Published in Russian: Çàãðàåâñêèé Ñ.Â. Çîä÷åñòâî Ñåâåðî-Âîñòî÷íîé
Ðóñè êîíöà XIII – ïåðâîé òðåòè XIV âåêà. Ì.: Àëåâ-Â, 2003. ISBN 5-94025-046-7
This book is devoted to
the architecture of North-Eastern Russia of the period between the end of the
XIII century and the first third of the XIV century, traditionally considered
as "dark time" in the history of Ancient Russian architecture. On the
basis of the analysis of the results of archaeological research and of the
historical situation the author concludes the large-scale white-stone
construction and unique architectural style of that era. A number of monuments
of architecture, previously attributed to a later time, are dated by 1290 - 1320s.
The reconstruction of Moscow Assumption Cathedral of 1326 - 1327 is
The book formed the basis for a dissertation for the degree of Ph. D. in Architecture, specialty 18.00.01 ("Theory
and history of architecture, restoration and reconstruction of historical and
architectural heritage ")
The following text was
translated from Russian original by the computer program
and has not yet been
So it can be used
only for general introduction.
The architecture of North-Eastern Russia the end
of the XIII century to the first third of the XIV century traditionally
characterized as a "dark time" in the history of ancient
But note that even in the early to mid-XX century
"dark time" was considered the entire architecture of the Russian
North-Eastern principalities with the time of Batu Khan's invasion to Ivan III.
For example, in
For the time elapsed from the moment of writing
these words, the situation in the history of ancient architecture has changed
significantly. Much of what seemed mysterious fifty years ago, today we perceive
as the well-known facts is primarily due to unprecedented progress in this
scientific discipline in fifties-eighties of the XX century.
In principle, in the beginning of XXI century
architectural historians have the potential to work less efficiently than in
Soviet times. Gone ideological control and policy imposition of any scientific
positions. There was freedom of acquaintance with the monuments of architecture
of Byzantium and Western Europe and, consequently, the ability to more
adequately determine the origins of ancient Russian architecture.
But the new era has created new problems.
Architectural monuments in the mass order are
transferred to the Russian Orthodox Church - in principle, it is logical and
fair process, but the archaeological research and polling in the existing
temples practically impossible. Negligible funding for basic research does not
allow to apply widely the exact methods of analysis - including such as
chemical, granulometric, petrographic, radiocarbon and paleomagnetic. Funds are
generally not at archeological research - even if there are no objections or
local authorities, or the Church. The restoration is almost universally carried
out not in accordance with modern scientific methods, and in the best case for
the very old "stylistic" principle proposed in the early nineteenth
century Viollet-Le-Duc. In the worst case, place of architectural monuments
just built dummies2.
In short, the history of old Russian architecture
is becoming more and more "paper", and one can only wonder when she
will be back (and whether there will be any, and the widespread use of primary
archaeological information, and the more immediate impact on the restoration
But in these difficult conditions, to help the
history of architecture should p%
And what we're going to do in our study can be
summarized as historical and motivational modeling era, focused on the issues
of the history of architecture. This method was proposed by the author in the
book "Yuri Dolgoruky and the old white-stone architecture"3.
We cannot say that the researchers of the
twentieth century was not paid attention to the issues of shared history and
other scientific disciplines. But in the face of persistent primary information
- both documentary and archaeological - the need for a comprehensive simulation
of this period occurred infrequently. There is such a need, we face more and
And let the historical method motivational model
gives results with a particular approach - we won't attempt to use it, where we
have accurate information about the architectural design, construction and
Dating of this or that monument. But Dating "by analogy", especially
in the study of motivation of this or that building, we are without this method
can not do.
The main principle is that when building any
model we can only rely on the proven and proven facts, and if they will be
enough to build an adequate model, then we can apply this model to the facts in
dispute, or unproven. By this method we will use in our study the "dark
time" - Zodchie is%8
You want to Express my deep gratitude Ivention,
Alinalove, Laasi, Aphrodinae, Omiani, VV kavelmaheru, All, AI Komech, Luisito,
TD Panova and Elaborately for the help, constructive criticism, advice and
consultations, which the author used at various stages of the work on this
research. It should be noted that kind accepted%And, of course, if the author
had no opportunity to use the archive and the personal library of his father,
Kavelmahera, the work on this book could be delayed for a long time.
