Prof. Dr. S.V. Zagraevsky
Vasily III’s palace and temple complex in Alexandrov Sloboda
and its place in typological development of tsar’s manors of XVI c.
Published in Russian:
Çàãðàåâñêèé Ñ.Â. Äâîðöîâî-õðàìîâûé
êîìïëåêñ Âàñèëèÿ III â Àëåêñàíäðîâñêîé ñëîáîäå è åãî ìåñòî â òèïîëîãè÷åñêîì
ðàçâèòèè öàðñêîé óñàäüáû XVI âåêà. Ìàòåðèàëû XV ìåæðåãèîíàëüíîé êðàåâåä÷åñêîé êîíôåðåíöèè (16 àïðåëÿ
The article confirmes
the fact of the end of construction in
The following text was translated from the Russian original by the computer program
and has not yet been edited.
So it can be used only for general introduction.
What Alexandrov Sloboda at the beginning of the XVI century there was a
Palace-temple complex (country estate) Vasily III, the researchers knew already
in the mid-twentieth century. This is directly followed from the message
"Trinity chronicle, speaking about the completion of the Grand court in
the Settlement: "Summer 7021 October 3 Sergius in the monastery of the
founding Sergievo monastery gate kirpichnyi, and on the Sabbath.%Those years
December 1 ssna byst tsrkv Cover STEI btsy in the New village Oleksandrovskom.
Then f knz great and yard vshel (my italics - SZ). In g msca
December 15 ssna byst tsrkv kirpichnyi in Sergius monastery of
However, the true scale of this architecture to the%
- Pokrovsky, now Trinity Cathedral (in the future will be without reservations call it Pokrovsky) Dating from 1513 year on the basis of the above messages "Trinity chronicle;
Trinity, now protection, the Church will continue without reservations
call it the Trinity) is usually dated to the second construction period Sloboda
- stay Ivan IV (from 1565 to 1582 year; since the construction theoretically
could start a little earlier arrival of
- Crucifixion bell to 1710 - the
Alexandrovskaya Sloboda. Pokrovsky (now Trinity) Cathedral.
Alexandrovskaya Sloboda. Trinity (now Pokrovskaya) Church.
Alexandrovskaya Sloboda. Assumption Church.
Alexandrovskaya Sloboda. Crucifixion tower.
Accordingly, in the Grand estate of Vasily III in the Settlement
researchers of the mid-twentieth century included only the intercession
Cathedral and the
In this form of Dating sites Sloboda XVI century and the General idea of the Palace-temple complex of Vasily III existed until investigations Kavelmahera. In 1980-1990-ies of the scientist spent an unprecedented series of excavations and soundings, which revealed a fundamental fact: Pokrovsky Cathedral, Holy Trinity Church, assumption Church and the Church of Metropolitan Alexis (in the future will for simplicity to call them first temples of Alexandrov Sloboda) with their surrounding the complex of the Palace chambers were built in the same building period.
In all these monuments Kavelmaher noted materials (brick and white
stone) similar conditions, homogeneous binding identical connecting iron,
machinery mixed masonry, United Italianate "graphical style of the Russian
court of architecture XVI century, with the use of the same, clearly unified,
units and components - shaped panels, sets of profiles of base, crowning rods
and capitals. Laying all the temples were originally open - did not dyed and
not bleached, was tinted white gesso just some made of brick elements of decor.
All speakers white stone elements were the same type of bonded brackets. All
churches (except for the pillars of the
This reasoning Kavelmahera was fairly well received by all researchers as comprehensive4and inevitably the question arose about the correction of earlier dates.
Kavelmaher, referring to the above text "Trinity chronicle and the
proximity of the stylistics of the first temple Alexander the Settlement to the
Italianate style Kremlin cathedrals of Ivan III and Vasily III5,
dated the Church of the protection, Trinity, assumption and Alexei,
Metropolitan of the first construction period Sloboda - years 1509-1513. The
second construction period - 1560-1570-s - Kavelmaher attributed only to the
restructuring of the
The proof-Dating Kavelmahera and criticism of existing nowadays formal stylistic theories later built the first temple of Alexandrov Sloboda8 the focus of a special scientific works of the author of this study9here only makes sense to briefly list the main arguments in favor of Dating of the first temples Sloboda years 1509-1513.
