S. V. Zagraevsky
Published in Russian: Заграевский С.В. Новые исследования памятников архитектуры Александровской слободы. M.: Алев-В, 2008. ISBN 5-94025-095-5
A little about my father (memoirs about W.W. Kawelmacher)
The following text was translated from Russian original by the computer program
and has not yet been edited.
So it can be used only for general introduction.
A story about my father Wolfgang Volfgangoviche Kavelmahere I start from the beginnings of the twentieth century, more precisely - from December 18, 1903, when born, my grandmother, Elena Kavelmaher, nee Kolobashkin.
Her father, Alexander, was the youngest son of shopkeepers, the inheritance was miserable and, despite the hereditary honorary citizenship, worked as a clerk in a bank. He had several brothers and sisters, but they all disappeared in the revolution.
Mother Elena Alexandrovna, my great-grandmother Alexandra was the daughter of Basil Rudnev, Archimandrite Daniel's monastery. As I understand it, Rudnev was a typical priest, the late XIX century, that is like a modern "new Russian" counterparts. Prior to assume the post Danilovsky Archimandrite, Rudnev was rector of the church "Trinity" in Shabolovka, 25, and rebuilt the temple in the "pseudo" style.
We lived on First Kolobashkin Meshchanskaya (Prospect Mira) in the apartment of a few rooms. Immediately after the revolution of "condensed", but they were lucky - they lived a wealthy life, "surplus" living space was small, and it moved in not strangers, and their former maid.
Alexander Kolobashkin died in 1924, still in the twentieth ill from constant malnutrition. The famine was threatening everyone, and salvation was one - ration. Already in 1919, my grandmother, had just graduated from high school (now called the "united labor school"), was forced to settle in the State Bank as a typist.
In the mid-twenties, she met my grandfather - Wolfgang Alfredovich Kavelmaherom (1901-1988), a German, son of the manager distillery Shtrittera (do not know how this plant is called now). My great-grandfather, Alfred F. Kavelmaher, operates the plant, and great-grandmother, Elsa Emilevna, managed no small family: my grandfather were brothers - Frederick, Kurt and Edgar, and sisters - Sigrid and Elsa.
When he died, Alfred F., whether his death - is unknown at this time my father's family was in Vorkuta. Elsa Emilevna died (supposedly "safe", ie with age) in the late forties. Frederick was in the Red Army and disappeared in the early twenties, Kurt worked at the CER and disappeared in thirty-eight. However, later it became known that he was killed in Kotlass camps. Edgar died of tuberculosis either in prison, whether in Solovki about 1930.
Aunt of my father, Sigrid, and Elsa, survived until the end of the seventies. More about them do not know anything, because, under the version of my grandmother Elena Alexandrovna, in 1937 they were "denied" (supposedly written in the NKVD, the relevant application) and his brother Wolfgang, and his family. However, most likely, no "official denial" was not, but just afraid to continue communication.
The fate of the country in the mirror of one family ...
In the twenties, Wolfgang Alfredovich "forever" was in Timiryazev Academy. Higher Education, he ultimately never received. But was impozanten externally - tall, thin, blue-eyed, light-brown hair. It is not surprising that they attracted to the typist from the State Bank and they were married in 1925.
How they lived - I do not know. I think it was a standard "klerkovskaya" family - my grandfather has a job, while Elena Alexandrovna was rare in those days dignity - their own living space.
January 22, 1933 they had a son. Named it after his father - Wolf, that is, Wolfgang Volfgangovichem. Who could have imagined how many ordeals awaited a man with such "name" in the very near future! And my grandmother, Elena Kolobashkin, took the German name of her husband and carried her whole life.
In 1933 in Germany, Hitler came to power in 1934 in the USSR killed Kirov. Santa - a German, that is "unreliable element" - planted almost immediately. Article 58, "lit MRC" ("counter-revolutionary activities"). They gave him a regular for the 1934 term - five years. "Scores" then gave rare.
My grandmother was left to work in the State Bank. She was not fired - it was 1934, not 1937, moreover, it was a quiet non-partisan typist, and secretary of any head, and the typing pool employee. Below nowhere.
From his grandfather, she did not refuse (in the sense of a unilateral divorce), although it is many people advised. However, she was absolutely right: the NKVD, when it was necessary to carry out order for the "wives of enemies of the people, for such divorce did not pay any attention.
