Prof. Dr. S.V. Zagraevsky
The architects of Pre-Mongol North-Eastern Russia
Published in Russian: Заграевский С.В.
Зодчие домонгольской Северо-Восточной Руси // Материалы ХХIV межрегиональной краеведческой конференции (19
Prof. Dr. Sergey V. Zagraevsky, summing up many years of researching of pre-Mongol Vladimir-Suzdal architecture, shows that in the period since the beginning of the XII century till 1238 at least five princely architects worked in North-Eastern Russia: of princes Yuri Dolgoruky, Andrey Bogolyubsky, Vsevolod the Big Nest and Yuri Vsevolodovich. Plus two hypothetical architects of prince Konstantin Vsevolodovich. The buildings, the origin, the circumstances of the departure from the historical scene of all these architects are defined. The name of one of them is Svyatoslav (the prince of Yuriev-Polsky), the hypothetical nickname of other one is "German Kufir" (the architect sent by Emperor Frederick Barbarossa).
The following text was translated from the Russian original by the computer program
and has not yet been edited.
So it can be used only for general introduction.
Since the present study is an extension and generalization of a number of published in over the last decades scientific papers the author of the pre-Mongol the architecture of North-Eastern Russia, we will not repeat here contained in these works evidence the apparatus according to the discussion of Dating and the original appearance of monuments, works of architects and other construction personnel. All these works can be found not only in the traditional libraries, but also on the Internet1. All the necessary references including web addresses these scientific papers are available in the Notes.
And above all remember the
article "Some questions of the organization ancient building"
– in the construction took place unity of command;
– автором и ответственным исполнителем строительного проекта был зодчий, а не ктитор и не артель в целом;
– if was available for architects, sponsors or helpers, they were United by a single the author's idea and carried jointly and severally liable for the execution of the order. Accordingly, if a particular architect did not direct the construction of a building personally, and for his project he built with his assistants, then at the level of our knowledge of architecture of pre-Mongol Rus ' are one and the same;
project any major the building must be made in the form of drawings and (or) models (for presentation the customer and construction work). Construction without drawings and (or) layout was equivalent construction without the project;
– in case a little bit major alterations and changes of the author's intention in the course of construction (traces which are often found on monuments of architecture in Russia and around the world) was done and approved the new drawings and (or) new layouts.
It is time, on the basis of these General principles and our existing Assembly and architectural and archaeological information, to piece together what we know about architects of the pre-Mongol North-Eastern Russia.
In our the study will focus only on architects, built of white stone and (or) time (collectively, we refer to such building stone). Architects to erect wooden buildings, we had to leave for study in the power of a complete lack of information about them and their buildings.
Since Ancient Rus to the XV century a churchwarden of stone buildings (including monastery) was only the princes, we may assume that all the architects of the pre-Mongol North-Eastern Russia was the Prince.
In principle, if we consider the architect head of the farm building, the results of our research applicable to the work of the artels. But we showed in the book "Yuri Dolgoruky and ancient Russian white stone architecture"3 that in General case, the architect has collaborated not with a construction gang in full force (including ordinary masons and unskilled workers), and "building a team", which included several highly qualified masters. Likely situations when the architect, moving from Principality to Principality, do not bring any of the masters, and gained (and possibly taught) them on the spot.
No doubt every architect Prince level had sufficient qualifications to enable to build from any material, and this complicates the task of this study, because by itself, the change of building material (e.g., North-Eastern Russia – time for tenfold4 more expensive, but prestigious, expressing Imperial power and ideology5 a white stone, and Vice versa) is not meant the need to engage another architect. So our task is fundamentally different from the task of conversion tracking building teams6. We are forced to rely not just for the very meager documentary evidence, but to proceed from the approximate duration of the active life of the architect, from his status in the princely court, from his particular "artistic style" (including the scope and quality applied on the temples of sculptural decoration), of number of economic and political factors.
1. The architects of Prince Yuri Dolgoruky
First of all, let's list known to us from the stone building North-Eastern Russia in the epoch of Yury Dolgoruky (conventionally defined since the beginning of the XII century to 1157, although, strictly speaking before 1125 Yuri was quite an independent Prince: the Supreme Governor of North-Eastern Russia was his father, Vladimir Monomakh):
Cathedral of the virgin in Suzdal. Previously 11257. Four pillars triapsidal temple with a narthex. Dismantled in connection with the start of construction in 1222 the new Cathedral;
of our Saviour in
Il. 1. The
Il. 2. The
– Спасо-Преображенский собор в Переславле-Залесском. 1152 год. Четырехстолпный трехапсидный храм. Сохранился;
Ил. 3. Спасо-Преображенский собор в Переславле-Залесском.
