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S. V. Zagraevsky

 

Architectural history of Trifon Church in Naprudnoye

and the origin of the cross-like ceiling

 

 

Published in Russian: .. . .: -, 2008. ISBN 5-94025-092-0.

 

Annotation

 

The research of Professor S.V. Zagraevsky is dedicated to one of the earliest survived monuments of Moscow architecture - the Church of St. Trifon in Naprudnoe. The date of the Church in the time interval since the mid of 1470-s to the mid of 1480-s is substantiated. Special attention is paid to the origin of the phenomenon of old Russian architecture the cross-like ceiling, as well as to the proof that this phenomenon was invented by Moscow craftsmen in the time of Ivan III and for the first time was applied in Trifon Church.

The Appendix contains historical information on the temple (by N.B. Gorbachev).

This publication is a donation of Professor S.V. Zagraevsky to Trifon Church in Naprudnoe.

 

Attention!

The following text was translated from Russian original by the computer program

and has not yet been edited.

So it can be used only for general introduction.

 RUSSIAN VERSION 

 


I

General provisions

 

Trifon Church in the former village Naprudnom (now within Moscow1) is a single - domed odnoapsidny temple without columns (Fig. 1, 2). The Church walls are built of well-treated white stone in the technique of the half-rubble masonry (from white stone blocks are built two walls-facing; the space between them is filled with the fragments of stone and filled with lime mortar).

 

The Church Trifon Naprudnom. General view.

 

Fig. 1. The Church Trifon Naprudnom. General view.

 

The Church Trifon Naprudnom. The plan (by L. David).

 

Fig. 2. The Church Trifon Naprudnom. The plan (by L. David).

 

Trifonovskaya - centric, covered with groin vault (with the cloistered vault with two pairs of intersecting strikings and a hole in the center for drum - Fig. 3, 4). The dome and the drum is made of small bricks size 224 x 110 x 45 mm2. Facades, crossed blades and horizontal brick profiled cornice are trifoliynoe (three-way) completion. The shoulders are decorated profiled bases and capitals. The basic motive profile cornices, archivolt, imposts, bases and capitals - striping simplest calving, mainly shelves and quarter-rolls.

 

Trifon Church in E.g.%

 

Fig. 3. The Church Trifon Naprudnom. The vault.

 

The Church Trifon Naprudnom. The section on North-South (by L. David).

 

Fig. 4. The Church Trifon Naprudnom. The section on North-South (by L. David).

 

The base drum decorated with corbel arches. Profile archivolt kokoshniki repeats (fewer calving) horizontal ledges, separating trifolii from walls. In the same style made capitals blades and a basement. Several more diverse profile archivolt trifoliynogo complete facades (two shelves significantly wider than the other), but it does not violate strict and consistent pattern decoration of the temple.

Portals with ogee, mnogoobrazii imposts and kanalirovaniya beads typical of the early Moscow architecture. Form endings portals resonates with ogee Le trifole and keel corbel arches under the thin, high drum, and through these architectural techniques Trifonovskaya gives the impression of a "harmonious" and looking up.

The feeling of elevation is particularly impressive, as formally proportions of the Church Trifon very stocky. When the external dimensions of the square, constituting approximately 8 x 8 m (with account of the apse - 12 x 8 m; the parameters are given approximately, since the temple has carelessly broken plan - see Fig. 2) height from the base to the top of the ledge is about 3.9 m, i.e. less than half the width. Height to top of Le trifole about 7.5 m, i.e. less than the width. The total height of the Church from the bottom of the podium to the top of the dome is also small - about 11,8 m (for example, the quadrangle of the Transfiguration Cathedral in Pereslavl-Zalessky has the most squat proportions all over the pre-Mongolian Church architecture of North-Eastern Russia, but if we look away from his interior choirs and pillars, the Church Trifon Naprudnom there free will?

The interior of the temple Trifonovskaya, accordingly, also for the%7 m (castle dome 11 m). Internal diameter of a drum - 1.8 mexternal - 2.4 m (for comparison: the dome side of the square, Spaso-Preobrazhenskiy Cathedral in Pereslavl - 5,1 m).

The Foundation of the temple in Naprudnom arranged on a large building for such a small depth (almost 2 m) and is made of large boulders on the clay, covered with two rows of hewn white stone blocks.

At the beginning of the XIX century West of the Church Trifon were built the belfry and refectory (by this time in a temple have been broken new window, nalozena corners Le trifole, arranged hipped roof, the drum has been highly decorative dome of the temple was finished). In 1825 the Church was built South Nicholas chapel, in 1861 - Northern Philaret aisle. In the years 1889-1895 from the West was added yet another bell, and place of the old refectory was built a new refectory of the Church with a dome and two aisles (as Nikolsky and Philaret). The ancient Church Trifonovskaya visually looked like the sanctuary of the new Church.

The restoration work 1930-1940-s under the guidance of PD Baranowski and L. David has released a monument of the late additions and gave him the appearance close to the original3.

Chronicle dates Trifon Church has not. In the XIX-first half of XX century about it was dated from the middle of the XVI century4. La David suggested earlier Dating - between 1479 and 1492 for years5. This date has found a wide response in the popular literature, with some reservations (closer to 1500) was adopted Vl.v.sedovym6, but was not taken V. kavelmaherom7, SS pod'yapol'skii8 and Alinalove9 holding on to the Dating of the second half of the XVI century.

In recent years, on the basis of proximity of Dating David L. and construction equipment Trifonovskaya Church and date construction techniques of the Moscow Uspenie Cathedral 1475-1479 period (white-stone walls and brick vaults) the authorship of the Church in Naprudnom sometimes attributed to Aristotle Fioravanti10.

The question of the masters Trifonovskaya Church we explore in paragraph 6, and now need to consider all the reasons put forward by various scholars for one or another Dating temple. Let's start with a later date - middle-second half of the XVI century.

Odnoapsidnosti, besstolpnosti and availability groin vault for such Dating is not enough. Odnoapsidny were the first Cathedral of the Annunciation in the Moscow Kremlin11 (end of XIV century12), and the Cathedral Bobreneva monastery near Kolomna (most likely Dating - XV century)9 and many of Novgorod churches XIII-XV centuries, and many temples of the XVI century with groin vaults of the Church of St. Nicholas in Kolomna 1501 (support dates, see paragraph 4), Nikola in Red bells middle of the XVI century, the Trinity in the Fields 1565-1566 years, etc. And when the architecture of Ancient Russia appeared the phenomenon, as a centric Church without columns with a groin vault, we do not know (%D

We also do not know where in ancient architecture appeared small brick, and therefore the fact of its use in Trifonovskaya Church did not clarify can14. The lower bound of the date of its appearance - along with large "industrial" brick technology Fioravanti15, i.e. the second half of 1470-ies.

Kavelmaher in the early 1980-ies found under the existing Church of Archangel Michael in the village Sinkova Ramensky district of Moscow region (XIX century) remains small pillarless odnoapsidny temple16 (Fig. 5). Found the temple was built in the technique, similar to the technique Trifonovskaya Church (wall - well-treated white stone arches - small brick). The researcher was Dating both of the temple middle of the XVI century.

 

The Church of Archangel Michael in Sinkova. South facade. Sketch of reconstruction Kavelmahera.

 

Fig. 5. The Church of Archangel Michael in Sinkova. South facade. Sketch of reconstruction Kavelmahera.

 

But the closer the date of the churches in Sinkova and Naprudnom could not be justified for the following reasons:

- the Church in Sinkova had a unique plan with a shifted to the North apse, unique asymmetrical facade and a vaulted roof;

- due to a significant shift drum to the East in Sinkovsky the temple could not be groin vault;

- date of the Church in Sinkova unknown to us as the date of the Church in Naprudnom.

A. Batalov believed that the temple Trifon "white-stone masonry is not only the walls of the square, but Le trifole in combination with a groin vault, built from the small size of bricks, finds direct analogues it in the monuments of the Grozny period - in the Church of the Annunciation in Stepanovski and, possibly, in the Church of the Conception of John the Baptist in the Settlement"17. But actually we do not know neither the18), or date of restructuring the top "Gorodische" Church in Kolomna of white stone with terracotta Le trifole and groin vault (see item 4). In addition, the Church in Stepanovski, unlike churches in Sinkova and Naprudnom, has a symmetric dvojpanelovy the song, and clutch surviving fragments of its white stone lining is so chaotic that there are even doubts in its primary.

Thus, no satisfactory reason for Dating Trifonovskaya Church of the second half of the XVI century, researchers have not offered. Let us study contains a proof of earlier date - the end of the XV century.

First, we note that in no case can not take after David L.19 as grounds for Dating bore the

First, the "stove could fall into the masonry much later that time, as it was dated the date" (Vl.v.sedov20).

Secondly, absolutely fair to the observations Kavelmahera and S. Podyapolsky, these inscriptions are samples of a font cemetery carvers. "This formula is a standard cliche of any epitaph, which, depending on the date of death of the deceased is supplemented by the hundreds, tens and units. In addition, the gravestones in the 90 years of the XV century, in the vast majority do not superscribed and those that still superscribed, superscribed in technology in the proper sense of the word "graffiti", i.e. scratched" (Kavelmaher)21.