In 1935, for the grandmother sounded "second call" - she was arrested. However, just one day. At the time, people chose gold - it was very necessary to the country, as "irresponsible citizen" voluntarily surrender his no hurry.
History rather anecdotal, but rather terrible. Alexandra Vasil'yevna mother Elena Alexandrovna, there were some oddities, expressed in the details. One such detail was that it collect colored glass, laying them in a jar of iron "landrinok" and hid. Neighbors saw her hiding something, and "knock" in the NKVD.
Granny arrested and taken to jail, and the investigator took her to a small room such as theater. She was taken to the stage in the hall were some people and hooted, and the investigator threatened to cut its year-old son (ie my father) to pieces if she will not give gold. Just "show" (interesting that something similar described Mikhail Bulgakov in his novel "The Master and Margarita").
My grandmother just sobbed and gold, naturally, has not issued due to his absence. She was taken to a cell and told to think, and then suddenly released. It turned out that at this time in the apartment was searched, Alexandra has shown a box of "landrinok", the investigator scary matter, and it was all over, like a fairy tale.
And Elena sat in typing shops and print until the bell "the third call. This was the beginning of August 1937, when my grandmother received a summons that to her as "wife enemy of the people" used "indefinite administrative exile" in the city Berezov. Simultaneously, the family is notified of eviction from the apartment. This meant we had to take an elderly mother and four sons.
However, the choice is still not there. Much later, in 1956, my great-grandmother Alexandra unexpectedly received a certificate of rehabilitation, together with Elena Alexandrovna. Everyone was surprised, but it turned out that great-grandmother also gave the "eternal exile, only agenda in 1937 for some reason did not get.
Items sent by rail "low speed" (they got more than a year later). Themselves, of course, also were on the train. According to the stories his father, his first childhood memories, literally shook him - seen from a train window temples Trinity-Sergius. Perhaps this in the future, and determined his profession, but before that it was still far off.
Arriving in Berezov, grandmother learned that too many exiles, and sent all the steamers on the Ob River to the north, in Salekhard (formerly Obdorsk) - a town near the mouth of this river.
Now Salekhard - the center of Yamalo-Nenets region, there trains, sailing ships of the Northern Sea Route, take out the forest, surrounding the oil extracted. At the same time around Salekhard oil is found, and even logging sector almost was not - it was too far to haul the logs: Sevmorput have not yet mastered, the railway is not built, the upstream Obi forest is not the alloys. The city was so quiet and a provincial, as the town name was difficult.
There was a terrible winter of 1937-1938. Grandmother to work anywhere not take - the exiles, yet with a German name. The prisoners died from overwork, but they at least formally had to somehow feed. For exiles turned out the opposite: not found a job - so die of starvation, none of you even care not formally required. But what kind of work could be in Salekhard?
We lived in a hut, and then in the dugout - where at least the temperature was above zero. The four-father became seriously ill from cold and malnutrition, survived by a miracle - my grandmother did not give it to certain death in an overcrowded, icy hospital and came out herself. At this time, Elena with Alexandra somehow earned ... sawing wood.
As a result, paradoxically, saved the church metric grandmother, where it was said that her name Kolobashkin and that she was "baptized into Orthodoxy. Elena, the "atypical" the document went to the local office of the NKVD, and the chief, seeing that she was not German, and Russian, took her to work as a typist. Securities was the sea, and the ability to print was then a rarity. Besides a huge flow of exiles of 1937-1938 has passed, and qualified personnel in Salekhard no longer received.
Came in 1940. Grandpa Wolfgang Alfredovich released from the camp and received "eternal exile" in Vorkuta. Center of the Pechora coal basin, Komi ASSR - also, as they say, Sochi, although somewhat closer to Europe than Salekhard. But still in Vorkuta coal mined, and there exiles easier.
My grandmother, using the resulting over time in the management of the NKVD "useful contacts", was able to change the place of exile from Salekhard to Vorkuta. My grandfather hired (for the eternal Russian currency - vodka), a Nenets reindeer sleds with and the summer of 1940 moved his family through the Northern Urals. Strangely enough, this trip was not particularly difficult, in any case, much simpler and cheaper than up the Ob to the boat, and then with a lot of transplants by rail. Then the railway Vorkuta - Salekhard not yet been built.