– Church of our Saviour in Suzdal. 1152. About the location, material, type, and plan of the temple of information no8.
We see that
stone the architecture of the epoch Dolgoruky can be divided into two
construction period. The first was built a Cathedral in Suzdal – in the typical
southern Russia mixed media from the plinth
with layers of stones ("opus mixtum")
Speaking about the first construction period and, accordingly, the first architect Yuri Dolgoruky, we are forced to deny the possibility of Zalesie, which then was virtually undeveloped region, its own architect. Probably the architect who built the Cathedral of Suzdal, came from a estate of Vladimir Monomakh in southern Russia (as evidenced by his distinctive southern Russian construction machinery), and on completion go back there, and in the stone the architecture of North-Eastern Russia has come a break for about three decades.
As for the second construction period, in the book "Yuri Dolgoruky
and the old white-stone architecture"11 and article "the
Beginning of "Russian Romanesque": jury Dolgoruky or Andrey
Bogolyubsky?"12 the author showed that in this time churches
were built, local craftsmen under the guidance of local architects, held
training (internship) in
In these studies, we did not pay attention to the personality of the architect, therefore, generally talking about some abstract "architects". Now, based on the brevity of the second this time, we can assume that the princely architect of this period (let's call it the second architect Yuri Dolgoruky) was one, but had a number assistants who supervised the construction field according to the project architect, because construction on this project went on almost simultaneously in several cities (and possibly in Halychyna, where around this same time was built the Church of our Saviour in very similar to the temple Yuri13). Recall that in the Introduction we said, even if the architect did not direct the construction of the building personally, and his project was building his assistants, on the level of our knowledge about architecture pre-Mongol Rus ' are one and the same, so we surely will to speak of the architect in the singular.
How was this project, we can see two well-preserved temples with a single "author's handwriting" – in Pereslavl and Kideksha.
Speaking about the break occurred in the stone architecture of North-Eastern Russia after leaving the first architect of Yuri Dolgoruky, it must be remembered that at this time Zales quickly mastered and developed, and there is a large number were built and a wooden Church and civil buildings, and castles, and perhaps plinthite civil structures. Accordingly, the process of construction as a whole is not interrupted, and construction shots in the Principality Dolgoruky was. So, starting the second construction period, Yuri (or someone from his entourage that at the level of our knowledge of pre-Mongol architecture is the same) was only supposed to choose a candidate the Prince, the architects and to send him to study in Romanesque Europe.
Giving an overall the characteristic of the second architect Dolgoruky,
we can remember that the author this study has repeatedly shown in several scientific works14: when Yuri
Dolgoruky, in North-Eastern Russia began the so - called "Russian romanik". Second, the architect Yuri
first began to use the European technique of construction of natural stone.
Ornamental decor "universal" Roman type, found in many churches of
research author15, the direct source of the white-stone architecture
of Yuri Dolgoruky was a key
Il. 4. The Imperial
Note and high the probability that the exploration of white stone in Suzdal, which began a few years before 1152,16, was held under the guidance of this the architect, as the quality of the stone required for the construction, was to determine the head of this construction.
The fate this architect after
2. The architect of Prince Andrey Bogolyubsky – "nemchin Kafir"
In the scientific work "The architect Friedrich Barbarossa"17 the author of this study confirmed the message of the Russian historian of the XVIII century V. N. Tatishchev on the work Prince Andrey Bogolyubsky of the architect, sent by the Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire by Frederick Barbarossa. But speaking of the architect, you need to make a significant reservation: as was shown by the author in the treatise "the Beginning "Russian Romanesque": jury Dolgoruky or Andrey Bogolyubsky?"18, the Imperial architect was even invited by Yuri Dolgoruky during his Kyiv Principality in 1155-1157. Thus, we may call this architect not only the architect of Andrei Bogolyubsky, but the third architect Yuri Dolgoruky.
Reasonably the question arises, what could happen with the second architect Dolgoruky, which we said in paragraph 1. Here there are a number of options:
– the features of this architect did not match the ambitious plans Dolgoruky, who became in 1155 Grand Prince of Kiev, and last left this architect in Suzdal and Kiev invited to the Imperial architect;
– второй зодчий Долгорукого прекратил работу по причинам, не имеющим отношения к архитектуре (был отстранен в результате каких-либо придворных интриг, потерял трудоспособность, скончался и т.п.).
