Moscow

those six hundred thirty-seven centimeters

gave, as a module of beauty and love.


Give me, fate, I share the hard

test any go

pain be and milandou a share

and my and universal the Earth.

 

Won't touch of the poetic merits of this poem, just analyze said it from the point of view of the topic of our study.

In this case for us not so important very strange understanding of the poet-architect length of logs in Russian huts: because the size of the latter in any case not were everywhere the same, and girth of the logs were the length of an average of 6 up to 9 m73. Not so important, in fact, the height of a warrant The Parthenon is not 12.8, and 13.7 m74 and which part of the Church Of the intercession on the Nerl and the Annunciation Cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin have dimensions of 12.8 m, the author of this study could not figure out. Not so important, The earth is not quite the right shape, and its radius varies from 6357 to 6378 km75. Not so important that "model" the building, "the architect Moscow those 637 inches gave, as a module of beauty and of love" (the Central economic-mathematical Institute of RAS, architect L. N. Pavlov, 1978) is not at the Lomonosov Prospekt, and in its continuation Nakhimovskiy the Avenue (building 47).

What is more important: how actually it looks like this sung in the poem "the model" the building in which the module 637 cm conditional "one millionth of the Earth" do universally applied (see Il. 1). For after several decades is clear: in spite of carefully calibrated proportional the ratio is not more than inexpressive architecture characteristic the Brezhnev "era of stagnation". Monotonous the main facade is unable to revive even hanging sculpture in the form of a möbius strip (although made by artists V. K. Vasiltsova and E. A. Garroway taking into account the same module), and the side facades look pathetic even by the standards of that era. What about the "relationship" of this building with the Parthenon or Church of the Intercession on the Nerl can be said?

 

 

Il. 1. The building of CEMI RAS at the address: Moscow, Nakhimovsky prospect, 47.

Photos D. Esakova76.

 

It remains only to note, what is the typical panel "Khrushchev" five-storey building is one of the common series 1605/5, built in the years 1958-1966 (Il. 2), has a height of about 13 m-2 "ppm of the Earth." Chetyrehchastnaya building of this type has a length of about 63.5 m 10 "ppm". Width about 9.5 m, i.e. 1.5 "ppm".If you count for kN. Afanasyev in Greek feet (see above), then the width of the panel (about 3.1 m) is 10 G. f., the length of the home 200 g. f., height 40 g. f. Such "calculations" can continue indefinitely and, of course, just as fruitlessly, since any conclusions about any "relationship" model "building" with The Parthenon, the Sophia of Constantinople or the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl, made on the basis of the commonality of certain sizes and proportions, absurd.

 

 

Il. 2. Typical "five-storey building" series 1605/5.

 

 

Conclusion

 

So, we opportunities outlined the boundaries of what in the study of the Canon, symbols and proportions in the Orthodox temple architecture can be classified as science, and as to the speculation, arbitrary claims, "mystical revelations" and other non-scientific phenomena.

And in conclusion our study we recall the basic the methodological principle of any debate between "traditionalists" and "innovators": the burden of proving his innocence lies on last.And since in this case the "innovators" are the supporters of the widespread use in the history of Orthodox architecture the canonical analysis of specimens, symbols, numerical ratios and proportions (in the traditional history of architecture of the XX century these issues were given relatively little attention), the task of these researchers is quite complex, and allegations, and especially some "mystical insight, is available only for the elite"77, evidence of their theories serve not can. In each case you must create a full-fledged research unit with based on historical sources.

 

NOTES

 

1. Dal V. I. Explanatory dictionary of the living great Russian language. M., 1989.

2. The great Soviet encyclopedia. M., 1969-1978.

3. The text is on the web-site http://oz-gora.ru/korm.

4. Book rules saints Apostlew, in, saints w universal and pomestnyh, saints and father. Sergiev Posad, 1992. Reprint reproduction of the edition of 1893.

5. CIT. in the book: Buseva-Davydova I. L. Symbols architecture on ancient written sources of XIXVII centuries // Hermeneutics old Russian literature of the XVI beginning XVIII V. M., 1989. You can often find another translation "from the porches on both sides", but the translation I. L. Busevac-Davydova is more accurate.

6. Ibid.

7. Ibid.

8. Zagraevsky S. V. About the scientific basis of "azimuth method" (method definition of dates and dedications of ancient temples in azimuth their altars) // Architect. City. Time. The proceedings of the Annual international scientific-practical conference (Velikiy Novgorod Saint Petersburg). The beginning: the unified edition XIII and XIV conferences. SPb, 2011. S. 69-74. With the end of the XV edition of the conference. SPb, 2012. P. 122-136.

9. Note in Western European architecture the orientation of the sanctuary to the East is even less mandatory. For example, the Cathedral of St. Peter in Rome, facing the altar to the West, and in Worms Cathedral two altar in the East and the West, and architectural expressed altar apse facing West.