In Vorkuta Kavelmahery settled in the village of Rudnik (emphasis traditionally placed on the first syllable). Actually, there was more to settle nowhere - in fact it is not settlement, and the oldest (and only then) urban area. According to information obtained in the mid-eighties, survived even the wooden two-storey house, where my father lived. However, it is difficult to call it home - by modern standards it is a regular barracks, so that perhaps in the "construction boom" of the nineties he still demolished.
But under Stalin, the city was completely surrounded the camps, each shaft (acting was about twenty-five) was "ARS" (individual camp sites), and it turned out that the whole city was one big zone. Trains brought in "Vorkutlag" prisoners, and took away the coal.
Elena without any problems settled as a typist in admchast mine mine ", ie the system of the NKVD. And it is even exile meant good rations, the child - a kindergarten, the family - two rooms in a heated hut. However, in the dugout had to live, but not for long - a couple of months after arrival.
My grandfather worked as a geologist in geological control, and everything was "good." But the war began.
The fall of 1941, Wolfgang Alfredovich - German - by administrative order "(ie, not only without trial or even the" special meeting "but without any investigation) was sent to the logging in the same Komi only slightly south - around Vorkuta was tundra.
My grandmother just again became "Princess Troubetzkoy reluctant" - to her as his wife a German, in 1941, also was ordered to leave Vorkuta and go to the lumber. And if Wolfgang Alfredovich different iron health and able to survive the logging camp (he died in Moscow in 1988), for Elena Alexandrovna with an eight-son and mother shestidesyatidvuhletney it meant certain death.
My father told me that they have already collected things, and he burned his toy airplane, because he does not fit into a suitcase. You can imagine the psychological atmosphere for the fine details of an eight-year child toy is burned.
But the family had saved the same church metric with which my grandmother, again, went to the head of the local NKVD. That "orthodox" Kolobashkin left in Vorkuta, and even work in admchasti she ultimately did not lose. After the war, and "earn" to the head of the typing pool ...
As for Orthodoxy, I knowingly took the quotes - grandma absolutely did not believe and never in my memory did not go to church. Perhaps this could be explained by the fact that her first husband belonged to the Lutheran denomination, the second - to the Jewish, and while both were absolute atheists. But Alexandra and grandmother never went to church, although she was the daughter of Archimandrite Rudnev. Atheist all my life was my father.
But back to Vorkuta. In the forties and fifties, they lived hard and hungry, but the masses as the Kolyma, not die. Actually, this "rule" was one exception - the terrible winter of 1941-1942, the prisoners were dying masses. Outside the city were dug several trenches, and there got a sleigh pile of corpses.
My father told me that he once met such a sledge, and the carrier became ill from hunger, and he asked the boy of nine to help bring the horse to the ditches. My father helped. All the corpses, of course, were stripped, and no tags on his feet did not - were dumped in mass graves, and all. None of these bodies was not going to dig and then identify, so that well-known stereotype about labels is highly questionable.
My father said that the driver asked him to help unload these corpses, but he was so tired on the way uphill, he refused. There is no fear in regard to dead bodies in the nine-year child was no longer there, and asked the driver for help was quite in the order of things. We can now plenty of gasp and moan about the harmful effects on the child's psyche mountains bare of frozen bodies, but they were Vorkuta weekdays. The bodies were taken, they are not concealing anything from the top.
And not just dead and not only in 1942. During all the forties in the middle of the city and beat prisoners with rifle butts and shot - as in the air, and "to kill". Periodically, house searches took place, including in exile. According to local radio (via speakers) consistently reported, to whom many days in the box provided and for what offense. Before the war were often the message and the shootings, but later they became less - "rabsilu" have to economize.
And in the winter of 1941-1942 famine was unforgettable. This was the only year when his father and grandmother were crying from hunger - it was so painful. To maintain the life of the soldering missing, but subjectively, these sparing grams of fresh bread and slippery, felt only as "rastravlivayuschy" factor.
Having suffered cruelly from hunger female typist (with sedentary work) and a small child, and what were the cons work hard in the slaughter at a much smaller ration? That killed thousands.
Summer in the Vorkuta hunger was not so terrible, because you could walk into the tundra to set snares for grouse than most "beskonvoynyh" and hunted. Yes, and in subsequent years was not enough food, so that his father since childhood constantly hunted. And eggs collected.