А императорский зодчий, приглашенный Долгоруким в Киев, после смерти великого князя прибыл не в Киев, где вокняжилась другая (враждебная Долгорукому) ветвь Мономаховичей, а в Суздальскую землю к сыну Юрия – Андрею.
Переходя к рассмотрению произведений этого зодчего, перечислим известные нам белокаменные постройки эпохи Боголюбского (1157–1174 годы):
– Успенский собор во Владимире19. 1158–1160 годы. Шестистолпный трехапсидный храм с тремя притворами. В 1186–1189 годах обстроен высокими галереями (см. п. 3);
Il. 5. Assumption Cathedral in Vladimir.
Il. 6. Assumption Cathedral in Vladimir. Original appearance. The author's reconstruction.
– Golden gate with Church of the deposition in Vladimir20. Between 1158 and 1164 years. The Church was presumably a small four-column apses temple. Gate as a whole is preserved, the Church is missing when rebuilding the top gate;
Il. 7. Golden gate in Vladimir.
Ил. 8. Золотые ворота во Владимире. Первоначальный вид. Реконструкция автора.
Church of the Intercession on The Nerl near Bogolyubovo21. 1158. Four pillars apses temple. Preserved;
Il. 9. The Church of the Intercession on the Nerl.
– the strengthening of the monastery, the Cathedral which was the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl22. Roughly 1160-1170-ies. Disappeared not later than the XVIII century;
Il. 10. The strengthening of the monastery on the Nerl. The original plan. The author's reconstruction.
– the Church of the Nativity The virgin in the hierarchy23. Four pillars apses of the temple. 1158 year. Collapsed in 1722 and was rebuilt of brick;
the Palace of Andrei Bogolyubsky in Bogolyubovo. Roughly 1160-ies. From the Palace preserved the staircase tower and the transition to the choir of the Church of the Nativity, the rest of his part gone no later than the XVIII century;
Il. 11. The preserved part of the Palace in Bogolyubovo – the stair tower and the transition to the choir of the Church.
Il. 12. Palace-temple complex in Bogolyubovo. Original appearance. The author's reconstruction.
– укрепления Боголюбова. Ориентировочно 1160–1170-е годы24. Исчезли не позднее XVIII века;
Ил. 13. Карта укреплений домонгольского Боголюбова.
Римскими цифрами на карте обозначены:
I – белокаменный дворцово-храмовый комплекс Андрея Боголюбского («замок»);
II – часть города с белокаменно-земляными укреплениями (детинец);
III – часть города с дерево-земляными укреплениями (укрепленный посад);
IV – торг.
Сплошными линиями обозначены сохранившиеся укрепления, пунктиром – реконструируемые.
– Успенский собор в Ростове. 1161–1162 годы. Первоначально четырехстолпный трехапсидный храм, позднее к нему был пристроен нартекс, после чего собор стал шестистолпным25. Обрушился в 1204 году;
– Transfiguration Church in Vladimir. 116426. Four pillars apses of the temple. Collapsed in a fire of 1778.
In the above scientific work, "the Architect Friedrich Barbarossa" author detailed study of the questions of the origin of the architect (in particular, showing that he came from Germany) and determined its construction in Russia – all of the above building of the time of Andrei Bogolyubsky, only with the caveat that about the last two – The assumption Cathedral in Rostov and the Church of our Saviour in Vladimir – we can judge from lesser degree of certainty than the previous one.
In buildings of this architect was
developed originated in Dolgoruky "Russian romanik", appeared such
typical Romanesque features, as zooantropomorfny sculptures (with images of
people and animals), pilasters with semi-columns, attic profile plinth base
with corner "horns" ("vultures", "claws"),
developed perspective portals, tripartite Windows, column-type belt, Indigo
capitals and St.27 Significantly increased the size of the temples
(at least, the Cathedral cathedrals – in Vladimir and Rostov).
Given the status of the Holy Roman Empire in XII century, a foreigner of such
high level ever in
In the scientific work "The architect Friedrich Barbarossa", the author drew attention to the likelihood that in Russia the Imperial architect was nicknamed "nemchin Kafir".
3. The architect of the great Prince Vsevolod the Big Nest
After 1164 – the date of the building of the Church of our Saviour in Vladimir – in stone architecture North-Eastern Russia occurred more than 20-year break. During this time the Imperial architect, of course, ceased operations in Russia (probably left home to the Holy Roman Empire), and Vsevolod worked for another architect.