Thirdly, in the opinion of the author of the study, in the face of laying of the Church houses and blocks with other samples font cemetery carvers, including more complete inscription with his other hand, but in identical style - "Summer 7178 (1670) died there" (Fig. 7). Consequently, the estimated Dating all these labels is not 1492, and 1670 year. If after David L. use these labels as Dating back to the sign, the Church Trifon should be attributed to the end of the XVII century, which, of course, absolutely illegal22.

 

The Church Trifon Naprudnom. Blocks with samples font cemetery cutters ("Summer 7000", "Summer 7000...", "Summer 7000...").

 

Fig. 6. The Church Trifon Naprudnom. Blocks with samples font cemetery cutters ("Summer 7000", "Summer 7000...", "Summer 7000...").

 

The Church Trifon Naprudnom. Blocks with samples font cemetery cutters (including "Summer 7178 passed away...").

 

Fig. 7. The Church Trifon Naprudnom. Blocks with samples font cemetery cutters (including "Summer 7178 passed away...").

 

Speaking about the possible grounds Dating temple, it must be remembered is written in the nineteenth century, the legend of the miraculous salvation of St. Trifon near the village Naprudnom Royal Falconer patrikeeva wrath of Ivan the terrible23.

The essence of the tradition is the following: in the area Patrikeev missed the Falcon, and had to find it in three days, otherwise he expected penalty. With the%

Historical facts testify that Prince Ivan Patrikeev was a real person and played a prominent role at court, but not of Ivan IV, and of Ivan III, who in the sixteenth century, also known as the Terrible. To print patrikeeva was a horseman with a Falcon and this way corresponds to the Russian Orthodox canonical image of St. Tryphon (including n24.

In connection with the foregoing, the legend of the miraculous salvation Falconer is of interest, emphasizes the importance of the village Naprudnom (on the swamps near this village was hunting with falcons and Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich25), but still, like any popular legend, may not be sufficient argument in favor of Dating Trifonovskaya temple time of Ivan III.

The generality of construction machinery of the Church of the assumption Cathedral Trifon Fioravanti (stone walls in combination with brick arches) also cannot be the reason for Dating temple in Naprudnom. Mixed brick-and-stone technique used in Russia and to the construction in 1475-1479 by the Moscow Cathedral (for example, the Novgorod Church of St. Nicholas in Lipno the end of XIII century), and after (for example, the resurrection Cathedral in Volokolamsk the turn of the XV and XVI centuries, the Church of Archangel Michael in Sinkova XVI century).

Stylistic analysis also can not give conclusive Dating Church Trypho, as we do not know centric pillarless churches with similar proportions and decor26. The only temple, relatively close Trifonovskaya (centric, pillarless, odnoapsidny, covered with groin vault, with a relatively uncluttered decor and built in the half-rubble white-engineering in combination with a small brick) - Anna Church of Conception "in the Corner" in China-town (Fig. 8) - not yet dated to a satisfactory degree dostave%

 

The Church of the Conception Anna "in the Corner". Reconstruction Of David L..

 

Fig. 8. The Church of the Conception Anna "in the Corner". Reconstruction Of David L..

 

The Nativity Church in the village Yurkin Istra district, Moscow region, dated back to 1504 (Fig. 9; support dates, see paragraph 4), which Vl.v.sedov thought construction of almost simultaneously with Trifonovskaya27much closer to a "Renaissance" in the construction of Vasily III. It applied and terracotta friezes, and arched niches around the Windows, and Italianate portals.

 

The Church of the Nativity in Yurkin. Reconstruction Kavelmahera.

 

Fig. 9. The Church of the Nativity in Yurkin. Reconstruction Kavelmahera.

 

Of course, at the Cathedral of the Nativity of Christ and Tryphon has a number of similarities (Vl.v.sedov noted characteristic ribs at the vertices of spandrel arch, "Renaissance" profiles archivolt three Gables and orderly nature of the blades with a dedicated profiled bases and capitals28), but still sufficient for convergence dates they serve can't. In Konz is%

Dating trait cannot be and horizontal position of small vaults of strikings groin vault Trifonovskaya Church: horizontal these small vaults were not only in the Church of the Nativity in Yurkin, but in the Church of the ascension (Isidore the blessed in Rostov Veliky (1566).

Thus, a satisfactory reason for this or Dating Trifonovskaya Church researchers did not offer, and we have to consider the date of the temple again.


II

arguments against a late date in the Church Trifon

 

First we show that Trifonovskaya Church could not be built in the middle-second half of the XVI century.

In the Byzantine Empire, the Church building from plinfy or in a mixed - "opus mixtum" (hereinafter, for simplicity we will call both of these techniques plinfyanymi). Stone built only in certain suburbs of Byzantium, and then only because the mountains and deserts were clay plinthite. Plinthite was the construction of Kiev, Novgorod, Pskov, Polotsk, Smolensk, Chernigov, Pereslavl-South, Vladimir, Volhynia and all other ancient lands, except for the Galician and Suzdal, where the pre-Mongolian time the vast majority of Church buildings were built of white stone.

According to calculations, the present author of the study in the book "Yuri Dolgoruky and the old white-stone architecture"29, white-stone building in Suzdal was more than ten times more expensive plinfyanogo (due to, first, incomparably more complex extraction and processing of stone; secondly, its transportation to several hundred kilometers from the quarries that were in the area of modern Myachkovo, Podolsk and Domodedovo30). Reliability of buildings, built of white stone, in the Russian climate was significantly lower Printania31. Often sung in the popular literature white color of the stone was not his advantage: Printania walls were plastered and whitewashed, and the white-stone building in a few years after the construction was dull gray from the smoke ovens and frequent fires, and the practice of cleaning them appeared only in the XIX century.

Thus, the white stone as a building material produced by the

But in the middle of the XII century, when in North-Eastern Russia began white-stone building, the Byzantines had been weakened and does not constitute a significant force in the international arena. And in Western Europe during Romanesque and high Gothic construction of various types of stone showed the state power and Imperial ideology, plinfy there were built only minor construction of a civil nature and temples in the poorer outlying regions. Western European example and made Suzdal (in 1120-ies - Galician) princes go to white stone building is expensive and unreliable, but the "Imperial"32.

The author of this study showed33 that is the immediate precursor of white stone temples of Ancient Russia was a huge Romanesque Cathedral (the tombs of the emperors of the Holy Roman Empire"), built in 1029-1106 years in the German city of Speyer (Fig. 10). It is very likely that there is, in Speyer, were "trained" the first old Russian masters "stone cases.

 

The Imperial Cathedral of Speyer.

 

Fig. 10. The Imperial Cathedral of Speyer.

 

Thus, the prestigious white stone building became a "business card" of two dynamic principalities and Halych, and Suzdal. In order to build a "Imperial", Galicia and Suzdal princes spared neither effort nor money. And if Galich in the middle of XIII century was absorbed by Poland and Lithuania, the Vladimir-Suzdal land became the basis for future%

This is of great importance for the white-stone building in Russian history. It has become one of the main components of the process of entering Ancient Russia among the major European powers, a process interrupted for a long time only the Tatar-Mongol invasion.

It is noteworthy that even in the hardest times of the Mongol yoke wizard of North-Eastern Russia is not switched on cheap and reliable plinthite, and continued to build exclusively "European" white stone. And, apparently, it was one of the factors that allowed the Vladimir-Suzdal Grand Duchy caught "ulus" Horde, not to lose their spiritual independence, reset hated yoke and be reborn under a new name - the Moscow Rus.

And only in the end of XV century, when the masters of the Western European Renaissance completely switched to a much more reliable, cheap and practical brick construction, expression of state power and Imperial ideology in the stone lost its meaning. Then in Moscow Russia there was a widespread adoption of bricks.

Since that time, for ancient architecture white stone churches - a rare exception. They were built, as a rule, near the quarries - in Volokolamsk (Voskresensky Cathedral, the turn of the XV and XVI centuries), Sinkova (Archangel Mikhail Church, the XVI century), the Island (Transfiguration Church, end of the XVI century), Conversations (the Church of the Nativity of Christ, the end of the XVI century), Staritsa (the assumption Cathedral, 1530 year), Serpukhov (the Bishop's Cathedral of the monastery, the XVI century), Kazan (the Annunciation Cathedral 1556-1562 years and others), Sviyazhsk (Cathedral of the Dormition monastery 1555-1561, and others), Kargopol (Nativity Cathedral in 1562, and others), the Great Vyazemy (Trinity, now the Transfiguration, the Church, end of the XVI century), Kolychev (the resurrection Church, 1697), Dubrovitsa (Znamenskaya Church, 1690-1704 years). In these cases, the huge complexity of transportation of stone%2

The last dated uniquely large white stone temples, built on a large (a few tens of kilometers) away from the quarries, were two of the Moscow Cathedral of the Assumption - Myshkin and Krivtsov (1472-1474) and Fioravanti (1475-1479). The logic of their construction of white stone is clear: at this time in Russia the fact that the use of this material was still expressed the Grand is%34. But once arrived after Fioravanti Pietro Antonio Solari, Aleviz Fryazin "Old"Bon Fryazin, New Aleviz and other Italian architects began in the Kremlin massive brick building, the expression of the Grand ambitions in white stone has lost meaning.

Therefore, since the end of XV century, exceptions to the General rule of construction of white stone churches near the quarries very little: it Nikon Church (Nikon chapel of the Holy Trinity Cathedral in the Trinity-Sergius Lavra (the bottom of the temple, Dating from 1548 year35 faced with white stone; rebuilt in 1623 the top of the temple brick), the Dormition Cathedral in Rostov (the beginning of the XVI century36; the interior of the Church is faced with white stone), the Church of Nikita for Yauza (1530-s - see item 4) and considered in this study Church Trifon Naprudnom and conception of Anne in China-town.