It became easier in 1943 when the Ural earned evacuated industry and she needed coal, and the Pechora coal basin after the loss of Donbass was only in the country. Then, and supply has improved considerably, and there is an American "Lend-lizovskaya" stew.
From front to Vorkuta sometimes brought jackets for prisoners. Pierced by bullets drenched in blood ... "tutor" her father, writer, war hero in Spain, "beskonvoyny" prisoner Alexey Eisner, received a jacket with a brown stain of blood on the back, telling the child where the bullet hit, as their blood at any given hit, and it was all quite routine.
Eisner, incidentally, was excellent "tutor", and even the school where he studied father, was good - it taught exiles and cons, that is the color of the Russian intelligentsia. Even the director was very culturally Jewish lady with the "eternal reference" - the paradox of the Stalinist system, which is driven into camps intelligent men. And, despite the abundance of children NKVD-Schnick, the atmosphere in the school was such that in ten years my father remembered only one (!) A fight between two high school students, not just, but because of the girl.
Ultimately, this has borne fruit in terms of education father. But the war because of the constant need, and then habits, hunting far in the tundra (used to go away for a few days), he became very weak student. He was "raised on its feet" only Moses Naumovich Auerbach, second husband of my grandmother, the future has become my "real" grandfather.
Moisey Naumovich was born Dec. 30, 1906 in Moscow. He was the son of a prosperous Jewish merchant, the merchant of the first guild - "untitled" to the Jews before the Revolution were not allowed to live outside the "pale of settlement".
My grandfather graduated from a certain Academy of Commerce, before the
revolution are the elite of merchant standards. Excellent education he received
and further, ending at the time the prestigious "Institute of National
Economy named after Plekhanov. By profession he was a mining engineer and in 1933-1934 years built the
At this time, graduates of the student group, which studied Moses Naumovich, decided to create a kind of "public funds" for mutual aid to needy classmates. Soon, a "well-wisher," said the NKVD, the money collected to the needs of the Trotskyist movement.
The first term of his grandfather, despite Liter KRTD "(" counter-revolutionary Trotskyist activities, much worse than just "MRC"), was not even a term - three years of exile in Tula. In this city, grandfather three years successfully worked in the construction of some office. He married while still in Moscow, and in "Tula" times his son Yuri. But talk to her son Moses Naumovich almost no time - over a link, and he returned to Moscow, where he was immediately arrested. For the former exiles it happens automatically - the yard was in 1937.
Moisey Naumovich sat under investigation more than two years, fell under the infamous resolution "physical pressure", they beat him and broke his finger, which merged the curve (bus unprofessional laid in the chamber). They gave him eight years, and he visited several camps lesopovalnyh Komi in 1943 came to Vorkuta. The country needed coal, and mining engineer, could not be used as intended.
My grandfather became chief of the 40 th of ventilation shafts and in this post worked for many years. It sounds smooth - "worked", but actually Naumovich Moses, when he expired, "tried" twice. But under the new investigation, and having regular periods, and then another "eternal exile, he remained" beskonvoynym "chief of ventilation shafts.
In fairness, we note that "beskonvoynyh" prisoners in Vorkuta was set - the whole town was one huge zone around - the green prosecutor, that is, endless tundra and running it was still nowhere to go. Even for many prisoner-miners travel around the city was relatively free, and for professionals and even more so.
From the commander of ventilation depended on hundreds of lives - and the miners, and staff, and "armed guards" (from the NKVD-Schnick also sometimes required to descend into the pit). It is noteworthy that Moses was the chief Naumovich ventilation and after rehabilitation, and in 1961, after his grandfather retired, his successor, was so incompetent that the mine methane explosion, and dozens of deaths.
In Stalin's death to the NKVD-shnogo superiors in itself meant little, but the emergency at a coal mine meant the failure of the plan and a possible relegation, so it seems more political "camp" of the case against Averbakh sole objective - stronger tie indispensable specialist .
Its indispensable grandfather did not hesitate to use, but very specific - to rescue people. In a literal sense. They were Jews, just intelligent people for whom work in the pit meant either certain death or disability.
How much he had saved - I do not know. Personally, I remember five or six people, and hearsay - a few more. For example, Professor Ilikona Georgievich Lakina (later known informal analysis of the Soviet system, who wrote under the pseudonym Zimin) grandfather put "tabakotrusom" - to make sure that the shaft does not carry tobacco. That is up to the Chief of ventilation - but what if someone in the pit lit up and exploded methane?