10. This destroyed in the XV century, the temple the time of Constantine the Great, according to the testimony of Eusebius of Caesarea, was decorated pieces of stone of different colors from the base to the roof, the last was decorated with exquisite carvings and gilded, the dome was surrounded by an openwork stone carving bronze and gold (Church of the Holy Apostles, Istanbul. Cm. The Internet site http://www.sacred-destinations.com/turkey/istanbul-church-of-holy-apostles).

11. Losev A. F. On the notion of the artistic Canon. // From creative heritage. Contemporaries, the thinker. M., 2007. P. 348.

12. Uspenskiy L. A. The symbolism of the temple // journal of the Moscow Patriarchate. No. 1, 1948. P. 38.

13. Archpriest Lev (Lebedev). The theology of the Russian land. Reflections at the walls of the New Jerusalem. The text is on the web-site http://rusarch.ru/lebedev1.htm.

14. Puppies A. S. The problem of the iconography of the temple // About iconography and tectonics of the Orthodox Church. M., 1996. C. 10.

15. Hulanicki N. F. Cross-domed Church of Ancient Russia and Greek-the ancient tradition // Architecture world. WestEast: the interaction of traditions in architecture. M., 1993. P. 168.

16. Mainicheva A. Y. Wooden churches of Siberia of the XVII century: shapes, symbols, images // Series "Ethnography of Siberia". Novosibirsk, 1999.

17. Riding E. Y. Canon in the architecture of an Orthodox Church // the Academic Bulletin of Uralniiash RAASN. No. 4, 2010.

18. Medkova, E. C. In search of new of the sacred. The formation of the typology of cross-domed Church // Gas. "Iskusstvo", 5, 2008.

19. Kesler M. Y. the Development of building the temple in Russia with IX in the XX century, the Manuscript is on the web-site:

http://www.ohranatruda.ru/ot_biblio/normativ/data_normativ/46/46884/index.php#i822925

20. N. Tarabukin.M. Symbolism temple // the Meaning of icons. M., 1999. P. 135.

21. Prep. Maximos The Confessor. Mystagogia. Text located on the Internet site:

http://azbyka.ru/otechnik/Maksim_Ispovednik/mistagogiya/

22. Buseva-Davydova I. L. Decree. withPTS.

23. Ibid.

24. Ibid.

25. Ibid.

26. Ibid.

27. Ibid.

28. The analysis is presented there.

29. CIT. in the book: Archpriest Lev (Lebedev). The decree. withPTS.

30. Prep. Maximos The Confessor. Mystagogia...

31. Buseva-Davydova I. L. Decree. withPTS.

32. Ibid.

33. Ibid.

34. Voronin N. N. Architecture North-Eastern Russia. M., 1961-1962. Vol. 1. P. 511.

35. This interpretation is today, the most widespread and occurs in large quantity popular literature. For example, cm.: Yurasova I. V. the symbolism of the architectural forms of Russian Orthodox Church (link to the idea an Orthodox Church). Text nahoditsya on the Internet site: http://rusarch.ru/jurasova1.htm

36. Buseva-Davydova I. L. Decree. withPTS.

37. Ibid.

38. Handbook clergyman. M., 1977-1994. Vol. 4. P. 152.

39. http://www.pravoslavie.ru/answers/7009.htm

40. http://www.hram-feodosy.kiev.ua/struct_color.htm

41. Zagraevsky SV Color the decision of the heads of ancient temples // Architect. City. Time. Materials annual international scientific-practical conference (Velikiy Novgorod Saint Petersburg). Vol. XVII. SPb, 2014. P. 24-36.

42. G. A. Uspensky Cathedral The Trinity Lavra of St. Sergius // journal of the Moscow Patriarchate. No. 2, 1947.

43. Zagraevsky SV Color decisions...

44. Kudryavtsev M. P., Kudryavtseva T. N. Russian Orthodox Cathedral. Symbolic the language of architectural forms // To Light. No. 17. M., 1998. C. 65-87.

45. Ibid.

46. Mainicheva A. Y. On the semantics architectural image cequi Sophia the Wisdom of God's Word in Tobolsk (1622-1643.). The text is on the website: http://rusarch.ru/mainicheva3.htm

47. Linnik Yu. V. the Archetypes of the Transfiguration Church. In the book: Rabinskii reading. The traditional culture of the Russian North: history and modernity. Materials of V conference on the study of popular culture Of The Russian North. Petrozavodsk, 2007. The text is on the website: http://rusarch.ru/linnik1.htm

48. Medkova, E. C. In search of new of the sacred. The formation of the typology of cross-domed Church. In gas. "Iskusstvo", 5, 2008.

49. Starodubtsev V. O. The symbolism of an Orthodox Church. The text is on the website: http://rusarch.ru/starodubtsev1.htm

50. Ibid.

51. Golovacheva L. V. principles of design Orthodox temples // Architectural design. The information Bulletin. No. 2 (9). 2005. S. 22.