First, it is necessary to clarify some of the intercession Cathedral -
stone or wood said in a statement cited "Trinity chronicle. We are talking
about four buildings (the fortified gates of the Trinity-Sergius Lavra, the
Church in the village Klementyev gate
Of course, just forget to make the necessary clarification to the building material princely temple scribe was unlikely. Much more likely that such clarification and was not required - just as it was not required clarifications regarding, for example, construction of the assumption Cathedral Fioravanti, the Archangel Cathedral of the New Aleviz or Trinity is%8Thus, we must assume that the message "Trinity chronicle says about sanctification in 1513 is hard Pokrovsky Cathedral.
Secondly, visual-tactile analysis of construction equipment showed in
the intercession Cathedral, Trinity, and churches of the assumption, the Church
of Metropolitan Alexei we see a soft, warm stonework, typical brick buildings
of the Moscow Kremlin of the turn of the XV and XVI centuries, and for the
Cathedral of St. Peter the Metropolitan of vysokopetrovsky monastery (1514-1517
years). Characteristic and mortar - with extremely high binding capacity, with
a very low content of lime sand and other impurities. Numerous white-stone
ornaments and Settlement, and the Kremlin were carved so that seems like a
stone "breathes". In the Cathedral of
Unlike the above-mentioned buildings, Crucifixion tower built of "dry", "overheated" bricks, crumbling easily a solution with a high admixture of sand. From the same brick in the same solution, built the Cathedral of the Intercession on the Moat. The white-stone decor Crucifixion bell also carved, as at the Cathedral of the Intercession on the Moat, - hard, geometric, "dry".
And in the belfry Crucifixion, and in the Cathedral of the Intercession on the Moat, the builders used along with iron bonds of wood. In the Church of the protection, Trinity, assumption and Metropolitan Alexei Alexandrov Sloboda all connections made entirely of iron of high quality10.
Third, the bell
- masonry and mortar, and style, and performance of the decoration of
- the survey author of the second tier of the
- acquaintance with probing Astroscope and Kavelmahera made in places of an adjunction of pylons Crucifixion bell to the facades of the Church of Metropolitan Alexis, shows that at the moment of rigging the pylons of the Church of Metropolitan Alexei had time to take root in the earth" about half a metre. Theoretically, it could happen within a relatively short time (in case C-Christ.
- at the polling Astroscope and Kavelmahera inside stair corner Crucifixion bell shows that in places of an adjunction of the walls and pylons Crucifixion bell on detected by probing the fragments of the white-stone basement and obliviscence brick decor of the Church of Metropolitan Alexei there are traces of weathering, which could not manage to appear in the last %D
From the foregoing it follows that between the construction of the
Fourth, after the construction of Trinity Church to its Western facade
was added a new section, consisting, as earlier, from the chamber, swinging and
basement (of the house was demolished in 168011). Kavelmaher gave
convincing arguments in favor of the fact that these additions were built much
later (not less than a few decades) after the
- unlike the two old sectional volumes, the new section was otherwise a regular solution of the (square, covered in direction North-South torispherical vault cellar, double, split longitudinal wall basement) and different interpretation of the volume;
- seliga dismantled in 1680 vault chamber reached the Church of the cornice and plunged into it;
- new section was founded on and the%B
- extension belonged to the lower construction culture12.
Therefore, there is a situation similar to the one described above in connection with the restructuring of the Church of Metropolitan Alexei: we must refer the construction of the Western chamber with a cellar and a basement to the second construction period Sloboda, and the construction of the Trinity Church - to the first construction period, i.e. to 1509-1513 years.
Thus, we have an independent documentary architectural and
archaeological data on the construction in 1509-1513 years Pokrovsky Cathedral,
the Church of the Trinity and the
Let's not forget that Kavelmaher regardless of all the above data shows (and his point of view was adopted without exception, all researchers)that the Church of the protection, Trinity, Metropolitan Alexei and assumption were built in one construction period. This argument, in contrast to all the previous ones, cannot be called self-sufficient, but when in the single-Dating years 1509-1513 at least one of the first temples Sloboda (and even more than three, as we saw above), he gives as unambiguous Dating this time and all other temples.