After the war, Moisey Naumovich Auerbach married Elena Aleksandrovna Kavelmaher, my grandmother, who not long before separated from Wolfgang Alfredovich. It is, as they say, "positive" Moisey Naumovich became very seriously their responsibilities as head of the family.
My father was in school is bad enough, moreover, he was thirteen years old - the so-called "transitional age". My grandfather, despite the natural resistance of the child (who loves her stepfather who has entered the apartment and not jealous of his mother?), Immediately took up his "discipline". In the end, my father received the excellent education, which only can be imagined at the time.
And my aunt Elena, communicated with Vorkuta "team" and Moses Naumovich, became keenly interested in art and literature. And, finally, became antistalinistkoy. Prior to this, although she did not like Stalin and intuitive, but in the repression nor in any case of vinyl, just like millions of others, believed that only with this and several more since there was a tragic mistake ...
My father was the Marx-Engels-Lenin-Stalin did not like a child. Wolfgang Volfgangovich and the Komsomol was not - the children of exiles there not really called, and he once treated.
In 1950 he graduated from high school. Institutes in the Komi Republic was not, and the question arose: what to do next? Staying in Vorkuta meant waiting landing: all "criminal cases" of his parents were at the local NKVD, and it would not fail to bind to a free extra labor unit. I had to do in high school, and all agreed that it should be Moscow. The main thing was - to go to Vorkuta, and there does not matter so much, and in the big city was easier to "get lost".
However, the "family council" was agreed that in the event of a future arrest Wolfgang Volfgangovich must enter the building or architectural institute - professional builders in the camps was easier to survive.
As a father obtained a passport and escaped from the Komi Republic - this one could write a detective novel. Stalin, it was still alive. "
There have been "raised" all communications and Moses Naumovich, and grandmother, and eventually Wolfgang Volfgangovich Kavelmaher going to Moscow with a clear response and clean passport, then there is nowhere to be pointed out that the father and mother - exiles. It was a chance, but remained very fact of living in Vorkuta. Everyone knew what it was. And except for the entrance exams, in all institutions was then "interviewed" - a filter to screen out "unreliable".
And here remember that Elena works in the camp admchasti, ie in the NKVD! And she got to Wolfgang exactly such a statement, in which it was said that his mother works in this system.
Frank oddities, all prisoners also "worked" in the NKVD, but this information has saved his father's admission to the Moscow Civil Engineering Institute. At the interview he had presented, and issues no longer. A year later his father moved to the Architect.
How difficult it was to his father in Moscow at the beginning! He lived first at the high school friend of my grandmother, and family legend has it that he arrived two hours standing at the door, because hesitate to call. And what was the young man lived a lifetime in the northern camp zones, be in a huge city with the capital rules and mores?
Incidentally, my father all her life (even if they are "permanent resident" in Germany) ate only black bread, because I'm used to it since childhood. But neither my grandmother nor my grandfather did not eat black bread - as expressed Elena, "ate". These are the psychological paradoxes.
After the rehabilitation in 1956, Moses Naumovich and Elena finalized in Vorkuta to retirement, during this time and got herself a two-room apartment in Moscow, on Kaluzhskaya outpost. In the capital, they eventually moved only in 1961, but until then, still in Vorkuta, they had a full employment history and, accordingly, great northern allowance. They sent my father a decent enough amount for which he bought books, and scholarship paid for the rented room.
"Pensioner" life in Moscow or grandfather or grandmother to not have. Steeled in the struggle with the NKVD, Moses Naumovich Auerbach was not bad versed in law and it is used. After twenty years in the camps he had nothing and no one was afraid, and rank as a "People's Control Commission," actually moonlighting lawyer.
And Moses wrote Naumovich (even with Vorkuta times) great autobiographical novel. The style and language he has been quite good, calm and realistic, but, in my opinion, he lacked the ability to stop time. The novel covers the period of Stalinist terror, called "To the glory of the Lord" and amounted to more than nine typewritten pages (their grandmother repeatedly reprinted, which in itself was heroism). All attempts to publish at least the first part of the novel during the Khrushchev "thaw" ended up on the years 1956-64 polite refusals editions. However, these failures political situation also played a role - and Grossman, and Solzhenitsyn published selectively, then "thaw" ended, and the novel Moses Naumovich was "camp" and the anti-Stalinist.