52. Larionov V. E., M. Gorodova N. Sacred legacy. M., 2010.

53. Ibid.

54. Sulimenko, S. D. Architecture and dialogue of cultures (on example of symbolizing the forms of the completions of the Russian Orthodox of the temple). The text is on the website: http://rusarch.ru/sulimenko1.htm

55. Humberto eKo. Foucault's Pendulum. M, 2012. S. 428.

56. About the number of these claims and limitations and wrote to the author of this study. For example, on Church the ban on zooantropomorfny sculptures of the temples cm.: Zagraevsky SV Yuri Dolgoruky and old white-stone architecture. M., 2001. GL. 6: "Sculptures". The ecclesiastical requirement of the device in the stone Orthodox the temples of the dome of cm.: Zagraevsky S. V. Typological formation and basic classification Russian Church architecture. Saarbrücken, 2015. GL. 3: "On the prohibition of on Nikopolidis temples in Ancient Rus'.

57. Archpriest Lev (Lebedev). The decree. withPTS.

58. Mokeev G. I., As the heavenly Jerusalem // Pamyatniki Otechestva, No. 3, 1991. P. 74.

59. Komech A. I. Ancient Russian architecture of the end of X the beginning of XII century Byzantine heritage and the establishment of an independent tradition. M., 1987.

60. Kuchma A. E. Symbolism in the early Christian art // the Moscow University Herald. Series 7. Philosophy. No. 1. 1995. P. 57.

61. In the context of transformation in Basil domed cross-domed aesthetics could influence on the Genesis of the cross-domed system, more negative than positive: unlikely cross-domed churches ever anyone could seem more aesthetic domed basilicas, among which was a unique masterpiece of global importance (perhaps the most beautiful Church of all times and peoples) Sofia Constantinople. The author put forward its own vision of how Genesis cross-dome system in special scientific work (Zagraevsky S. V. Typological formation and basic classification Russian Church architecture...)

62. Buseva-Davydova I. L. Decree. withPTS.

63. For example, the author the present study partially used a proportional analysis with the reconstruction of the Saviour Cathedral Andronikov monastery (Zagraevsky SV Questions the architectural history of the Cathedral of the Saviour of the Andronikov monastery. M., 2008), St. George's Cathedral in Yuryev-Polish (Zagraevsky SV Questions architectural history and reconstruction of St. George Cathedral in Yuriev-Polsky. M., 2008), the virgin Nativity Cathedral in Suzdal (Zagraevsky SV Insurveys of reconstruction the original form of Suzdal Cathedral of Nativity of the beginning of XIII century. The text is on the website: http://rusarch.ru/zagraevsky40.htm

64. Afanasiev K. N. The experience of proportional analysis. M., 1998.

65. Ibid.

66. Chernyaev A. F. The Gold Of Ancient. The Russian matrix the basis of Golden proportions. M., 1998.

67. Ibid.

68. Ibid.

69. Rachinsky, A. V., Fedorov A. E. the Tops of the Slavonic-Aryan temples // System "planet Earth". The twentieth years of the Seminar "the System "planet Earth". M., 2014. S. 535-579.

70. Uhthat question touched upon and the author of this study in the article "the Origin of ancient Russian tent-roofed architecture: a return to the problem." The text is on the website: http://rusarch.ru/zagraevsky44.htm

71. Archpriest Lev (Lebedev). The decree. withPTS.

72. Andrei Voznesensky. Superintendents of the spirit. M., 1984.

73. Satvaldiev E. Russkaya izba element of Russian folk culture. Text located on the Internet site:

http://nsportal.ru/ap/library/nauchno-tekhnicheskoe-tvorchestvo/2015/01/18/russkaya-izba-element-russkoy-narodnoy

74. Chernov A. Gold Of The Parthenon. The text is on the website: http://chernov-trezin.narod.ru/Parfenon-2.htm.

75. Ershova N. M. Pereverzev Yu. S. Gravity constant and the radius of the Earth. The text is on the website:

http://www.rusnauka.com/19_NNM_2007/Stroitelstvo/23215.doc.htm.

76. Architect Maria Serova on "house ear" Leonid Pavlov. Text located on the Internet site:

http://www.the-village.ru/village/city/modern-architecture/176317-dom-s-uhom-tsemi-ran

77. For example, O. V. Starodubtsev wrote: "the Visible embodiment of the Church's symbolism the Orthodox Church, which represents the most "open", knowledgeable, an elaborate system of meanings. The Orthodox Church embodies a complex, inexhaustible in its transparency a symbol ofP...so speaking of Christian symbolism, it should be noted that the understanding of it outside the Church it is impossible in principle" (V. Starodubtsev, O. the Symbolism of the Orthodox Church...) And we have already quoted the words of A. F. Chernyaev: "quality And composition constructed as the Church of Christ as a spiritual structure in their secret the proportions include elements of sacrednessAnd...included so, do not let into the secret of religious buildings of Christianity are not notice any of stvennosti nor multiplicity... These rules were so conspiratorial and with this caution observed (this led, apparently, their loss), and today... even big architects guess double dimensional structuring of these masterpieces and Suginoi the sacredness of their proportions of sacred number 7" (Chernyaev A. F. Decree. fromPTS.)

 

Moscow, 2016.

 

Sergey Zagraevsky

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