List the stone buildings of the era of Vsevolod the Big Nest (1176-1212 years):
– household assumption Cathedral in Vladimir galleries28. 1185-1189 years. The Cathedral galleries are preserved;
– Demetrius Cathedral in Vladimir. 119129. Four pillars apses of the temple. Preserved;
Il. 14. Demetrius Cathedral in Vladimir.
Cathedral of the Nativity monastery in Vladimir. 1192-1196 years. Four pillars apses of the temple. Demolished in the mid-nineteenth century, on his the place was built a new white stone Church in the old forms, destroyed in The 1930-ies;
– fortifications of the citadel in Vladimir. Roughly 1194-1196 years. Disappeared earlier seventeenth century;
– the Church of Joachim and Anna at the gate of the citadel in Vladimir. Roughly 1196 year. About the type and plan of the temple no information. Ceased to exist together with the citadel;
– household Dmitrievsky Cathedral galleries30. About 1199. Gallery disassembled in the XIX century;
Il. 15. Demetrius Cathedral in rigging galleries. Fig. F. Dmitriev.
Cathedral The Dormition Knyaginin monastery. 1200-1202 years. Four pillars apses temple. In contrast to all previous constructions were not white stone, and plinthite. In the XVI century on its place was built a new the brick Cathedral.
N. N. Voronin believed that Vsevolod was built by local architects Vladimir31, and "the largest thing" was the building up of Vladimir assumption Cathedral galleries32.
А.И. Комеч выражал мнение, что в 1186–1189 годах, как и на рубеже 1150-х и 1160-х годов, над этим собором работал немецкий зодчий33. Исследователь обосновывал это тем, что формы владимирского храма в перестройке Всеволода близки формам собора в Вормсе (вторая половина XII века), у этих храмов схожи оконные профилировки и перспективные углубления стен.
Но необходимо учитывать, что:
– стены галерей Всеволода имеют
различную толщину (от 1,7 до
– фундаменты разнотипны, в них применены архаичные лежни;
– аркатурно-колончатый пояс южной стены располагается ниже поясов других стен (А.И. Некрасов справедливо называл такое расположение пояса южной стены «крупным дефектом и архитектурной нелепостью»34;
– внутреннее пространство перестроенного храма, несмотря на возведение новых световых барабанов и пробивку в старых стенах арок, стало темным, тесным и лабиринтообразным, что противоречило основным принципам нарождавшейся готики;
– позиция А.И. Комеча противоречит словам летописца о том, что Всеволод Большое Гнездо «иже не ища мастеров от немець, но налезе мастеры от клеврет святое Богородици и от своих»35.
All these facts exclude work on the building up of the assumption Cathedral by German architect and confirm the position N. N. Voronin on the work of exclusively local construction personnel. But if N. N. Voronin in accordance with the prevailing theories of his time about the "nation-Builder" and "architect-the porter" (see Entry) emphasized the role of the architect and spoke of the "architects" in the plural also, we are having said in the Introduction, I can say that gallery The assumption Cathedral was built by local architect. And given surveillance AI Komech A. I. about the similarity of some features of these galleries, and Worms Cathedral, we can put that as the second architect of Yuri Dolgoruky (see section 1), the architect was trained (training) in the Holy Roman Empire, more precisely, in Germany, not only in Speyer and in worms.
Il. 16. The Cathedral in worms.
Speaking about A 20-year break occurred in the stone architecture of North-Eastern Russia after the termination of Andrei Bogolyubsky of white stone building and care the Imperial architect, you need to repeat what we said in paragraph 1: the construction process as a whole was not interrupted, and erected wooden buildings Church36 and of a civil nature, and, likely, civil plinthite construction. Was carried out and repair of stone temples (for example, known repair of the Suzdal Cathedral in 119437). Accordingly, construction personnel in the Vladimir-Suzdal Principality was. From Vsevolod Big Jack was only required to choose a candidate in the Prince, the architects and spent on training in the Empire.
And the gallery of the Dormition the Cathedral was the first major project of this architect upon returning home. In whole, it with this project has achieved, has perfected his skills and soon applied it on a great (though relatively small in size, i.e. structurally less complex) Dmitrievsky Cathedral.