All this gives us the right to believe that the Dating of the first temples Sloboda years 1509-1513 proved redundant, very large by the standards of the history of ancient architecture.
So, now we can say with all confidence that in 1513 Alexandrov Sloboda was generally completed the construction of the yard of Vasily III, looking good and should strengthen%D13 Palace-temple complex of four temples and adjoining to them large and small stone Palace chambers with cellars and basements, as well as with many wooden houses and transitions between them. The scale of this complex was second only to the Moscow Grand Kremlin Palace14.
The assumption convent in Alexandrov. The plan.
The numbers on the plan identifies:
1. Pokrovsky Cathedral.
2. The bell tower.
5. Holy gate and
6. Hospice and
7. The cells.
The understanding of this important historical and architectural fact gives us the opportunity to look at a number of fundamental issues of history of architecture of the XVI ve%
We see that the first Church marquee was not the Church of the ascension
in Kolomenskoye (1529-1532 years), and
First, if you put the Trinity Church-monument of the beginning and the second half of the XVI century, it is compared with the ascension (and even more with the Cathedral of the intercession on the Moat) was "ugly and regressive phenomenon"15. It looked very strange, as Ivan IV, who gave a stone Church building special attention, who built such masterpieces as the Cathedral of the intercession on the Moat, the Church of the beheading of John the Baptist in Djakova, and many others, were unlikely to build in the main residence, Alexandrovskaya Sloboda - "ugly and regressive" Palace temple.
Secondly, more than strange look construction of the Church of the ascension in Kolomenskoye is the perfect architectural masterpiece, huge buildings of unprecedented proportions, with "flying" architectonics, - without any previous experience stone tent construction both in Russia and in Western Europe (Western European medieval Church architecture%
Third, noted in "the History of Russian art" under the editorship of i.e. Grabar16 the absence in Kolomna temple architectural details and design techniques, speaking about direct impacts of wooden architecture, was contrary to the data set (including chronicle17), showing the origin of the stone of ancient Russian architecture of the wooden tent (in detail all of these data are shown in a special study of the author of this18).
The Church of the ascension in Kolomenskoye.
Now, when we understand that about twenty years before the Church of the ascension was built a small tent-roofed Church of the Trinity in the Alexander Suburb with its traditional forms of the square, near the absurdities in the construction of tent19 and simplified, "prjamoslojnoj" architecture, associated with the wooden architecture (Kavelmaher, in particular, noted the morning of the Sabbath.20, - in the theory of the Genesis of stone tent-roofed architecture all falls into place.
In the early 2000-ies the author of this study was to name the architect who built the Palace-temple complex of Vasily III in the Alexandrovskaya Sloboda. Based on the same principles on which the SS pod'yapol'skii identified for the Church of the ascension in Kolomenskoye authorship of the Italian architect petroc minor21we showed that the architect of the first temples Sloboda was to build the
Discussion of this subject is discussed in a special works of the author of this study22here it makes sense to dwell only on the basic moments:
in 1508, Aleviz Fryazin finished work on the
- in 1513 Alexandrov Sloboda was completed on the
in 1514, the great Prince commanded one of Aleviz erect in
Such a chain of bilateral dates could hardly be mere coincidence. Since SS pod'yapol'skii made a conclusion about the authorship petroc minor in relation to the Church of the ascension on the basis of temporary gap between the probable arrival of the architect in Moscow in 1528 and the beginning of construction of China-town in 153425 we apply this principle to the construction of the Palace-temple complex in the Settlement. Based besides the above, a number Italianate features all listed buildings, we are in these special investigations concluded about the authorship of the Palace-temple complex in the Settlement of one of the Italian architects, known under the name of Aleviz.
