Published in Russian: Çàãðàåâñêèé Ñ.Â. Çîä÷åñòâî Ñåâåðî-Âîñòî÷íîé Ðóñè êîíöà XIII – ïåðâîé òðåòè XIV âåêà. Ì.: Àëåâ-Â, 2003. ISBN 5-94025-046-7
This book is devoted to the architecture of North-Eastern Russia of the period between the end of the XIII century and the first third of the XIV century, traditionally considered as "dark time" in the history of Ancient Russian architecture. On the basis of the analysis of the results of archaeological research and of the historical situation the author concludes the large-scale white-stone construction and unique architectural style of that era. A number of monuments of architecture, previously attributed to a later time, are dated by 1290 - 1320s. The reconstruction of Moscow Assumption Cathedral of 1326 - 1327 is proposed.
The book formed the basis for a dissertation for the degree of Ph. D. in Architecture, specialty 18.00.01 ("Theory and history of architecture, restoration and reconstruction of historical and architectural heritage ")
The following text was translated from Russian original by the computer program
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So it can be used only for general introduction.
The architecture of North-Eastern Russia the end of the XIII century to the first third of the XIV century traditionally characterized as a "dark time" in the history of ancient architecture.
But note that even in the early to mid-XX century
"dark time" was considered the entire architecture of the Russian
North-Eastern principalities with the time of Batu Khan's invasion to Ivan III.
For example, in
For the time elapsed from the moment of writing these words, the situation in the history of ancient architecture has changed significantly. Much of what seemed mysterious fifty years ago, today we perceive as the well-known facts is primarily due to unprecedented progress in this scientific discipline in fifties-eighties of the XX century.
In principle, in the beginning of XXI century architectural historians have the potential to work less efficiently than in Soviet times. Gone ideological control and policy imposition of any scientific positions. There was freedom of acquaintance with the monuments of architecture of Byzantium and Western Europe and, consequently, the ability to more adequately determine the origins of ancient Russian architecture.
But the new era has created new problems.
Architectural monuments in the mass order are transferred to the Russian Orthodox Church - in principle, it is logical and fair process, but the archaeological research and polling in the existing temples practically impossible. Negligible funding for basic research does not allow to apply widely the exact methods of analysis - including such as chemical, granulometric, petrographic, radiocarbon and paleomagnetic. Funds are generally not at archeological research - even if there are no objections or local authorities, or the Church. The restoration is almost universally carried out not in accordance with modern scientific methods, and in the best case for the very old "stylistic" principle proposed in the early nineteenth century Viollet-Le-Duc. In the worst case, place of architectural monuments just built dummies2.
In short, the history of old Russian architecture is becoming more and more "paper", and one can only wonder when she will be back (and whether there will be any, and the widespread use of primary archaeological information, and the more immediate impact on the restoration process.
But in these difficult conditions, to help the history of architecture should p%
And what we're going to do in our study can be summarized as historical and motivational modeling era, focused on the issues of the history of architecture. This method was proposed by the author in the book "Yuri Dolgoruky and the old white-stone architecture"3.
We cannot say that the researchers of the twentieth century was not paid attention to the issues of shared history and other scientific disciplines. But in the face of persistent primary information - both documentary and archaeological - the need for a comprehensive simulation of this period occurred infrequently. There is such a need, we face more and more often.
And let the historical method motivational model gives results with a particular approach - we won't attempt to use it, where we have accurate information about the architectural design, construction and Dating of this or that monument. But Dating "by analogy", especially in the study of motivation of this or that building, we are without this method can not do.
The main principle is that when building any model we can only rely on the proven and proven facts, and if they will be enough to build an adequate model, then we can apply this model to the facts in dispute, or unproven. By this method we will use in our study the "dark time" - Zodchie is%8
You want to Express my deep gratitude Ivention, Alinalove, Laasi, Aphrodinae, Omiani, VV kavelmaheru, All, AI Komech, Luisito, TD Panova and Elaborately for the help, constructive criticism, advice and consultations, which the author used at various stages of the work on this research. It should be noted that kind accepted%And, of course, if the author had no opportunity to use the archive and the personal library of his father, Kavelmahera, the work on this book could be delayed for a long time.