In General speaking, work Vsevolodova architect can be described as "architectural pragmatism"38. Building of the Palace of Saint Demetrius and the not so great, but all the same the white stone Cathedral of the Nativity monastery, he further indulged (indeed, in agreement with the Prince churchwarden, but the essence remains the same) and building up these churches "unsightly" galleries, and "undesirable", but in a much lower price plinthite construction (assumption Cathedral of the Knyaginin monastery, part of the walls of the Vladimir citadel). And in the case Vladimir assumption Cathedral, this "architectural pragmatism" reflected in the fact that he did not demolish the temple Bogolyubsky and build in its place a new, but rather to expand and strengthen old ones.
Maybe the question arises, the same architect who was a specialist primarily in white stone, built plinthite Cathedral of the Knyaginin monastery. But we were talking in Join that every princely architect level sufficient qualifications in order to build from any material (N. N. Voronin speaking of "princely and religious lines" in architecture of this era, true believed that over the two "lines" could work the same masters39). Pay attention to the very small time interval between the building up White stone Dmitrievsky Cathedral galleries (about 1199) and the beginning of plinthite construction in Knyaginino (1200). It is unlikely in such a short time to find and prepare a new architect.
4. The architects of Grand Prince Konstantin Vsevolodovich
Speaking of stone the buildings of the era of Konstantin Vsevolodovich (conventionally taken as 1212-1218 years, although the political situation in North-Eastern Russia was at this time extremely unstable, and Constantine to 1216 reigned in Rostov), you must to note that none of them survived, and their type and we nothing know. According to the Chronicles, is this:
– the Church of Boris and Gleb in Rostov (1214-1218);
– Assumption Cathedral in Yaroslavl (founded in 1215, the date of completion unknown);
– Spaso-Preobrazhensky Cathedral in Yaroslavl. 1216-1224 years. (The temple was finished when Vsevolod Konstantinovich, appanage Prince Grand Prince Yuri Vsevolodovich).
– Church of
the exaltation of the Bargain in Vladimir.
You know, all Rostov and Yaroslavl churches were plinthite but is decorated with white stone décor. About the Vladimir Church of the exaltation, we generally do not know even a little bit accurate location.
N. N. Voronin related to the age of Constantine and founded in 1213, the assumption Cathedral in Rostov40 (replacing the Cathedral built by the architect Andrei Bogolyubsky), but in fact, in such a long construction period it is much more likely the assignment of the construction of the huge white stone building closer to 1231, i.e., to the era of Yuri Vsevolodovich (p. 5). The reasons for this are the following:
– shortly after the Foundation of the Cathedral in North-Eastern Russia began a civil the war that led to the bloody battle Lipetskoy 1216 (and the war, as the author more than once had to say – the worst enemy of architecture);
– famous architectural features of the Rostov Dormition Cathedral have in common with him Suzdal Holy virgin's Nativity Cathedral of 1222-1225, noted N. N. Voronin41;
– in Ancient Russia there are many cases when construction began later many years after the laying42.
In any case,
the end of the stone construction of Vsevolod and the beginning of the stone
construction of Constantine were more than ten years. It's big enough a break
to ensure that we had the right to speak about the architects of Vsevolod and Constantine
how about different people. Besides Vsevolod built, being a great Prince of
Vladimir and Constantine – being the Grand Prince of Rostov and accordingly,
Yaroslavl (varnagiris in
To unfortunately, to confirm or deny the identity of the architects of Vsevolod and Constantine based on "artistic style" we can not, as of the temples of the era Of Constantine we know almost nothing, except that compared with the previous era – Vsevolod – decreased their size (with the exception of Rostov The Dormition Cathedral, but there the situation was very special: for reasons of prestige required to build a temple no less than destroyed, and in the end, as we seen above is the construction of Constantine and his architect "did not pull", and over it was already in the great reign of Yuri Vsevolodovich). But reducing the size of the temples could be caused not by the change architect, and a lack financing in extremely volatile political and economic situation in North-Eastern Russia.
This by the way, theoretically you have the following options:
– Konstantin Vsevolodovich was one architect (non-architect Vsevolod), which was first built by Constantine in Rostov and Yaroslavl, and then in Vladimir:
– Vsevolod and Konstantin was the same architect who could ride between Vladimir, Rostov, and Yaroslavl, or to send to different cities assistants (in a stable political situation it is no problem not imagined but in unstable – was very problematic);
– Constantine had two architects (non-architect Vsevolod), one of which built in Rostov and Yaroslavl churches and the other Church of the exaltation of the Bargain in Vladimir;
– architect Constantine built in Rostov and Yaroslavl, and when Constantine became great unasam Vladimir, then attracted for the construction of the Church of the Holy old Vladimir architect, worked with Vsevolod the Big Nest.