Motivation facing Nikon white stone Church is clear: it needed to "stylize" under the nearby Holy Trinity Cathedral (in this way was stylized and motive arcature of the decoration of the square Nikon's Church - under neighbouring the Church of Holy Spirit). Rostov Cathedral of the assumption, and the Church of Nikita date from before the middle of the XVI century, it was still able to act "inertia" special prestige of the white-stone building, besides the builders of the Rostov Cathedral had a huge number of white stone left over from the previous temples 1161-1162 and 1213-1231 years).

Therefore, we have to date before the middle of the XVI century and the Church of Trifon Naprudnom and conception of Anne in China-town, otherwise their construction in the white stone has lost all logic. And to explain the huge additional costs mere coincidence is hardly appropriate.

There is another reason why we cannot accept the Dating of the Church Trifon middle of XVI

Naprudnom since the days of Ivan Kalita was Grand village and was mentioned in a number of spiritual diplomas. In 1505, Ivan III, bequeathed to his son Dmitri "in Moscow hamlet Naprudnoe with courtyards and urban posadnymi37.

The concept of "hamlet," usually meant a small settlement with the Church and (or) master's house in the centre (in contrast to "the village" - the large settlement with a Church and / or the estate in the center, "selishka" - a small village with a Church, "settlements" very large settlements with several churches, or burnt-out village with the remnants of housing)38. In the case of "hamlet" Naprudnom we see that it has gravitated towards the city and townspeople yards, therefore, its value was great. About a legend, also emphasizing the importance of "hamlet," we said in paragraph 1. And most importantly - Naprudnoe was the property of the Grand Duke.

And the Church Trifon Naprudnom small in size, has a squat proportions, poor decor, simple "early Moscow" portals and carelessly broken plan (Fig. 2). By the middle of XVI century in significant Grand (1547 - Royal) suburban villages have already been built these temples, both of the ascension in Kolomenskoye and beheading of St. John the Baptist in Djakova. Put them in one row Trifonovskaya, of course, impossible. For example, A. Batalov, dated Church in Naprudnom 1560-years (see item 1), was compelled to note that it would be time for this "arhasarak" monument39.

Even such a small boyar manorial churches of the first half of the XVI century, both of the Nativity in Yurkin, of the Annunciation in the Annunciation Pogost40 and Cover in Chirkina (see item 4) have a more graceful proportions, more luxurious and more perfect construction equipment than the Grand Church Tryphon. Therefore, probably earlier construction of the great princes of the Church on the estate, and not Vice versa.


III

Origin groin vault

 

We approached the subject, it is crucial for our study: the definition of the earliest known to us centric pillarless churches groin vault. To do this, you must first consider the more General question - origin groin vault.

Everyelse advanced the hypothesis that the groin vault was transformed from a cloistered vault with angular herds, applied in the Novgorod Church of St. Nicholas in Lipno (1292)41. But, of course, the only example is very high (by definition S. Podyapolsky, almost pyramid42) of the body with angular herds four pillars in the temple cannot be considered as a predecessor groin vault is relatively low, but is able to cover large pillarless space due to overlapping pairs strikings. These structures do not have anything in common either in engineering or in the architectural plan.

A. Batalov believed that churches with groin vaults that have installed an early date, " Christmas in Yurkin (see paras. 1 and 4), the Annunciation in the Old Vagankovo (1514-1518) and of St. Prophet Elijah at the Auction (1519-1520), were built by Italian masters43. Accordingly, the researcher proposed "to discuss the Italian version of the origin of this design"44.

But it should be noted that no information about the construction of the Church of the Nativity in Yurkin and Ilya on Trade Italian masters we do not have, and Italianate nature of the decoration of these temples are not necessarily mean their building it Italians. Considers the%

But even if we consider fair the hypothesis about the construction of all three of these temples Italian masters, for proof of Italian origin groin vault still requires its prototype in Italy (otherwise we can assume that the Italian masters reproduced already known in Russia design - just as they play a cross shape temples). But no matter what the specific Italian prototypes groin vault A. Batalov not indicated45. The author of this study are prototypes are also unknown.

Prototypes groin vault in the architecture of Northern Italy tried to find Daitro46. This position, however the researcher was subjected to an absolutely valid criticism S. pod'yapol'skii: developed Italianate decor in a number of early ancient churches groin vault can not be considered as an Italian source of constructive solutions groin vault. Such a set has nothing to do with widespread in Italy, an umbrella body, or with a system of intersecting arches, applied in the narthex of the Church of San Ehwaz in Casale Monferrato (XIII century)47. On LCA, in the position of Daitrada is a "search purely external geometric similarity completely ignoring the constructive sense of this form (groin vault - SZ), in this case two intersecting arches, without which it is impossible to consider the issues of Genesis"48.

S. pod'yapol'skii after David L.49 and VV kavelmaherom50 believed that the groin vault is of Central Asian origin51.

But this position is applicable counterarguments, reverse the arguments against the "Italian version": there is a similar search for constructive solutions ("work" arches and strikings) while ignoring the architectural appearance of the groin vault. In other words, given researchers parallel with the medieval architecture of Central Asia may indicate the similarity of some constructive techniques, but in no case is not about any influences: a complex multi-tiered and multi-arch crossing designs from the walls to the drums and the domes in the Central Asian mausoleums and mosques (for example, the mausoleum Ha is%

 

The Mausoleum Gauharsar. The plan.

 

Fig. 11. The Mausoleum Gauharsar. The plan.

 

The Mausoleum Gauharsar. The incision.

 

Fig. 12. The Mausoleum Gauharsar. The incision.

 

The Mausoleum Ishrat-Khana. The plan.

 

Fig. 13. The Mausoleum Ishrat-Khana. The plan.

 

The Mausoleum Ishrat-Khana. The incision.

 

Fig. 14. The Mausoleum Ishrat-Khana. The incision.

 

In connection with the foregoing, we reserve the right to put forward their own vision of the problem. We believe that the Genesis groin vault was against the%8

The fact that the formal definition groin vault (as cloistered vault with a light hole and four strikings) creates a wrong stereotype complexity of its Genesis: in the beginning had to be invented closed vault, and then it was to "guess" to arrange four Stripping and penetrate the light hole.

But we can show that in fact the thought process of inventors groin vault was absolutely different and not based on any borrowings or influences, but on common sense and previous experience of centuries of architects of Ancient Russia.

How can "remove" from the classic old centric four pillars of the temple pillars, obscure and zatesnyayuschie inner space?

Such attempts were made before the turn of the XV and XVI centuries, but they inevitably led either to a significant reduction of the sizes of churches (examples - many small temples with no columns covered one torispherical arch or "in Pskov" - is a torispherical arch with transverse dismantling), or to refuse from the corner of compartments, as in the case of erection instead of the pillars of angular pylons (examples - St. Nicholas Church in the village of Kamenka and the Church of the Conception of John the Baptist in the Settlement in Kolomna; both temples date from the early XIV century52).

Therefore, at the turn of the XV and XVI centuries, as in several previous centuries, the task of bringing the four pillars of the temple without columns was very relevant and required solutions.

If you just "remove" from the four pillars of the temple (Fig. 15) pillars, the top, except for overlapping angular compartments remain two intersecting Korobov set, each %

- top - light hole;

- longitudinal - three pairs of arches (mid - supporting, on the sides - arches over the side aisles).

These vaults in places where the heel arches previously based on "taken out" pillars, will not rely on that (Fig. 16).

 

The conditional scheme of arches, arches and pillars above the Central nave of the four pillars of the temple.

 

Fig. 15. The conditional scheme of arches, arches and pillars above the Central nave of the four pillars of the temple.

 

 

 

Fig. 16. Conventional scheme "cut" the pillars and "care" toe arches up.

 

In this case suggests the following constructive solution: cut in each of the two intersecting vaults Korobov not three pairs of longitudinal arch, and one pair - the entire length of the arch. The four points where arches previously relied on the pillars will be upwards (Fig. 16), and the whole structure through the longitudinal arch in intersecting Korobov vaults will draw on the walls of the temple. In this case, disappear not only the pillars and arches (Fig. 17).

 

 

Fig. 17. The scheme of replacement of three pairs of longitudinal arch of one pair for the entire length of the temple (same proportions).

 

It is important to accurately determine the depth of cutting through the longitudinal pairs of intersecting arches in Korobov vaults:

- if the arches were too high (carved on the whole height of the code), then the upper body near the light holes would be too thin;

- if the arches were too flat, the overlap would not be reliable;

- optimal depth of cutting through gave the opportunity to build not only a reliable cruciform design of the intersecting vaults Korobov, but also to make a smooth transition to the corner compartments from overlapping areas.

Naturally, one longitudinal pair of arches on the whole length of the arch (Fig. 17) was still too steep and could not carry the same load as the three couples with the same total span, based in the middle on the pillars. It took a certain decrease of the size of the temple, increasing the height of the dome and the maximum relief mid-construction. Hence, the forced mind the%B

 

 

Fig. 18. Bringing the proportions set, a pair of longitudinal arch and the drum to the actual proportions of temples with groin vaults.