The author also expresses special gratitude to the rector of St. Nicholas Church in Kamenskoye Alexander O. (Ilinova), rector of the Church of the Nativity of the virgin in Gorodnya O. Alexey (Zlobina) and rector of the Church of the Conception of John the Baptist on the Settlement in Kolomna O. Nicholas (Nicotine) for graciously providing the opportunity of full-scale study of the temples.
In our study, referring to the pre-Mongolian time, under the North-Eastern Russia, we mean the Vladimir-Suzdal Grand Duchy. After the invasion of Batu (for brevity we will call this as "post-Mongol") of North-Eastern Rus, we will call the earth and is included in the Grand Principality of Vladimir and become vassals of the Horde. Accordingly, it is Moscow, Tver, Vladimir, Rostov, Pereslavl-Zalessky, etc.
In the post-Mongolian time vassal of the Horde became Ryazan, even in the pre-Mongolian time detached from Chernigov and de facto included into the sphere of influence of the Vladimir-Suzdal great reign. Therefore, speaking about the post-Mongolian time, we include in the concept of North-Eastern Russia and Ryazan Principality.
Until very recently it was believed that the architecture of North-Eastern Russia the end of the XIII century to the first third of the XIV century survived only Chronicles information. Here are the temples, erected at that time, which Chronicles explicitly referred to as a stone:
- Rostov, the Church of Boris and Gleb. 12874. Disappeared in XVII-XVIII centuries, is open during the excavations years 1986-19915.
- Tver, the Spaso-Preobrazhensky Cathedral. 1285-1290 years6. Completely rebuilt in XVII century7;
- Tver, the Cathedral of the Fyodorovsky monastery. 1323-1325 years8. Rebuilt in the beginning of the XV century, demolished in 17739.
- Moscow, the Dormition Cathedral. 1326-1327
years10. Dismantled in
- Moscow, the Church-belfry of St. John Climacus%D12. Dismantled in 150513;
- Moscow, Petroverigsky chapel of the assumption Cathedral. 1329 year14. I went to the emergency state in case of fire 147015, dismantled in 1472 together with the Dormition Cathedral 1326-1327 years;
- Moscow, the Cathedral of our Saviour on the Bor. 1330 year16. It was rebuilt in 1527, then in the XVIII century17;
- Moscow, the Church of Michael Archangel Cathedral of the Archangel). 133318. Dismantled in 150519.
Some other temples of North-Eastern Russia, attributed by various researchers in this era, there were only sporadic data archaeology and questionable information later monastic books.
So, excavations in 1949, conducted under the leadership Voronin in Staritsa, Tver region, allowed the researchers to assume that in place of the Archangel Cathedral of the end of the XIV century was earlier stone temple20.
Archaeological research conducted in Kolomna Kremlin under the leadership Kavelmahera in 1978-1983, revealed fragments of stone temple prior to the assumption Cathedral of Dmitry Donskoy, built around 1380. But the results of these excavations were published in the report of the trust Mosoblstroyrestavratsiya "with the stamp "for official use"21 and left for the scientific community almost unknown (about these results we discuss in detail in p. 4 main 2).
On the basis of the information of the house of
the monastery book of the beginning of XVII century N.N. Voronin believed that
VA Bulkin and am Salimov on the basis late "Tale of the Tver Otroch monastery dates back to the assumption Cathedral of the monastery 1270-1290 mi24. El khvorostova, in 1980-ies making excavations of the temple, took it to the beginning of the XVI century, in principle, allowing and Dating XIII century25. But, as we will see in paragraph 1 of 3 main, this assumption today was not sufficiently substantiated.
Before the beginning of the third Millennium any new monuments of early post-Mongolian time was revealed. Arbitrary hypothesis is%B26 today, almost out of scientific turnover (however, as we'll see in the Chapter 2, some of the results of the excavation Fedorov and NS shelyapinoy was for our study is very useful primary information).
In any case, until recently it was believed that none of the construction of the "dark time" - the end of the XIII century to the first third of the XIV century - did not reach us, either totally or partially.
In the article "About the early post-Mongolian architecture of North-Eastern Russia", published in book form27 the author made some preliminary considerations about a much wider range of sites, which can be attributed to the end of the XIII century to the first third of the XIV century. It is time to explore these issues more systematically and in detail.
© Sergey Zagraevsky