I recently did for his father's Web site (www.kawelmacher.ru). On this site there is a section devoted to my grandfather. I laid there too, and scanned my novel. Who wants to finish reading the end ...
In parallel with the novel, in his last years in Vorkuta, grandfather wrote some quite good stories, published after his death (now in the "restructuring") in the local newspaper. They also have a website.
A grandmother, a professional typist (the intelligent and educated people) printed historian Roy Medvedev, a professor Ilikonu Leikin (Zimin), Shalamova, Vasily Grossman, and many others.
Concluding the story of the father's parents, say that Moses Naumovich died in 1982, and Elena - in 1992.
In 1959 my father married Inna Mikhailovna ZAGRAEVSKY, my mother. August 20, 1964 they had a son, that is the author of these memoirs. First, our family lived in a one-room apartment at the Lomonosov Prospect, and in 1970 we moved into a two-bedroom apartment in a high-rise on the Leningrad highway, not far from the river port. Test and mother-in-law Wolfgang Volfgangovicha lived in the same building one floor below, and most of the time I spent there: his father and mother (a poet and playwright, and up to 1978 - Associate Professor of Chemistry) left the house early in the morning and returning late at night.
Of course, we can not say that my parents were "not up to the child", but people were very busy. However, nekazhdodnevnost communication had its advantages: I remember very well, and all conversations with his father and mother, and all the things they taught me - and in terms of psychology, and in terms of professional (ie literature, art and architectural history, so chemistry as my mother hated and threw it immediately vysluzhivanii "pensionable service").
Wolfgang Volfgangovich, graduating in 1957, Architectural Institute, settled in the Republican Scientific and Production restoration workshop ", not an architect, and belokamenschikom - perhaps by mladosti years, tempted by high wages. Very soon (within a couple-three months), he received the fifth level of six, and this brought a lot of money. Many decades later, his father recalled, that never afterwards did not earn that much.
And he is trimming the white stone for Kadashan - then just the restoration of the Resurrection Church under the direction of Galina V. Alferov. I remember the episode very complete characterization of Wolfgang Volfgangovicha: Alferov, when a book about the restoration of the temple, listing its "command", called her father an architect, he built a row (!) That in fact he was a worker. And this despite the fact that he had a diploma institute, that is a formal right to be called an architect he had.
And in all copies of the book Alferov, kept at home, had been crossed out "architect V. Kavelmaher" and signed: "This is not true! I was belokamenschikom. I do not know whether the decency to be hypertrophied, but if so, the father - is such a case.
And is it worth to say how annoyed Wolfgang Volfgangovich his Soviet bosses sharp "dissident" statements and defiant disregard all sorts of political information, union meetings and other Soviet nonsense? Not surprisingly, from any little bit of the prestigious office it quickly "requested". I understand and Alferova his relationship was irreparably damaged - it is something when he called his book an architect, would like better ...
After changing a couple of "architectural" jobs and nowhere did not stay long, my father went to graduate school of the Institute of Fine Arts degree in Literature "and began to prepare a dissertation on the Block.
In principle, not surprising in such a changing profession there. Even in the early seventies, my father treated his restoration work as a kind of routine, but his true love was poetry. When he was "seized" the history of architecture, he was already over forty.
And in the mid-sixties with a thesis turned out completely in the spirit of Wolfgang Volfgangovicha: he wrote it entirely, and had only mandatory "Marxist-Leninist" entry. It is when he "broke", and refused protection. Another "stroke to the portrait."
A couple of years after graduation, his father worked as an engineer at the institute ... "Tsentrogiproshaht. And only in the late sixties, he finally "caught" for the post of Architect in the newly established trust "Mosoblstroyrestavratsiya. The work was to objects throughout the Moscow region to leave home early in the morning had to return - late at night, but the father was far more appealing than "rubbing pants" in the office.
Trest Mosoblstroyrestavratsiya "could hardly be called a" shabby "- even by Soviet standards, it was fairly large-scale office, leading restoration work on many tens if not hundreds of architectural monuments. Priority is always given to "physical" restoration of monuments (superiors trust liked to remind architects that they - "appendages of production), but parallel to the minimum necessary (but by today's standards - very large) volume were made and research work.