The author also expresses special gratitude to
the rector of St. Nicholas Church in Kamenskoye Alexander O. (Ilinova), rector
of the Church of the Nativity of the virgin in Gorodnya O. Alexey (Zlobina) and
rector of the Church of the Conception of John the Baptist on the Settlement in
Kolomna O. Nicholas (Nicotine) for graciously providing the opportunity of
full-scale study of the temples.
In our study, referring to the pre-Mongolian time,
under the North-Eastern Russia, we mean the Vladimir-Suzdal Grand Duchy. After
the invasion of Batu (for brevity we will call this as "post-Mongol")
of North-Eastern Rus, we will call the earth and is included in the Grand
Principality of Vladimir and become vassals of the Horde. Accordingly, it is
Moscow, Tver, Vladimir, Rostov, Pereslavl-Zalessky, etc.
In the post-Mongolian time vassal of the Horde
became Ryazan, even in the pre-Mongolian time detached from Chernigov and de
facto included into the sphere of influence of the Vladimir-Suzdal great reign.
Therefore, speaking about the post-Mongolian time, we include in the concept of
North-Eastern Russia and Ryazan Principality.
Until very recently it was believed that the
architecture of North-Eastern Russia the end of the XIII century to the first
third of the XIV century survived only Chronicles information. Here are the
temples, erected at that time, which Chronicles explicitly referred to as a
- Rostov, the Church of Boris and Gleb. 12874.
Disappeared in XVII-XVIII centuries, is open during the excavations years
- Tver, the Spaso-Preobrazhensky Cathedral.
1285-1290 years6. Completely rebuilt in XVII century7;
- Tver, the Cathedral of the Fyodorovsky
monastery. 1323-1325 years8. Rebuilt in the beginning of the XV
century, demolished in 17739.
- Moscow, the Dormition Cathedral. 1326-1327
years10. Dismantled in
- Moscow, the Church-belfry of St. John
Climacus%D12. Dismantled in 150513;
- Moscow, Petroverigsky chapel of the assumption
Cathedral. 1329 year14. I went to the emergency state in case of
fire 147015, dismantled in 1472 together with the Dormition
Cathedral 1326-1327 years;
- Moscow, the Cathedral of our Saviour on the
Bor. 1330 year16. It was rebuilt in 1527, then in the XVIII century17;
- Moscow, the Church of Michael Archangel
Cathedral of the Archangel). 133318. Dismantled in 150519.
Some other temples of North-Eastern Russia,
attributed by various researchers in this era, there were only sporadic data
archaeology and questionable information later monastic books.
So, excavations in 1949, conducted under the
leadership Voronin in Staritsa, Tver region, allowed the researchers to assume
that in place of the Archangel Cathedral of the end of the XIV century was
earlier stone temple20.
Archaeological research conducted in Kolomna
Kremlin under the leadership Kavelmahera in 1978-1983, revealed fragments of
stone temple prior to the assumption Cathedral of Dmitry Donskoy, built around
1380. But the results of these excavations were published in the report of the
trust Mosoblstroyrestavratsiya "with the stamp "for official
use"21 and left for the scientific community almost unknown
(about these results we discuss in detail in p. 4 main 2).
On the basis of the information of the house of
the monastery book of the beginning of XVII century N.N. Voronin believed that
VA Bulkin and am Salimov on the basis late
"Tale of the Tver Otroch monastery dates back to the assumption Cathedral
of the monastery 1270-1290 mi24. El khvorostova, in 1980-ies making
excavations of the temple, took it to the beginning of the XVI century, in
principle, allowing and Dating XIII century25. But, as we will see
in paragraph 1 of 3 main, this assumption today was not sufficiently
Before the beginning of the third Millennium any
new monuments of early post-Mongolian time was revealed. Arbitrary hypothesis
is%B26 today, almost out of scientific turnover (however, as we'll
see in the Chapter 2, some of the results of the excavation Fedorov and NS
shelyapinoy was for our study is very useful primary information).
In any case, until recently it was believed that
none of the construction of the "dark time" - the end of the XIII century
to the first third of the XIV century - did not reach us, either totally or
In the article "About the early
post-Mongolian architecture of North-Eastern Russia", published in book
form27 the author made some preliminary considerations about a much
wider range of sites, which can be attributed to the end of the XIII century to
the first third of the XIV century. It is time to explore these issues more
systematically and in detail.
© Sergey Zagraevsky