 

In the end it was invented by a unique code, which crossed torispherical vaults with carved into them longitudinal arches played the role of four strikings, and in the center was a light hole. Such a set and became known under the name groin.

It should be noted that the groin vault not only preserved, but much more clearly revealed the characteristic of classical temple's cross "sacred" the shape of a cross. In order to consider the shape of the cross inscribed in four pillars (and even more famous mosque) temple, even when you look at the plan requires some imagination, but from inside the Church this kr

And since, as we have shown above, any direct or indirect analogues of this architectural solution anywhere in the world, we must assume that the groin vault was invented in Ancient Russia (to be precise - in the Moscow Grand Duchy) without any borrowing or influences. The roots of such a set lie exclusively in the old Russian architecture and the direct predecessors of churches with groin vaults are centric four-column temples.

On the origin of the masters, developed and first applied this positive phenomenon, we'll talk in paragraph 6.


IV

Temples with groin vaults,

Dating from before the middle of the XVI century

 

Now we can try to answer the question, in what we know of the Church building was first erected groin vault. For this it is necessary first of all to list all the temples, which are known (at least hypothetically)that they had a set and they were (or could be) built before the mid - XVI century.

 

1. The Church Trifon Naprudnom. The white-stone Church in the village of Grand Prince. The groin vault. History of Dating the Church, we examined in detail in paragraph 1.

 

2. The Church of the Conception Anna "in the Corner" in China-town. Outside the white-stone Church with a groin vault. Churchwarden unknown. For the first time the Church was mentioned in Chronicles in 1493 year in connection with the great Moscow fire: "And from the city bargaining caught fire, and thence Posad vigora near the Moscow river to Zachatie at the Sharp end"53.

Until the mid-twentieth century it was considered that the existing Church was built before 1493, had four pillars of the plan and arches, and in the middle of the XVI century was rebuilt became pillarless and was covered by a brick groin vault54. After research and restoration of the monument, conducted by David L. 1954-1957 years, the primacy groin vault is beyond doubt, but was questioned Dating until 1493, as in the above message about the fire could say and a wooden Church55.

Following an early date Church Trifon Naprudnom, L. David noted a number of distinctive stylistic%56. Currently, researchers often dated to the temple by L. David57 although in popular literature is still dominated by "classical" date - until 149358.

Dating questions New Church will discuss in paragraph 6.

 

3. The Church of the Nativity in Yurkin. Brick Church in the boyar Golohvastov. The groin vault.

"Classic" Dating of the Church (the turn of the XV and XVI centuries59)associated with chiterstva deceased to 1504 boyar60.

In a work devoted to yurkinskomu temple, Kavelmaher based on the study of the history of the family Golohvastov confirmed ktitorstvo ys Golohvastov and, consequently, loyalty to the "classic" Dating is to 150461.

 

4. Church of St. Nicholas in Kolomna. Townsman, "merchant" brick Church. The groin vault. In the mid-twentieth century temple Dating from the first third of the mid- XVI century62.

In 1980-ies Aviswana found in the inventory Kolomna churches 1786 text Church-grant grammota inscriptions of the Church of St. Nicholas: "...at rock shows: summer 7009 (1501) in memory of the Holy prophet Amos covered this Church... when Nobleborn Tsar and Grand Duke Ivan Vasiljevich, and when the Bishop of Kolomna Josyf zameshcheniem guest Vasily Ivanov Yurieva"63.

The authenticity of the text has been questioned Alinalove64. Researchers believe that these inventory person could not live under Ivan III (Joseph was Bishop of Kolomna in 1565-1569 years, and the merchant Vasily Ivanov Yuriev known only in the first half of the XVII century). But it is doubtful whether this criticism is fair.

The fact that the Foundation of the Church was in the year of death of the Bishop of Kolomna Abraham. The next Bishop - Nikon - was chirotonia65 and who was the vicar bishops of the chair between the death of Abraham and his consecration, Nikon, we do not know. Given that at that time was the middle of the fight between the "Josephites" and "non-possessors", could be even more candidates on establecimento, and any of them could insist on the mortgage loan the Board of the temple he was named Bishop. And merchants, who wore very commonly used name of Vasily Ivanov St. George, in Kolomna could be a lot at all times.

Thus, we must accept the message inventory in 1786 and to date the Church of St. Nicholas 1501 year.

 

5. The Church of the Annunciation in the Old Vagankovo (Moscow). Brick Church in the village of Grand Prince, in the XVI century in Moscow townsmen. The Church was built in the years 1514-1518 one of the Italian architects, known under the name Aleviz66. Have not survived. Trifoliynoe completion of facades, known to us by lithography AA Martynov and im Snegireva67 (Fig. 19), allows to assume that the temple was groin vault.

 

The Church of the Annunciation in the Old Vagankovo. Lithography AA Martynov and im Snegireva.

 

Fig. 19. The Church of the Annunciation in the Old Vagankovo. Lithography AA Martynov and im Snegireva.

 

However, this is only a hypothesis: the temple when Trifolium completion of facades could be four pillars, "Novgorod" type (as the Church of Paraskeva Pyatnitsa on Speculations, 1207, assumption on Volotovo box 1352 year of our Savior on Ilyina street 1374 year). Church of the Annunciation could be pillarless, but refer to the "Pskov" type", i.e. to have torispherical arch with transverse dismantling (as the Church of Nikita Gusyatnikov 1470, Sunday in the Empty 1496; in paragraph 6, we show that such a set when Trifolium completion of the facades had and built by craftsmen Moscow Church of the presentation in the Field 1482-1485 years68).

The hypothesis is that some of the other churches (including the great), built in Moscow by Aleviz in 1514-1518, respectively, could also be groin vault.

 

6. The Church of Elijah the Prophet in Ilyinka street (Moscow). Originally Elias monastery Cathedral, churchwarden - merchant Klim muzhilo. Material of construction - brick. The groin vault69. 1519-1520 years.

 

7. Aisles to the Moscow monastery's Cathedral of the Saviour on the Bor 1527 (material of construction - brick). Their trifoliynoe conclusion suggests that they had groin vault70. However, all the doubts expressed by us in relation to the availability of groin vault in the Church of the Annunciation in the Old Vagankovo and other temples are also applicable here.

 

8. The Cathedral of the Ivanovo monastery in Moscow. Conditional date - around 153071. Material of construction - brick. The Church has not survived. On the pliers completion of facades, known to us by lithographs May the%72 you can assume that the temple had a groin vault. But here also apply all the doubts expressed by us on the arches of the Church of the Annunciation in the Old Vagankovo and other temples of Aleviz.

 

9. The Church of St. Nicholas in Butcher (Moscow). Townsman, "merchant" brick Church. The groin vault. The Church has not survived. Dates from either the middle of the XVI century73, or the first third of the century74.

 

10. The Church of St. Nicholas in Red bells in China-town. Townsman, "merchant" brick Church. Have not survived. In lithography and description AA Martynov and im Snegireva can hypothetically assume that the temple when she coverage had groin vault75. Dating David L. - to 155176.

 

11. The Church of Martyr Nikita for Yauza (Moscow). Townsman, "merchant" white-stone Church with brick groin vault. Probably Dating the early 1530's77. Rebuilt in 1595.

 

12. Pokrovskaya Church in the village Chirkina Stupino district, Moscow region. Manorial Church boyars Sheremetevs. Material of construction - brick. The top of the temple was rebuilt, but the likely initial groin vault. Relative Dating to the first half of the XVI century78.

 

13. The Church of the Conception of John the Baptist in the Settlement in Kolomna. The main volume of the Church is with rough white stone masonry refers to the beginning of XIV century79. In the XVI century, when the Settlement was the residence of the Bishop of Kolomna, the top of the temple was rebuilt from well-treated white stone with the construction of brick groin vault. Altshuler assumed that the restructuring could take place in the beginning of XVI century80.

 

14. The chapel Nikita the Stylite to the Cathedral, Nikitsky monastery in Pereslavl-Zalessky. The groin vault. The material of construction%281)that prior to the erection of a large monastic Church 1561-1564 years he was detached temple82, - in this case, it can be dated to the first half of the XVI century.

 

15. The Church Antipov at carriage court (Moscow). Townsman, "merchant" brick Church. The groin vault. Relative Dating - middle of the XVI century83but sometimes found in the literature and Dating 1530 year84.

 

16. The Church Grebnevskoy icon of the virgin (assumption) at the Lubyanka in Moscow. Not preserved (reconstruction DP Sukhova85 shown in Fig. 20). Posad brick Church with Tripoli the%86.

 

The Church Grebnevskoy icon of the Theotokos in Moscow. Reconstruction DP Sukhova.

 

Fig. 20. The Church Grebnevskoy icon of the Theotokos in Moscow. Reconstruction DP Sukhova.

 

Probably, the churchwarden wooden Church existed at this place from 1472, was the Grand Duke (according to the Church lost manuscripts, this temple was founded in connection with a campaign of Ivan III in Novgorod87). This allows us hypothetically assume that someone from the Grand Duke was churchwarden and built on the place of the stone Church.

 

No more churches groin vault, which could be at least tentatively attributed to the end of the XV-first half of the XVI century, we do not know. Sometimes you can read that the groin vaults had not survived brick Church of Elijah the Prophet in the village of Ilyinskoye near Maloyaroslavets (the manorial Church princes Ranenyh-Obolensky, relative Dating - beginning-middle of the XVI century)88 and refectory Church of the Annunciation monastery of STS near Rostov (1524-1526 years)89. But in fact, in the first temple was torispherical arch with transverse dismantling90 in the second there was no trifoliynogo complete, and set the original was a wooden forward91. 