Based on from the foregoing, the architect Konstantin Vsevolodovich we can talk only conditionally. Perhaps the new architectural and archaeological study of churches this era will ever shed light on this question.
5. Зодчий великого князя Юрия Всеволодовича – удельный князь Святослав Всеволодович
В эпоху Юрия Всеволодовича (будем считать ею его второе владимирское великое княжение в 1218–1238 годах) были построены следующие каменные храмы:
– собор Рождества Богородицы в Суздале43. 1222–1225 годы. Трехглавый шестистолпный трехапсидный храм с тремя притворами, сменивший собор, построенный при Мономахе. Обрушился в 1445 году, верх достроен из кирпича в 1528 году;
Il. 17. The virgin Nativity Cathedral in Suzdal.
Il. 18. The virgin Nativity Cathedral in Suzdal. Original look. The author's reconstruction.
– Transfiguration Cathedral in Nizhny Novgorod. 1225-1227 years. About the type and plan of the temple information, in addition to the likelihood that he was forechurches;
– the Church of Michael The Archangel in Nizhny Novgorod. 1227-1229 years. Four pillars apses of the temple with three porches. In 1359, the Church was completely rebuilt;
Assumption Cathedral in Rostov Veliky, founded in 1213. The time of the
actual start construction, as we have shown in Chapter 3, it is not known
completion date – 1231 year. Six apses of the temple. In 1408, the temple
collapsed top, restored to the year
– St. George's Cathedral in Yuryev-Polsky44. 1230-1234 years. Four pillars apses of the temple with three porches. Collapsed in the early to mid XV century, partially restored in 1471.
Il. 20. George Cathedral in Yuriev-Polsky. Original appearance. The author's reconstruction.
All these temples not plinthite and white stone, ie, Yuri Vsevolodovich went back to the very expensive, but exclusive (see Introduction) building techniques of their ancestors – Yuri Dolgoruky, Andrei Bogolyubsky and Vsevolod the Big Nest. Throughout likely, the economic situation is relatively peaceful years of the second Vladimir Prince Yuri Vsevolodovich is allowed.
And we start talking about the architect Yuri Vsevolodovich with
In the monograph, dedicated to St. George's Cathedral46, the author of this study confirmed the adequacy of this historical message and showed that the word "master" meant precisely of the architect. Now, since all of the above temples this era is United by "the author's handwriting", which is true, and noted N. N. Voronin47, we can assume that Svyatoslav was architect and all of these temples.
The fact that the architect was the Prince of a singular organizational
and financial opportunity, is proved by the fact that the transition from
modest Rostov and plinthite Yaroslavl temples of the era of Constantine (see
Chapter 4) to the huge, white stone, richly decorated and, in General,
comparable to the best buildings of the epoch of Andrei Bogolyubsky of Suzdal
Cathedral was not more than five years. Apparently, during this time,
Svyatoslav went in the Holy Roman Empire training (internship), and, after
Svyatoslav, the younger brother of Grand Duke Konstantin and Yuri, in the pre-Mongolian time far from the succession, did not have significant political ambitions, rarely took part in military campaigns, received an inheritance quiet and located far from the borders of the Grand Duchy of Yuriev-Polsky, unlikely Lee was heavily burdened public concerns. Therefore, that he in his free time, professionally honorable and pleasing to God – hrazdanian, is not surprising.
The same architect Konstantin Vsevolodovich (see Chapter 4) was completed plinthite Savior Cathedral in Yaroslavl (completed in 1224), and then descended from the historical scene: maybe he's in the new Grand Prince Yuri stopped working for some reasons unrelated to architecture, but it is more likely that he was "pushed" a much more powerful competitor – the Prince Svyatoslav.
Vitruvius wrote that the architect "must be a person competent, skilful draftsman, study geometry fully know the history, to listen carefully to philosophers, to be familiar with the music, to have a concept about the medicine, to know the decision of lawyers and to have information in astronomy and celestial laws." According to Vitruvius, the architect – is the one who "in his youth gradually ascended from one educational field to another and, having absorbed the knowledge of many Sciences and arts, reached the heights architecture,"48.
And we can to claim that we know in the pre-Mongol North-Eastern Russia,
at least five such specialists – Prince architects of Yuri Dolgoruky, Andrei
Bogolyubsky, Vsevolod The Big Nest, Yuri Vsevolodovich. We can hypothetically speak
about the two architects Konstantin Vsevolodovich. Know and two name one thing
(Svyatoslav), one hypothetically at the level of the nicknames ("nemchin
Kafir"). In conditions of relatively scarce (at least in
comparison with Russia XVI–XVII centuries,
not to mention
1. В частности, все упомянутые в данном исследовании научные труды автора есть в электронной научной библиотеке «РусАрх» (www.rusarch.com).