The idea of the Grand Slobodsky ensemble was fully consistent with the scope of any of Aleviz - simultaneous construction of very large for that time, the complex of buildings, absolutely unique, not like one another, but United "country" style (as opposed to "capital" style, realized in the Grand Kremlin Palace, the%B
Having considered all the documentary evidence relevant to the question which of the two architects, known under the name of Aleviz, built temples of Alexandrov Sloboda, we are in these special investigations on the basis of analysis of existing chronicle reports of Aleviz came to the conclusion about the authorship of the New Aleviz26.
Note that we can not exclude the authorship (at least in the co-authorship) of the New Aleviz and a number of buildings of the Grand Kremlin Palace: refined "Prazska" thread, typical of the works of the architect (Bakhchisaray Palace, the Cathedral of the Archangel, the first temple of Alexandrov Sloboda) is present on the portals and the Annunciation Cathedral (gallery which is%
But in order to stress the tremendous importance of a princely estate construction in the Alexander CLoboda enough and that it was carried out under the guidance of the architect, recently built a masterpiece of old Russian architecture - the Cathedral of the Archangel27.
And yet, despite a number of
innovative architectural solutions, typologically "distant"
However, throughout the XVI century Kolomenskoe never caught up with Alexander Sloboda - neither status nor the scale of the Palace-temple complex. First, there was no stone Palace chambers, the necessary terms and fire resistance, and maintain the state status in the eyes of foreign ambassadors. Secondly, the very "open" type of estate in Ru is%
Ivan IV, of course, loved and settled
in the new house of his father - Kolomna. The proof is the erection in the
middle of the
The presence of Vasily III and Ivan IV stable couples main estates near Moscow - "near" and "far" - makes us think over the question whether something similar to Ivan III. Until recently, no information on which we could rely on the construction of at least tentative hypotheses, we did not have. But in the late 1990-ies Kavelmaher made the following observation%
"Some scientists believe that the Moscow
Tsar was in
The Church Trifon Naprudnom.
The Church in Sinkova. Reconstruction CENTURIES Kavelmahera.
Kavelmaher dated the Church Trifon Naprudnom the middle of the XVI century30. Outdoor his excavations pillarless odnoapsidny white stone Church in the village Sinkova Ramensky district of Moscow region, which had similar dimensions and construction equipment, he was dated about the same time31. Of course, in the middle of the century these small churches "does not make. However, in recent years the author of this study confirmed the loyalty of the "classic is32- the end of the XV century. The main arguments in favor of our dates were the following33:
- construction in a meaningful Tsarskoye Selo small and modest temple for the middle of the XVI century is unlikely;
- the construction of the white-stone Church away from the quarry also unlikely for the middle of the XVI century;
- all conditions at the turn of the XV and XVI centuries, the groin vault, the innovations that have become a trendsetter architectural fashion for many decades ahead, - meets only the Church Trifon Naprudnom.
Based on the analysis of a Large Zion assumption
And given the fact that Naprudnoe was the centre of the Royal hunting grounds and was built first in ancient architecture pillarless centric temple groin vault35the hypothesis that in this village was home "near" farmstead of Ivan III, literally begs.
In this regard, we may assume that if Naprudnom was home "near" p is%B
- since the beginning of XVI century stone
temples already constructed in the boyar estates near
- Naprudnom had no fortifications, Sinkovo had39. This situation, as we showed above, is typical of "near" and "far" estates near Moscow Vasily III and Ivan IV.
Sinkovo. A General outline of the fortifications.
Accordingly, if Ivan III was "the main far estate (as his successor at the Moscow Grand Prince table), then other options besides Blue Is%B
Can we nominate and considerations "near" and "far" the main country estates Boris Godunov - both during his actual rule when Tsar Feodor (hereinafter, for simplicity's sake we will call this the era of the Godunov-ruler), and during his reign (the era Godunov-king).
Boris Fedorovich did not use the main hereditary estates Rurikovich - the Kolomna and Alexandrovskaya Sloboda40 (perhaps he did not think it is ethical; perhaps they left him with a bad memories of the times of Ivan the terrible, when every wrong move could cost him his head). The Godunov-ruler were two main estates near Moscow, where he built a stone Church, Khoroshevo (Trinity Church, 1590 years41) and Bolshiye Vyazemy (the Church of the Transfiguration, now the Trinity, the late 1590s years42). XP%D
At the end of his reign in the status of boyar Godunov
began to build a huge tent-roofed
At the end of his reign Godunov began to build another
huge tent - roofed Church of the Transfiguration in the
Church of the Trinity in Khoroshevo.