V

the first temple groin vault

 

So, in addition to levinovsky temples years 1514-1518 who had groin vaults only hypothetically, and the Church Trifon Naprudnom, we have listed fourteen estate, construction, and monastic churches, with some degree of probability, had groin vault and could be built before the middle of the XVI century. Two of them have the earliest date, determined with a high degree of certainty - the Nativity in Yurkin and of St. Nicholas in Kolomna.

Yurkinskomu the temple was built minor92 boyar Jacob Golohvastov, Kolomna - local merchant Vasily Yuriev. Unlikely and Golokhvastov, and St. George could be "legislators architectural fashion, predetermined extremely rapid (within ten to twenty years) development of a whole branch of the ancient architecture.

Much more likely that builds%D

Such point of view was held SS pod'yapol'skii. Quote: "you Can make a guess that not the last, if not decisive, role here (in the appearance of the columns of the temples with a characteristic "order" system scenery, trifoliynym completion and groin vault - SZ) could play a construction in 1510-ies Fryazino Aleviz at the Moscow Posad a series of small churches (on their particular importance in this respect in the 1920-ies pointed Ni Bruno93). The only thing that would contradict this assumption is much earlier date of Kolomna and especially yurkinskoy churches, which, as was said above, can hardly be considered definitively established"94.

However, SS pod'yapol'skii there conceded that "the Dating of the first, not extant, churches with groin vaults deprived of the gravitating to order with the%B95.

We see that the desire to include the construction of the first temple without columns with a characteristic "order" system scenery, trifoliynym completion and groin vault to creativity Grand architect Aleviz SS pod'yapol'skii "donated" quite reliable Dating churches of the Nativity in Yurkin and of St. Nicholas in Kolomna. The researcher also ignored the possibility of earlier the construction of churches Trifon Naprudnom and conception of Anne in China-town - despite the fact that these two centric Church in the groin vaults almost no "prazhskoe" decoration, i.e. could be dated to the end XV century and Ask.

But, with exceptional severity of the early Dating of these four churches, clearly having groin vault, SS pod'yapol'skii lost sight of the fact that we have no confidence in the groin vault at least one of the eleven churches of Aleviz. As we said in paragraph 4, the Church of the Annunciation in the Old Vagankovo known to us only by lithographs AA Martynov and im Snegireva, i.e. it when Trifolium completion of facades could be four pillars or have torispherical arch with transverse dismantling. The hypothesis is that some of the other churches (including the great), erected by Aleviz in 1514-1518, respectively, could also be groin vault.

In connection with the foregoing, we cannot accept the view SS Podyapolsky for the construction of the first centric pillarless temple trifoliynym completion and groin vault Italian architect Aleviz in 1514-1518, respectively.

But the logic of the construction of the first building of this type is Grand architect sees absolutely valid, and then only

It is important to note that the Church Trifon not only clearly has a groin vault (unlike the churches in the Old Vagankovo and other temples Aleviz), is not only clearly belongs to chiterstva Grand Prince96 (unlike the churches Grebnevskoy icon where churchwarden defined only hypothetically), but not built on the tenements, and in the rustic village of Grand Prince is actually in the%

In favor of early Dating of the temple in Naprudnom say and the fact that its construction of white stone away from the quarry (see item 2), and simple "early Moscow" portals, and not a rich decor of the Church. For example, the Church Grebnevskoy icon of the virgin decorated with a much richer (see Fig. 20).

Thus, we believe that the Church Trifon Naprudnom was the first temple without columns trifoliynym completion and groin vault.

In this regard, we have to date its construction significantly earlier churches of the Nativity in Yurkin (up 1504) and of St. Nicholas in Kolomna (1501), so as to ensure that the new type of the temple was perceived in Yurkin and Kolomna, must pass a lot of time.

We can specify the date Church Tryphon, drawing attention to the Great Zion of Vladimir assumption Cathedral (Fig. 21), the upper part of which (the work of Moscow artists) dated by 148697.

 

Great Zion assumption Cathedral in Vladimir.

 

Fig. 21. Great Zion assumption Cathedral in Vladimir.

 

Voronin drew the Zion for his reconstructions of St. George's Cathedral in Yuryev-Polsky (1230-1234 years)98 and the first assumption Cathedral in Moscow (1326-1327 years)99believing that trifoliynoe completion of Zion corresponds to a hypothetical trifoliynogo completion of these temples.

But we cannot agree that Zion reproduces the completion of the first George and assumption cathedrals, for the following reasons:

- first, trifoliynoe completion of the temples has no analogues in the surviving monuments of architecture of North-Eastern Russia in XII-XIV centuries;

- secondly, St. George's Cathedral collapsed for many decades to manufacture in 1486 the top of Zion, the first assumption Cathedral was dismantled in 1472, i.e. for 14 years until 1486. Even if these churches were indeed trifoliynye completion, it is unlikely that the "historical memory" of the Moscow jewelers has been so long. It is hardly lawful to approach the XV century by the standards of our time, when the destruction of the monument of architecture is so extraordinary and tragic event that can be picked up in the works of decorative art. During the reign of Ivan III there was no concept or on the protection of monuments of architecture, nor to perpetuate their memory. Accordingly, for craftsmen of that time much more likely to focus not on the ancient and the modern samples;

- third, the architectural and archaeological data, from AV Stoletov, indicate that the pedestal drum George%D100;

- fourth, the author of this study showed that the first assumption Cathedral in Moscow had the pedestal is not processed Le trifole and innovative features101.

From all this it follows that the Le trifole in Zion plays completed and cathedrals, destroyed many years before its manufacture, and "landmark" temple built shortly before 1486 and had considerable resonance among old Russian masters. We know only one such temple - trifoliynym completion, Grand, who became, as we showed above, "the legislator architectural fashion for decades to come, the Church Trifon Naprudnom.

Thus, as of the date Trifonovskaya Church, you can take the time interval since the mid-1470-ies (the appearance of "industrial" brick technology Fioravanti102) to mid 1480-s (formerly the date of manufacture the upper part of the greater Zion Vladimir assumption Cathedral, for 15-25 years before the erection of the Church of the Nativity in Yurkin and Nikola room in Kolomna).


VI

Masters of the Church Trifon naprudnom

and Dating conception Church of Anna

 

Consideration of the architectural history of the Church Trifon Naprudnom not conclude without exposing critical analysis of the hypothesis that the temple was built by Aristotle Fioravanti.

In principle, in favour of this version speaks that in the construction of the assumption Cathedral were implemented and similar construction machinery, and similar General principles of decoration ("stylization under the classic old type of the Church). Furthermore - and in Moscow's Cathedral, and in the temple were used Trifonovskaya unprecedented engineering solutions.

Note that after the collapse of the huge Cathedral of the assumption Myshkin and Krivtsov (1472-1474 years) Fioravanti was invited to address the first of all engineering problems103. "Activity of Aristotle in Italy is an activity, not an architect (perhaps with some exceptions), and engineers, with an outstanding engineer who carried out a series of bold technical solutions, much%104).

Perhaps the main engineering idea Fioravanti during the construction of the assumption Cathedral was the inclusion in stone technology brick elements (arches, pillars105, drums, East of the wall above the altar apses) so that the overall construction has kept a "white stone" (i.e. the "Imperial" - see item 2) appearance. For the first time in Russian architecture appeared and cross vaults thick%106. With the erection of the altar additional arches East compartments of the temple actually turned into a monolith, perceiving a significant part of the burden of huge drums. Accordingly, the opportunity to build in the Central and Western parts of the Cathedral on thin round pillars, which created a sense of wholeness ("zalnosti") and ease of construction.

Eventually, the Moscow Cathedral was General reproduction of the external forms of Vladimir assumption Cathedral with a completely different design solutions and an organization of internal space.

The main idea of engineering in the Church Trifon clear: it groin vault. The external shape of the temple is also not unprecedented: it is traditional Novgorod trifoliynoe completion of facades, traditional Novgorod odnoapsidnost107 and the decoration of the early Moscow type.

Thus, there is a temptation to include Trifonovskaya creativity Aristotle Fioravanti. In favor of this may be evidence of the fact that Fioravanti together with Ivan III went to the 1477-1478 years in Novgorod, i.e. could get acquainted with the Novgorod architecture as well as shortly before - with Vladimir.

But there are a number of fundamental points, not allowing to accept that the architect of the Church Trifon Naprudnom (and, accordingly, the inventor of the groin vault) was Aristotle Fioravanti or any of his students (at the level of our knowledge of the architecture of the end of XV century almost the same).

First of all, Trifonovskaya Church has not quite broken plan carefully. In principle, this fact can "write off" on unscrupulous builders-contractors - in fact busy with state Affairs Ivan III unlikely often visited his "Falconer" the village, and Fioravanti, if he was the architect of the Church Trifon, could not pay the "Uptown" construction in emphasis will

But there are other reasons to doubt the authorship of Aristotle against Trifonovskaya temple. This wooden wall connection108 and dryer, originally had no Windows (that convincingly showed SS pod'yapol'skii109).

It is impossible to imagine that the outstanding Italian engineer introduced in the design archaic wooden ties. For example, in the assumption Cathedral was used exclusively metal communication - and flush, and proemnyh110.