2. ZagraevskyS. V. Some issues of organization of ancient building // Materials of interregional regional studies conference (April 28 2011.). Vladimir, 2012. P. 292-302. Internet address: http://zagraevsky.com/build.htm.
3. Zagraevsky SV Yuri Dolgoruky and old white-stone architecture. M., 2001. GL. 2. Internet address: http://zagraevsky.com/dolgoruky3.htm.
4. Ibid. GL. 1. Internet address: http://zagraevsky.com/dolgoruky2.htm.
6. RappoportP. A. Construction production of Ancient Rus. SPb, 1994. P. 128-129. Internet address: http://rusarch.ru/rappoport2.htm.
of the date of the temple see: Zagraevsky S. V. About the
hypothetical "intermediate" building of the Cathedral of the Nativity
of the virgin in Suzdal in 1148 and the original form of Suzdal temple of
1222-1225 // Materials of inter-regional studies conference (April 28 2008.).
8. The author of this study showed that probably only the location of the Church of the Saviour in Suzdal Kremlin, Suzdal yard Dolgoruky inside the city walls, near the ramparts from the river, on the spot the Church of the assumption of the XVIII century (see: Zagraevsky SV New research monuments of architecture of Vladimir-Suzdal Museum-reserve. M., 2008. Approx. 9 Chapter 2. Internet address: http://zagraevsky.com/vsmz12.htm).
9. Varganov, A. D. the history of Vladimir-Suzdal
architecture. In Sib.: "The
10. Zagraevsky S. V. AndPology
Rostov chronicler (to the question about the Dating temples Yuri Dolgoruky).
Abstracts // Materials of the regional conference dedicated to the centenary of
birth N.N. Voronin (19 APR
11. Zagraevsky SV Yuri Dolgoruky and old white-stone architecture... GL. 3. Internet address: http://zagraevsky.com/dolgoruky4.htm.
12. Zagraevsky SV Beginning of "Russian Romanesque": jury Dolgoruky or Andrey Bogolyubsky? M., 2005. Internet address: http://zagraevsky.com/romanik.htm.
13. Criticism of the version N.N. Voronin and O. M.
Ioannisyan (Voronin N. N. The architecture of North-Eastern
Russia XII–XV centuries. T.
This was the author's point of view in the early 2000-ies. Now, given research 2011, as reflected in the above the article "Some issues of organization of ancient building" in The introduction to this research work, we can somewhat adjust and to assume a more simple variant: the architect Yuri never went to Galich, and sent your project and maybe some of the assistants.
14. Zagraevsky S. V. Typological formation and basic classification of the old Russian Church architecture. Saarbrücken, 2015. Internet address: http://zagraevsky.com/classification.htm; Zagraevsky S. V. AndPology Rostov chronicler...
15. Zagraevsky S. V. AndPology Rostov chronicler...
16. ZagraevskyS. V. Extraction and processing of white stone in Ancient Russia // Russian society spelestological research. M., 2008. S. 5-28. Internet address: http://zagraevsky.com/stone.htm.
17. Zagraevsky SV Architect Frederick Barbarossa // "The praises worthy...". Andrey Bogolyubsky in Russian history and culture. The international scientific conference. Vladimir, 5-6 July 2011. Vladimir, 2013. P. 184-195. Internet address: http://zagraevsky.com/barbarossa.htm.
18. Zagraevsky SV Beginning of "Russian Romanesque": jury Dolgoruky or Andrey Bogolyubsky?..
19. Questions of architectural history and reconstruction the original form of the temple, see: Zagraevsky S. V. Uspenskii Cathedral in Vladimir: some questions of architectural history // to the memory of Andrei Bogolyubsky. SB. articles. Moscow – Vladimir, 2009. P. 95-114. Internet address: http://zagraevsky.com/uspensky.htm.
20. Questions of architectural history and reconstruction of the original of the building, see: Zagraevsky SV New study of architectural monuments The Vladimir-Suzdal Museum-reserve. GL. 6. Internet address: http://zagraevsky.com/vsmz7.htm.