The Church of the Transfiguration (now Trinity) in greater Vyazemy.
Church of the Transfiguration in the
Borisov town. The
Let us note another important fact: Bolshiye Vyazemy
and Borisov had strengthening45, Khoroshevo and the
Extrapolating the data we have about "near" and "far" main estates of Ivan III, Vasily III and Ivan IV on Godunov-era ruler and Godunov-king, we can assume the following.
Left home "near" country estate of the Godunov-king Khoroshevo? There are many techniques Boris Fyodorovich in this estate of foreign ambassadors47but we believe that when Godunov-king of the estate had only a temporary status "main near: Khoroshevsky temple is too small and modest, and it is unlikely he could match the prestige of the king, who built %48.
In this regard, we may assume that the "plein
Of course, consideration of a country residence of Ivan III and Boris Godunov - so far no more than a hypothesis, although it may serve as a basis for further research in this direction. But as for couples main estates of Vasily III and Ivan IV, - "middle" Kolomna and "far" Alexandrov Sloboda, their architectural history in our time already VI is
1. THE PR RSL. F.
304. Ed. Chr.
CENTURIES Monuments of ancient Alexandrova Sloboda. Collection of articles.
4. Pod'yapol'skii S. ON the Dating sites Alexandrova Sloboda. In the book: Proceedings of the%2. M., 2002 (hereinafter - pod'yapol'skii, 2002). C. 163, 165, 176, 180.
9. Zagraevsky S.V.
TO a question about the Dating and authorship of the monuments of Alexandrov
Sloboda. In the book: Zubovsky reading. Sat. articles. Vol. 3. Strunino,
12. For more
information, see Kavelmaher,
CENTURIES sovereign yard in Alexandrova Sloboda (experience of reconstruction).
In the book: Jacob Ulfeldt. Trip to
16. Ilyin M.A.,
Maksimov P.N., Kostochkin CENTURIES the Stone architecture of the epoch of
21. S. pod'yapol'skii. Architect Petroc Minor. In the book: Monuments of Russian architecture and monumental art. Style, attribution, Dating. M., 1983 (hereinafter - pod'yapol'skii, 1983). C. 34-50.
22. Zagraevsky, 2005; Zagraevsky, 2008.
23. PSRL 6:247; 13:10.
24. PSRL 6:254.
26. Zagraevsky, 2005; Zagraevsky, 2008.
27. So, Kavelmaher noted that
the Pokrovsky Cathedral - monument of the
28. The date of
construction of the Church in Djakova, see: Kavelmaher CENTURIES the history of
the birthday of the Church built by Ivan the terrible in the village Djakova.
M., 1990; Batalov A.L. ON the Dating of the Church of the beheading of John the
Baptist in Djakova. In the book: Russian artistic culture of XV-XVII centuries.
The state historical and cultural Museum-preserve "the Moscow
Kremlin". Materials and research. Vol.
29. For more
30. Zagraevsky SV Architectural history of the Church Trifon Naprudnom and origin groin vault. M., 2008. (Hereinafter - Zagraevsky, 2008). C. 5.
33. For more information, see: Zagraevsky, 2008.
34. Ibid., C. 28.
36. Ibid., C. 20-28.
37. Ibid., C. 21.
38. Ibid., C. 20, 32.
39. The observations
made by the author of this study in 2008, showed that the fortress in Sinkova
had the shape of an irregular oval length about
40. For more
41. Batalov A.L.
Moscow architecture of the late XVI century. M.,
42. Ibid., C. 58.
43. Ibid., C. 60.
44. For more
45. Information about the balances in the ditch Vyazemy available on the Internet site http://www.odintsovo.info/goroda/?id=2834.
47. Batalov A.L. Decree. back With. 55.
48. Batalov A.L.
the Sepulchre in the conception of the "Holy of Holies" of Boris
Godunov. In the book:
© Sergey Zagraevsky