It is equally impossible to imagine that Fioravanti, who paid special attention to the problem of illumination of churches (for example, for these purposes in the assumption Cathedral of the internal Windows sockets were made much larger outdoor), elevated deaf dryer. Anyway, inside the Church Trifon so dark that no Association with the works of Aristotle does not occur.

All other famous Italian masters (Solari, Aleviz and others) arrived in Moscow later than a Church was built Tryphon, and the author of this temple none of them could not be.

In 1470-1480 years in Moscow, except for Aristotle Fioravanti, on Grand orders worked gang Pskov masters (come not from Pskov, and from Western Europe, where the master had an internship at the "German"111). But attributed Trifonovskaya to work the farm, we can't, for the following reasons:

- firstly, a list of buildings known Pskov112and the Church Trifon it not;

- secondly, the people of Pskov not worked in the white stone;

- third, Pskov team in 1482-1485 were constructed Church of the presentation in the Field113. In the 1920-ies during the examination of the St. Nicholas Church of the Moscow Sretensky monastery were found the remains included in its composition of an ancient temple, covered with a torispherical vault with transverse dismantling. S. pod'yapol'skii questioned the identity of the Church with the Church of the presentation in the Field, referring to the use of its small size brick and polished tile114. But hardly this question is legitimate: small brick could be used along with large-already in times Fioravanti (we talked about this p. 1), and polished tile was used and Naprudnom115and in Yurkin116. So, from the masters from Pskov was "his own" (characteristic of Pskov architecture) design of the arch, and it is unlikely they would be applied along with her kr is

Thus, most likely, the authors of the Church Trifon Naprudnom (and, accordingly, the groin vault) are seen by local, Moscow great wizard.

Hardly Ivan III with the advent of Western Europe Fioravanti and Pskov imposed disgrace to all of their Moscow artists. For example, we don't know what happened with Myshkin and Krivtsov after the disaster that befell their Cathedral in 1474. Whether they were severely punished? Or they were able to attribute its failure to "force majeure" - an earthquake? Do they trust the Grand Duke to have any construction, at least in their villages - in particular, in Naprudnom?

Of course, on this subject, we can only propose a hypothesis. But the fact that the first temple groin vault - Trifon Naprudnom - was built during the time interval from the mid 1470's to mid 1480 x, it is an established with a sufficient degree of reliability.

Thus, we have shown loyalty to the "classic" look (adopted in the middle-second half of the twentieth century) on the Sabbath.117. In this connection it is appropriate to confirm and "classic" Dating Conception Church Anne, close to the date of the temple in Naprudnom118.

In favor of rapprochement dates Trifonovskaya and New churches say the same construction materials (brick and white stone, and away from the quarry), odnoapsidnost, blind drums119, simple decor, "early Moscow" portals.

Of course, these churches have a number of features of the differences (proportion clutch Le trifole, some elements of architectural decor120), but these features do not go beyond the individual artists. The application of the Conception Church in Anna rail links (unlike wood in Trifonovskaya Church) cannot serve as a reason for distancing dates of these temples as iron ties were in the assumption Cathedral Fioravanti, and wood and in the Cathedral of the Intercession on the Moat. The tendency of Selig of small vaults of strikings distinguishes Conception Church from Trifonovskaya (where seligi horizontal), but, again, cannot serve as a basis for the late Dating Kitay-Gorod temple, as slanted of seligi of strikings were in the Church of St. Nicholas in Kolomna (1501 - see item 4). Differences in the size of small brick in the temples Tryphon (22,4 x 11 x 4.5 cm) and the Conception of Anne (22 x 11 x 4.2 cm121) keep within tolerances, typical of that time: in the Church of Elijah the Prophet on Speculations the size of the brick was 5-6 x 11-12,5 x 24-25,5 cm122.

A semicircular end Le trifole Conception Church in Anna looks even more archaic than the pigeon is in the Church Tryphon.

In General, "Novgorod-early Moscow" style Church of the Conception of Anne (Fig. 8) is much closer to the Church Trifon than to "raiskuma" the Church of the Nativity in Yurkin (Fig. 9), fine levinovsky Church of the Annunciation in the Old Vagankovo (Fig. 19) or the Church Grebnevskoy icon with its well-developed architectural decor (Fig. 20)123.

Of course, we must bear in mind that between the construction of churches Trifon Conception of Anne could have been some period of time (at least a few years)required for the perception of "townsmen" architects "princely" groin vault. During this time could happen and that "the development of an architectural type" from Trifonovskaya of the temple to the Church of the Conception of Anne, which he wrote L. David124.

However, one can not deny the possibility of erecting a temple townsman one of the Grand architects (especially because of the churchwarden Kitaygorodskaya Church we do not know). In favor of such a possibility says building the walls of the Church of the Conception of Anne's "Imperial" white stone away from the quarry (see item 2).

Consequently, we may take before the fire the date of ozodani%D125 States it on the existing stone Church Conception Anna.

Thus, the words of David L. on "churches Trifonovskaya type"126 cease to be a mere formality, and become quite competent symbol of one of the most important areas of old Russian architecture - centric pillarless churches groin vaults.


NOTES

 

1. With the growth of Moscow turned into a village Naprudnoe naprudnuyu settlement and for a long time (XVII-XIX centuries) to have this status, so in the literature you can often find the name "Church Trifon Naprudnom (Sloboda)". For example, see: A. Batalov. To the question about the origin of the groin vault in Russian architecture of the XVI century. In the book: Sofia. Sat. articles on the art of Byzantium and Ancient%

2. The basic architectural and archaeological data on the Church Trifon given by L. David (Ludmila. The Church Trifon Naprudnom. In the book: Architectural monuments of Moscow XV-XVII century. New research. M., 1947 (hereinafter - David, 1947).

3. David, 1947, S. 34, 38. It should be noted that the restoration of the temple in Trifonovskaya 1930-1940-s, though it was by today's standards are too radical (in terms of complete and fully justified the destruction of extensions of XIX century), but differed high quality. Currently the only important clarification was made SS pod'yapol'skii, showing that the Church drum Trifon originally had no Windows (SS pod'yapol'skii. To the question about Oriental elements in the Moscow architecture of the XV-XVI centuries In the book: Old Russian art. Russian art of the late middle ages: XVI a century. SPb, 2003. C. 22).

4. David, 1947, S. 36.

5. Ibid., C. 50.

6. Vl.v.sedov. The Church Trifon Naprudnom. The article is on the web-site www.projectclassica.ru.

7. Kavelmaher. The monument of architecture - the Church of Michael the Archangel in Sinkova Ramensky district of Moscow region. So 1: conservation project. JI Mosoblstroyrestavratsiya". M., 1990 (hereinafter - Kavelmaher, 1990). C. 23.

8. S. pod'yapol'skii. To the question about Oriental elements in the Moscow architecture of the XV-XVI centuries In the book: Old Russian art. Russian art of the late middle ages: the XVI century. SPb, 2003 (hereinafter - pod'yapol'skii, 2003). C. 28.

9. A. Batalov had previously Dating Trifonovskaya temple end of the XV-beginning of XVI century (A. Batalov. Four architectural monument of Moscow of the end of XVI century,%32. M., 1984 (hereinafter referred to Batalov, 1984). C. 48), but now he dates the temple 1560 mi (Batalov, 2006. C. 63).

10. B. flowers. Riddles italic aratiatia. The article is on the web-site http://his.1september.ru. It should be noted that at present and in the scientific and popular literature increasingly prevails writing "Fioravanti, imitating the Italian pronunciation. But we will stick to the option "Fioravanti, due to tradition of XIX-XX centuries and Italian spelling "Fioravanti" (here the author has the advice AI Komech).

11. About odnoapsidnosti first Annunciation Cathedral, see: AA Sukhanov (article written under the guidance Kavelmahera). The basement of the Annunciation Cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin according to the architectural and archaeological studies of the twentieth century. In the book: Art monuments of the Moscow Kremlin. Materials and research. Vol. 16. M., 2003. C. 170.

12. About odnoapsidnosti and probable Dating%2

13. For more information, see: Zagraevsky, 2003. C. 34-35.

14. That small brick cannot be a sign of attribution, showed SS pod'yapol'skii (SS pod'yapol'skii. On the ancient Church of the Sretensky monastery in Moscow. In the book: Russian archaeology, 1, 2000 (hereinafter - pod'yapol'skii, 2000). C. 47-61). In buildings that have a clear date, small brick size 5(6) x 11(12,5) x 24 (25,5) cm was first used in 1519-1520 years - in the Church of Elijah the Prophet on Trade (Batalov, 2006. C. 53)

15. M.A. Ilyin, PN Maksimov, Cot. The stone architecture of the epoch of blossoming of Moscow. In the book: The history of Russian art. So 3. M., 1953. C. 300.

16. Kavelmaher, 1990.

17. Batalov, 2006. C. 63.

18. Monuments of architecture of Moscow region. T 2. M., 1975. C. 179.

19. David, 1947, with. 36.

20. Vl.v.sedov. The decree. cit.

21. Kavelmaher, 1990, C. 23; pod'yapol'skii, 2000. C. 59. To quote the letter Kavelmahera to TP Timofeeva (1988), stored in the Museum "Alexandrovskaya Sloboda": "Graffiti St. George Cathedral know only in the South-East corner, below, on a smooth spot on the new clutch. If new is simply "7000", without comment, and continuing, it is very important to me. I have several years of collecting the so-called "sample", the simple sample font cemetery carvers. Please send at least dig. These samples are being misled scientists, they are foolish enough to see them as the date of construction. The figure "7000" occurs most often as "Summer", because they start with the epitaph".