21. Questions of architectural history of the Church and justification its date, see: Zagraevsky S. V. To a question about the reconstruction and the Dating of the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl // proceedings of the regional regional studies conference (April 20-21 2007.). Vladimir, 2008. Vol. 2. S. 3-12. Internet address: http://zagraevsky.com/pokrov.htm.
22. Заграевский С.В. Вопросы ранней истории
Покровского монастыря на Нерли // Материалы ХХII
межрегиональной краеведческой конференции (21 апреля
23. Questions of architectural history and reconstruction the original form of the Palace-temple complex in Bogolyubovo, see: Zagraevsky SV New study of architectural monuments of Vladimir-Suzdal Museum-reserve... GL. 7. Internet address: http://zagraevsky.com/vsmz8.htm; Zagraevsky S. V. the Grand Prince's castle in Bogolyubovo: the experience of the graphic reconstruction. In kN.: Materials of the XVII interregional regional studies conference (April 20 2012.). Vol. 1. Vladimir, 2013. P. 296-312. Internet address: http://zagraevsky.com/bogolubovo_graph.htm.
24. Questions of architectural history and reconstruction Bogoliubov fortifications, see: Zagraevsky S. V. Historical topography the pre-Mongol Bogolyubovo // Materials XXIII inter-regional studies conference (April 13 2018.). Vladimir, 2018. P. 105-128.
25. O. M. Ioannisyan, Leont'ev A. E., P. L. Zykov, Torshin E. N. The
monuments of ancient architecture XII–XIII centuries in Rostov Veliky //
Proceedings of the VI international Congress of Slavic archaeology. Vol.
of the date of the temple see: Zagraevsky S. V.
clarification of the date and status of the Church of our Saviour in Vladimir
// to the memory of Andrei Bogolyubsky. SB. articles.
Moscow – Vladimir,
27. Zagraevsky S.
V. Typological formation and basic classification of the
28. Questions of architectural history and reconstruction the original form of the temple, see: Zagraevsky S. V. Uspenskii Cathedral in Vladimir: some questions of architectural history...
29. Questions of architectural history and reconstruction the original form of the temple, see: Timofeeva Etc. To clarify the dates of Demetrius Cathedral // St. Demetrius Cathedral in Vladimir. M., 1997. P. 38-41. Internet address: http://rusarch.ru/timofeeva13.htm; Zagraevsky SV New study of architectural monuments of The Vladimir-Suzdal Museum-reserve. GL. 10. Internet address: http://zagraevsky.com/vsmz11.htm.
30. Justification date galleries, see: Zagraevsky SV New study of architectural monuments of Vladimir-Suzdal Museum-reserve... GL. 10.
31. Voronin N. N. The architecture of North-Eastern
Russia XII–XV centuries. T.
32. Ibid. P. 374.
34. Nekrasov A. I Of the Suzdal-Vladimir impressions. In Sib.: "Among collectors", No. 5-6, 1924. S. 33-34.
35. PSRL 1:411.
36. On the scale of wooden Church construction the pre-Mongol
North-Eastern Russia, see: Voronin N. N. Architecture North-Eastern Russia
XII–XV centuries. T.
37. PSRL 1:411.
38. This definition was first given by the author in the article: Zagraevsky S. V. Uspenskii Cathedral in Vladimir: some architectural issues history...
39. Voronin N. N. Decree. CIT. vol. 1. S. 464-465.
40. Ibid. Vol.
41. Ibid. P. 58.
42. Detail, see: ZGruevski S. V. To the question about the Dating of the Church the monk Nikon (Nikon the chapel of the Holy
Trinity Cathedral) in the Trinity-Sergius Lavra Monuments of culture. New open.
43. Questions of architectural history and reconstruction original
appearance of the temple, see: Zagraevsky SV New study
of architectural monuments the architecture of the Vladimir-Suzdal
Museum-reserve. GL. 3. Internet address: http://zagraevsky.com/vsmz4.htm; Zagraevsky S. V.
Tothe polls reconstruction of the original form of Suzdal
Cathedral Of the Nativity of the beginning of the XIIIcentury // On the threshold of the Millennium. Suzdal
in the history and culture of
44. Questions of architectural history and reconstruction the original form of the temple, see: Zagraevsky SV architectural history and reconstruction of St. George Cathedral in Yuriev-Polsky. M., 2008. Internet address: http://zagraevsky.com/georgiev.htm.
45. PSRL 15:355.
46. Zagraevsky SV architectural history and reconstruction of St. George Cathedral in Yuriev-Polsky...
48. Vitruvius. Ten books about architecture. Per. from lat. F. A. Petrovsky. M., 2003.