Dr. Sergey Zagraevsky
Where should we sail?
Published in Russian: Заграевский С.В. Куда ж нам плыть? В справочнике «Единый художественный рейтинг», вып. 6. М., 2002.
The following text was translated from the Russian original by the computer program
and has not yet been edited.
So it can be used only for general introduction.
"Where we sail" - the so-called Lion Kolodne article published in the
driven them heading "Moscow Komsomolets" 28 December 2001. In no case will not blame Leo Kolodne in
ignorance of Pushkin's poetry: "... Hromada moved and cuts the waves. Sails. Where shall we sail? "-
These lines in his article, presented as an epigraph. Just seemed to him that without
the letter "g" name will sound better - that's removed. Great importance if - just one
letter? And what with her lost not only
the unique sound of Pushkin's lines, but also their emotional coloring, the
article's author does not care - without the letter "g" to receive
modern and even harmonious, but the meaning seems to be the same.
But God is with him, with the title. I recall the plot article - it (as in many other oral and written statements of Leo Kolodne) expressed joy and optimism about the rapid construction in the heart of Moscow. With "plus" commemorated Christ the Savior Cathedral, complex Okhotny Ryad on Manege, Seating yard and Fresh retail and entertainment complex on the Garden Ring near the Kursk railway station. Along the way, with the sign "minus" in the article appear AA Klimenko, AI Komech and AP Kudryavtsev - "well-known adherents of preservation of old Moscow", "frightening the people of inventions", "Stalin's ghost," "Flesh and Barkashov Vasiliev.
And the photo attached to the article - the decrepit walls with crumbling plaster. As such ugliness, he says, do not carry and can not be built in its place something sverhprezentabelnoe, with clock security, cameras and underground parking?
And yet, let's look at the situation calmly and in a businesslike manner, without the fiery denunciations and turbulent emotions.
So, on the one hand - a huge number of slums and industrial enterprises in the center of our capital, and in this Leo Kolodniy absolutely right. Much must be reconstructed, and many endure.
On the other hand - "the zealots of conservation", fighting for every historic building, for every tree in the center - and that they too are absolutely right. Where is the truth?
To understand this, will have to start from afar. Since the late nineteenth century.
The fact that the rapid commercial building in Moscow began precisely at the time - and began a very haphazard. Take a walk on almost any of the historic streets of Moscow - two-storey houses everywhere are combined with the so-called "apartment houses", built in the style of an eclectic - in the 1890's or modern - in 1900's and 1910's. Common to all the "tenement houses" was their increased number of floors - up to 7-8 floors. Streets in this case is not expanded, and obtained such dire "wells", as, for example, Obydenskie Lanes (about Ostozhenka). And as close to "apartment houses" were standing two-storey, the obligatory "firewalls" (blank side walls, saving "tenement house" in case of fire in a neighboring) very unaesthetic remained in sight. Now they are, however, cover billboards, but still a spectacle so-so ...
Do not be afraid to say that this was the first "Battle for Moscow, which had its own" progressives "and their" adherents of conservation. And last lost - the number of "false teeth" in the form of huge "tenement houses" among two or three-story building amounts to many hundreds.
The second "Battle for Moscow" began in the late twenties, when the party and the government decided to build "a model communist city" in the historical center. "Guardians of antiquity" and lost it - if Stalin had managed to implement all their ideas on the spot Zamoskvorechye so beloved Leo Kolodniy, the rays would diverge three broad prospect scale Kutuzov, built the relevant buildings "Stalinist baroque. One of these buildings can be seen on the big Ordynka, on the way from the metro Tretyakovskaya to the Gallery. Please note that this house is in the depths - it is there should have been held "red line" one of the new avenues. What is already there historical buildings ...
A hotel "Moscow"? It seems to have become familiar, and the architect is not just anybody, but Shchusev, and yet, if an unbiased look at the proximity of its monstrous facade and towers of the Kremlin - this, I may say so, "an architectural ensemble of" other than a mockery of the history of Russia, not call. Now it is to be reconstructed and made more comfortable, but the facade, apparently, will "hang" over the Kremlin for ever. Maybe someday the descendants of guess at least delay it to the glass, but so far it is consistent with the style of Moscow's eclectic, "promoted by Lev Kolodniy and his senior patrons.
So it stuck in the middle of Moscow "false teeth" of the Stalinist era, forming a more or less slender (though aesthetically dubious) bands only on Tverskaya, Kutuzov and some embankments - and then not entirely.