22. Unfortunately, incorrect interpretation of this inscription David L., in the second half of the XX century, received such a negative response in the scientific world that Kavelmaher, and S. pod'yapol'skii even did not allow the possibility of Dating Trifonovskaya temple end of the XV century (personal conversation with V. kavelmaherom, 2003.). In fairness, we note that this inscription attention David L. drew PD Baranowski (David, 1947, with. 36).

23. David, 1947, s 38; information materials in the community of the Church Trifon Naprudnom.

24. David, 1947, S. 38.

25. Ibid.

26. Characteristically, A. Batalov, offering their version of Dating Trifonovskaya Church, not attracted to any analysis of stylistic analogues of this temple (Batalov, 2006. C. 63).

27. Vl.v.sedov. The decree. cit.

28. Ibid.

29. For more information, see: SV zagraevsky. Yuri Dolgoruky and old white-stone architecture. M., 2002 (hereinafter - Zagraevsky, 2002). C. 23-25, 96-100, 141.

30. For more information, see: SV zagraevsky. Organization of production and processing of stone in Ancient Russia. M., 2006. The article is on the web-site www.zagraevsky.com.

31. Zagraevsky, 2002. C. 23-25.

32. For more information, see ibid., C. 72.

33. For more information, see: SV zagraevsky. Apology Rostov chronicler (to the question about the Dating temples Yuri Dolgoruky). In the book: Materials of the regional conference dedicated to the centenary of the birth of N.N. Voronin (19 April 2004.). Vladimir, 2004. C. 15-26.

34. For more information, see: Zagraevsky, 2002. C. 111.

35. Dating justification Nikon's Church, see: SV zagraevsky. To the question about the Dating of the Church is%

36. Dating justification of the assumption Cathedral in Rostov see: AG Miller. New data on the assumption Cathedral in Rostov Veliky. In the book: Restoration and architectural archeology. New materials and research. M., 1991. C. 125-135 mA;

37. CIT. in book.: David, 1947, with. 36.

38. Subvocalise. Village and village in North-Eastern Russia XIV-XVI centuries, M, L, 1936. C. 59.

39. Batalov, 2006. C. 63.

40. Built in the early to mid%century unique dvuhetapnyh forechurches the Church of the Annunciation parish Church (estates Naked boyars) stands on the river Shorne, close to the village. Timoshkino ginskyy district of Vladimir region. In the early 1990-ies the Church were resumed service and partially repaired the roof, but then again the Church was abandoned and is now in disrepair. The situation is aggravated by the fact that the Church, as to the village. Timoshkino, there is year-round entrance (to drive only in summer by jeep through the village. Savelieva, during the remainder of the year to go around 5 km from the village. Florida or about 4 km from the village. Skomorohova).

41. Everyelse. Church of St. Nicholas in Kolomna. In the book: Architectural heritage, 15. M., 1963. C. 58.

42. Pod'yapol'skii, 2003, S. 17.

43. Batalov, 2006. C. 54.

44. Ibid., C. 65.

45. Ibid.

46. Daitro. Centric construction time of Basil III and Elena Glinskaya. Problems of interpretation. In the book: Archive architecture. Vol. IX. M., 1997. C. 142-143.

47. Pod'yapol'skii, 2003, S. 17.

48. Ibid.

49. David, 1947, S. 53.

50. Kavelmaher. To the question about the time and circumstances of construction of the Church of the Nativity in Yurkin. In the book: Monuments of culture. New discoveries. 1995. M., 1996 (hereinafter - Kavelmaher, 1996). C. 433.

51. Pod'yapol'skii, 2003, S. 19.

52. On the Dating of these temples see: Zagraevsky, 2003.

53. PSRL 8:226.

54. M.A. Ilyin, PN Maksimov, Cot. The decree. cit., S. 341.

55. L.Adavid. From the scientific heritage. The materials of a PhD thesis on the theme "Moscow pillarless temples with groin vaults of the first half of the XVI century (the experience of research and reconstru%D4. M., 2001 (hereinafter referred to David, 2001). C. 10.

56. Ibid., C. 11.

57. Architectural monuments of Moscow. The Kremlin, China town, Central square. M., 1982. C. 447; pod'yapol'skii, 2003, S. 21; Batalov, 2006. C. 60-61.

58. In particular, this position is expressed on the web site www.temples.ru, www.chkg.ru and mn. other; this date is shown on the modern memorial plaque mounted on the wall of the temple.

59. M.A. Ilyin, PN Maksimov, Cot. The decree. cit., S. 344.

60. L.Adavid. The Church of the Nativity in S. Yurkin. In the book: Restoration and research of the monuments of culture. M., 1982. C. 56-64.

61. Kavelmaher, 1996, s.

62. Everyelse. The decree. cit., s 62.

63. Aviswana. About the architectural monuments of the Kremlin XVI-XVII centuries In the book: Monuments of culture. New discoveries. 1984. L., 1986. C. 468.

64. A. Batalov. Again about the temple construction in Moscow "guests" in Kolomna: the question about the Dating of the Church of St. Nicholas. In the book: Architectural heritage, 44. M., 2001. C. 32-37.

65. Information gleaned from the Internet site www.ortho-rus.ru.

66. At the end of the twentieth century SS pod'yapol'skii and Vygolov VP was inclined to think that the author of eleven temples years 1514-1518 was not the architect of the Archangel Cathedral Aleviz New, arrived in Moscow in 1504, and Aleviz, arrived in 1494 and built to strengthen the Kremlin and the Grand Palace (see SS pod'yapol'skii. Aleviz the activities of the New Russia. In the book: Old Russian art. Problems of attribution. M., 1993. C. 189; Vygolov VP. To the question of the buildings and personality Aleviz Fryazino. In the book: Old Russian art. Research and attribution. M., 1997. C. 240-243). The author of this study showed that the author of eleven temples years 1514-1518 as the first temple of Alexander Settlement was Aleviz Novy (SV zagraevsky. To the question about the Dating and authorship of the monuments of Alexandrov Sloboda. In the book: Zubovsky reading. Sat. scientific articles. Vol. 3. Strunino, 2005. C. 69-92.).

67. Man, Imoneynet. Russian ancient monuments of Church and civil architecture. M., 1846-1860.

68. David, 2001. C. 20-21.

69. Upenov. Full-scale research of the ancient temple at Ilyinke. In the book: Architecture and construction of Moscow. No. 4. M., 1998. C. 26-29; Lboratory. Study temple 1519-1520 years.: the Church of the prophet Elijah at the Novgorod Podvorye in Moscow. In the book: Old Russian art. Russian art of the late middle ages: the XVI century. SPb, 2003. C. 469-493.

70. A. Batalov. To the question about the Dating of the Cathedral evfimiev Saviour monastery. In the book: Suzdal Spaso-evfimiev monastery in the history and culture of Russia (650th anniversary of the Foundation of the monastery). Materials of scientific-practical conference. Vladimir-Suzdal, 2003 (hereinafter referred to Batalov, 2003). C. 43.

71. Pod'yapol'skii,2003, S. 26.

72. Man, Imoneynet. The decree. cit.

73. M.A. Ilyin, PN Maksimov, Cot. The decree. cit., S. 341.

74. Batalov, 1984. C. 48; Kavelmaher, 1996, C. 423.

75. David, 2001, S. 12.

76. Ibid.

77. M.Gravinowicz. To the question about the beginning of Moscow. Bulletin Of The Academy Of Sciences, 4. M., 1947.

78. Monuments of architecture of Moscow region. M., 1975. So 2, S. 292.

79. For more information, see: Zagraevsky, 2003.

80. Altshuler. Monuments of architecture of Moscow Russia the second half of XIV-early XV centuries (new studies). The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of candidate of architecture. As a manuscript. M., 1978. C. 47.

81. Batalov, 2003. C. 41.

82. David, 2001, S. 13.

83. L.Adavid. Church Antipov a sovereign large stables in Moscow. In the book: Restoration and research of the monuments of culture. Vol. 1. M., 1975. C. 166.

84. Website www.kultura-portal.ru.

85. David, 2001. C. 15.

86. M.Ealexandrova dated this temple 1514-1520 for years without any justification (mi Alexander. Manuscript no. 67 in the Department of architectural graphics SHM).

87. David, 2001. C. 14.

88. M.A. Ilyin, PN Maksimov, Cot. The decree. cit., S. 341.

89. Wettrunden. Monastery of STS. The architectural ensemble. M, 2001. C. 14.

90. Pod'yapol'skii, 2003, S. 26.

91. Batalov, 2006. C. 53.

92. Higher service accomplishments kind Golohvastov - appointment of Boris and Alexander, sons churchwarden yurkinskomu Church Jacob Golohvastov, heads the Embassy mission of Ivan III (information gleaned from the Internet site www.rulex.EN).

93. Ni Bruno. Monument of Russian architecture of the XVI century In the book: Institute of archaeology and art history. Proceedings of the section of art. Vol. II. M., 1928. C. 129.

94. Pod'yapol'skii, 2003, S. 26.

95. Ibid.

96. Kavelmaher showed that none but the great Prince, could not build the temple in the village of Grand Prince: "This God-pleasing endeavor, as the construction of the Church was not subject to re-consignment was impossible to have inspired the construction of the temple of Tsar Feodor and the Queen and wait for this bliss in the next life for themselves. To deserve the eternal repose of the construction could only "own" the Church itself and its offspring - the priest began to read the Obituary in all circumstances with you. The medieval people were vulgar pragmatic: the Church prayed for churchwarden, and wait for that salvation could only churchwarden and his family. A building on behalf of another, to bear this burden for another did not make sense" (Kavelmaher. Pseudo-Gothic vaulted Church abroad XVIXVII centuries in the Moscow region. To the question of the date of construction, the initial volume and style Church of the Transfiguration in the village of Ostrov (configured of manuscripts). The article is on the web-site www.kawelmacher.ru).

97. Voronin. The architecture of North-Eastern Russia XII-XV centuries. M., 1961-1962. So 1, S. 157.

98. Ibid, so 2, S. 105.

99. Ibid., C. 156. For the first time Zion specified as a likely picture of the top of the first assumption Cathedral in Moscow attracted AI Nekrasov (AI Nekrasov. The emergence of the Moscow art. M., 1926. C. 101-102).

100. AV century. St. George Cathedral city of Yuriev-Polsky XIII century, and its reconstruction. In the book: From the history of restoration of monuments of culture. M., 1974; Kavelmaher. The cornerstone of Lapidarium George's Cathedral in Yuryev-Polish (to the question of the so-called cross Svyatoslavovom). In the book: Old Russian art. Rus. Byzantium. The Balkans. XIII century. SPb, 1997. C. 196; SV Zagraevsky. Question%

101. Zagraevsky, 2003, 107 S..

102. M.A. Ilyin, PN Maksimov, Cot. The decree. cit., S. 300.

103. For more information, see: Zagraevsky, 2002, 89 S..

104. S. pod'yapol'skii. To the question about the peculiarity of architecture of the Moscow Uspenie Cathedral. In the book: Assumption Cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin. Materials and research. M., 1985. C. 48.

105. Hidden altar barrier of the Eastern square pillars of the assumption Cathedral is completely brick. Round pillars are also made of bricks, but faced with white%238. M., 1995. C. 221).

106. Kavelmaher. On the initial appearance of the assumption Cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin. In the book: Architectural heritage. No. 38. M., 1995 (hereinafter - Kavelmaher, 1995), S. 214.

107. The apse of the Novgorod odnoapsidnyh temples less Trifonovskaya, and this once again confirms the level of masters of the Church in Naprudnom, significantly raise the altar space with preservation odnoapsidnosti.

108. David, 1947, S. 46.

109. Pod'yapol'skii, 2003, S. 22.

110. Kavelmaher, 1995, S. 214.

111. PSRL 20:1:301.

112. Ibid.

113. Ibid.

114. S. pod'yapol'skii. About the Church of St. Cyril of the XVI century the Kirillo-Belozersky monastery. Approx. 23. The article is on the web-site www.booksite.ru.

115. David, 1947, S. 50.

116. Kavelmaher, 1996, C. 433.

117. Batalov, 2006. C. 49-50.

118. M.A. Ilyin, PN Maksimov, Cot. The decree. cit., S. 341.

119. Note that in the churches of the Nativity in Yurkin and of St. Nicholas in Kolomna Windows drums were (pod'yapol'skii, 2003, S. 22).

120. David, 2001, S. 10.

121. Batalov, 2006. C. 62.

122. Ibid., C. 53.

123. A. Batalov rightly pointed out that the stylistic differences Trifonovskaya and new churches do not allow to distance their dates (Batalov, 2006. C. 63).

124. Ibid., C. 11.

125. PSRL 8:226.

126. David, 1947, S. 51.

 


 

Application

 

Natalia Gorbachev

 

A brief history of the Church of the Martyr Tryphon

 

The temple of the Holy Martyr Trifon Naprudnom is one of the oldest and most revered temples especially in Moscow. Still among researchers there is no unanimous opinion about the time of construction and the master-Builder of this unique temple. Professor S.Vtiraetsya, son of the famous architectural historian and restorer Kavelmahera, in his book makes a compelling argument in favor of the assumption that Trifonovskaya Church was built in 1470-1480, Thus, the Church is the same age Kremlin cathedrals...

Now the temple Martyr. Tryphon is located inside the Third ring road of the capital: from him on the trolley on the current prospectus of the World, then on Sretenka the Kremlin is just 20 minutes drive away. In ancient times there were noisy groves, among which are already at the Moscow Grand Prince Ivan Danilovich Kalita there village (i.e. the settlement with the Church, whose name has not been preserved) Naprudskoe or Naprudnom. Over the next two centuries Naprudnom, as the Grand possession, situated next to the famous road to the Trinity Sergiev monastery, a special article was mentioned in the spiritual Testaments of the great princes and passed to the most important of heirs. About Naprudnogo was Great (up to a mile in length) pond. Here Grand princes and kings liked to come with falcons and Merlin hunting for water or, as they said then, "wet" poultry.

With the Foundation of the temple of the Holy Martyr Tryphon Naprudnom linked to old Moscow tradition. Once when one of the rulers of his Falconer Patrikeev lost loved Royal Falcon and had to pay a head, if not avenge it in three days. Poor came to the Great pond, near Falconer forest, began to pray fervently to her heavenly patron Saint Martyr Trifon and his help found here departed Falcon. On this place Falconer and put vowed white stone Church.

The proof of true devotion is the image of the Martyr Tryphon on the icon in his Moscow Church just as he was Falconer, is on a white horse with a Falcon on his arm. For this image, named the people "Russian icon" St. Trifon, no motives or in the life of this Saint, that he was feeding poultry, nor in the Church of molitvoslov

In the reign of Basil I (1389-1425) falconry was of such magnitude and importance that the image of the equestrian Falconer with a bird in the hand even received the status of the state emblem of Moscow, he was minted on the coins. Coins of Vasily II the Dark (1425-1462) also have an image of a horseman with a Falcon in his hand. Horse Falconer in the reign of John III (1462-1505) disappears from the Moscow coins, however, appears on the ancestral princes Patrikeyev. Taking into account the conclusions of Professor SV zagraevsky on the construction of the temple in 1470-1480, by this time it is necessary to take a miracle with a Falcon, which gave rise to the construction of the Church of Martyr. Trifon Naprudnom.

When Patriarch Filaret (Romanov), in 1625., the temple was listed among the churches, which generated a tribute to the Patriarchal order. In 1680., when Tsar Theodore Alekseevich, he owned several acres of arable and hay forest land. Under Peter the Great, in 1716., preserved the names on the list of homeowners at the time of his arrival there were about 50 yards Philistine, of which ten were noble boyars.

The devastating fire of 1737, 1748 and 1753. not passed and naprudnuyu settlement. In 1792. lowered water contaminated with the Great pond, which served not only for decoration, but also a necessary condition of economic activity in the area. The terrain is completely depopulated during the epidemic of plague 1771. Then for the burial of the victims opened Lazarevskoe cemetery, and the houses in the area burned. The Church of Martyr. Trifon long remained without joining. In the end, the clergy began to petition the Archbishop of Moscow to close the Church because of the lack of livelihood. Ruling Bishop at the time (1821-1826) was Filaret (Drozdov), the future Hierarch instead for%D

In 1800. in Moscow came from Montenegro, Archimandrite Stefan vukotić. Learning of this, silversmith Tryphon Dobryakov offered at his own expense to build a Shrine for those in the Montenegrin town of Kotor of the relics of the Martyr Tryphon. Some time later, Peter njegosh sent Dobryakova sent in gratitude for the kindness three relics of the martyrdom of the head of St. Tryphon. In 1812. Dobryakov %D1819. she was transferred to the Church Trifon Naprudnom and expensive couceiro into the icon of St. Tryphon with Falcon in his hand. Soon after that, the Church became the center of famous all over Moscow Trifonovskaya pilgrimage. Established funds, and in 1825. already been consecrated South side-chapel in the name of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker. The Northern side-chapel Philaret the merciful was first consecrated in 1861.

In 1889-1895, almost all extensions of the XIX century, was demolished, and by architect PZU Jr. built a new, high bell tower and the dome Church, housed three and a half thousand pilgrims, ancient temple belonged to it from the East. The new St. Nicholas chapel was consecrated in 1896., Philaret - in 1898. The largest bell weighed 560 pounds (9 tons).

Trifonovskaya Church, eventually became one of the largest in Moscow was closed in 1931. Part of Church values and icons including the famous miraculous icon with relics of the Martyr. Tryphon, moved to a nearby Church of the Sign icon of the Mother of God that Pereiaslav settlement (which is now attributed to the temple Martyr. Trifon); the rest was looted. Written in the apse of the Church frescos Martyr. Trifon sent to the storage in the Tretyakov gallery. From complete destruction of the Church saved the application of many architects; 1932. directed blasts were "shot" only built in the XIX century Preserved ancient building was renovated in 1947-1948 architect L. David, who returned to the Church's original appearance. However, even for more than forty years, the Church stood in ruins. Only in 1992. resumed liturgical life of the ancient Trifonovskaya pilgrimage.

Currently, the temple of

Address of the temple of the Holy Martyr Trifon Naprudnom: 111513, Moscow, Trifonovskaya street, 38. The temple can be reached on foot from m "Riga" or "Prospect Mira".

 

Sergey Zagraevsky

 

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