The next "battle" unfolded in the 60's and 70's. Needless to say, that "the adherents of the old" lost and it? For examples of the new "false teeth" not far to seek - that the Palace of Congresses in the Kremlin, and Novy Arbat, and many needy prefabricated houses - and on the Garden Ring, and inside it.
What remains of Moscow after the three "battles", and that today are struggling members of the "fourth"?
Do not be afraid to say - from Moscow as a single architectural ensemble, there is nothing left. No one area that could be called solid, aesthetically unified architectural complex in Moscow no. Well, except that Strogino or North Chertanovo, only aesthetics there is even more doubtful than Stalin embankments ...
So will the historical Moscow got nothing to lose?
Is human Lev Kolodniy that Moscow is perishing, where no building, "and" swim and be more in a given direction "- ie in the direction specified by devyatyustami thousands of construction workers in Moscow, which by all means you should load the work, otherwise they can not even feed half a million members of their families?
And can "zealots conservation" AA Klimenko, AI Komech and AP Kudryavtsev fighting for what is not? But supposedly intelligent people who occupy a respectable position, and quite unlike the dreamers and visionaries ...
But if without jokes, then, of course, the historic Moscow there - if not as a single architectural ensemble, then as a unique urban environment with its unique atmosphere.
And we are not in vain started a conversation with the ethical inadmissibility "editing" of Pushkin's lines. Do not be a literary scholar to understand: it happens that the loss of one letter makes the poem into chaos. And just do not have to be arhitekturovedom to understand: any city - the most complex organisms, and historical, "museum" component plays an important role in it. Let us explain.
First of all, such a trivial thing as a tourist attraction. Many of the city only this and live - and in excellent health at the same time feel. It is common knowledge that tourism enhances the credibility of the country and brings revival of economic ties, some retirees do not come to stare at the picture of "Ivan the Terrible kills his son" - in tours and travel business, and many then there is the desire something to invest in the country, which they liked.
But the question arises: will we, for example, tourists enjoy the bus or car journey to Moscow today, despite the fact that the city, in the words of Leo Kolodne, "beamed lights"? Hardly. And why? But because the early morning to late evening on the streets of congestion. Why congestion? Because the center is being vaunted Lion Kolodniy rapid office building, and with the existing radial-circular layout of Moscow not unload or third, or fourth, or fifth ring road - people still go to work at the center.
And if you reduce the business building in the center, stopping the expansion of existing areas and adjusting the monuments beyond the offices, but under the museums and mini-hotel? And if not evict Muscovites from the center of a fuss, and improve their living conditions? Do not drop it at the same traffic load on the streets, avenues and alleys, and will not be reduced if congestion?
That being closed one of the most complicated "vicious circle", which we call the urban environment. Such "circles" a lot, even if you do not connect the problems of ecology, electricity, water, heating, sanitation, and other, no less prosaic things. And it turns out that the issue of demolition, reconstruction or preservation of any historic building, development of any vacant lot is required above all a systematic town-planning approach.
The builder and urban planner - as they say, two big differences. The builder carries out orders, and town planner - a scientist - developing integrated approaches that take into account all the problems of the territory, from laying sewer to the frequency of visits by tourists.
And so, when you read articles like the one that was published in the "MK", it hurts. Not because of what we Lev Kolodniy appreciate the Cathedral of Christ the Savior, the reconstruction of the Manege Square and sculpture Shemyakin with different aesthetic positions (he likes, I do not like). In the end, it's a personal decision. It is painful is because of the fact that "the powers that be" do not understand that in the metropolis of Moscow can not scale at all to do anything - either to build or preserve or reconstruct or muzeefitsirovat - without a comprehensive, systematic urban planning approaches.
But such an approach, in turn, must take into account all the political, macroeconomic, social and aesthetic trends of our city. In the end, we need to understand what we want - that Moscow was a city-factory-city warehouse, a city-office, a city-museum or memorable "garden city"? And if all at once, in what proportion?
To do this, take a little obschemoskovskie urban development plans based on the approximate zoning districts and areas, as is done now. Necessary to attract major Russian (and possibly the world), scientists, urban planners, determine the overall prospects for the development of Moscow and discussion with the public - even before making the most serious issues on city-wide referendums.
Only then will the age-old debate "Progressives" and "conservatives" will enter into a constructive direction, and "Battle for Moscow" can finally be won - not someone from the opposing sides, and Muscovites.
© Sergey Zagraevsky