However, despite the "production priorities, for unknown reasons, the trust has never served a Soviet" plan ". Accordingly, the staff did not pay a premium. My father had a salary of 160 rubles (about fifteen years later, when his father became a "department head", the salary has reached two hundred - again, without any premium). And the exceptional decency did not allow him to "go shares with thieving master-builder.
Wife - Associate Professor of Chemistry - received 320 rubles, and my grandparents were quite respectable 120-ruble pension, that is, his father was periodically reproaches for "impecuniousness. And when Inna in 1978 threw chemistry, there was the opposite situation: a 180-ruble earnings Wolfgang Volfgangovicha dwelt three - father, mother and me.
In short, the first Wolfgang Volfgangovich getting smaller all the family, and then began to receive the most, but still very small. Perhaps it is (of course, in conjunction with acquired at Vorkuta asceticism) determined its absolute "bessrebrennichestvo. Illustrative example: since then, as the son grew up and began to earn and caught up with his father in the dimensions (it happened in mid-1980), his father not a single new thing. All my "second hand" (clothes, shoes, briefcases, cameras, etc.) becomes the order of "reverse inheritance".
What eats Wolfgang Volfgangovich - remember it is very easy. Broth of beef bones, black bread and tea with sugar, sometimes in the summer of apples - that's all his food during and sixties, and seventies, and eighties. As him and his complexion is very solid with such a diet could not only "dragging feet", but also have a huge physical force - you can only guess.
And yet a question of broth from the bones were only in the evenings! In the morning (and dad always get up at six in the morning because he had no alarm, and on the radio at this time loudly played the anthem) - tea, bread, and the station. An hour or two in the train, half an hour on the bus, half an hour walk - and restorer at the facility. Day - hard physical labor (in a perpetual shortage of "rabsily" architects, restorers themselves and break through the pits, and digging foundations, and laid a brick), for lunch - a loaf of bread and water (sometimes with "raw brandy, tangle-legs" - the monstrous Soviet port wine) in the evening - way back, so long, that even if something during the day drinking, then to the house full time to sober up. In any case, despite the many memories of his father and himself, and his colleagues for standing "libations" at the sites, I have not seen his father drunk once in my life.
Wolfgang Volfgangovich even told me that sometimes after the excavation is not permitted to enter the subway - a dirty, ragged, and yet "screwy" ... rescued a bright red trusts identity with solid-looking position - Senior Architect, "" deputy. beg. Division "," beg. department.
This is the "career path" father held in the trust "Mosoblstroyrestavratsiya" over twenty years of work in it. And only in the late seventies and early eighties, he of productionist-restorer has become a historian of ancient Russian architecture.
By the drawings of architectural details and
reconstruction of temples, which was filled with our house, joined by the
mountain of manuscripts: All weekend bezvylazno father sat at home and wrote. Paradoxically, despite the light, "flying" literary style (this
is especially noticeable in the epistolary genre), my father wrote very
seriously. Mountains' field notes and photographs, one or two incredibly
ischerkannyh draft, two or three "clean copy" with many changes -
both created by any of his father's papers. Even personal letters he first
wrote a rough draft, and then the rules and reprinted.
Enormous psychological burden for Wolfgang Volfgangovicha were research reports. First, he always felt uncomfortable in public statements (possibly negative role played by "Vorkuta" complexes). And secondly, he - "industrials" - clothed academic ranks and academic titles Leo Arturovich David, Boris L. Altshuler and Sergey Pod'yapol'skii always made it clear that he - a historian of architecture as second-class, and if it is generally tolerated at conferences, it is only out of respect for his practical experience restorer. And, apparently, any of its historical and architectural opening is perceived with astonishment, passing in irritation.
And as expected "smoothing sharp corners" by Wolfgang Volfgangovicha whole life "to cut the truth", and does not have to. As a result of all the architectural historians of his generation friendships (s something not quite) the relationship with his father formed only with Vsevolod Vygolovym.
Of course, in no case should not forget that his father very warm Petr Baranovsky. For example, my father told me that when he was seconded to Baranovsky young specialist, Peter D. tying him to a chair. Father allegedly often went for a walk, breathe the air, and Baranowski wanted he sat and sketched, and one day suddenly took a thick rope tied quite tightly around his father's waist and tied to a chair, and he drew tied until Peter D. has not decided that taught Young Professional perseverance.
Of course, tied to a chair much like the legend (although the eccentricity Peter Dmitrievich well known). But even without any legend, it is clear that Baranowski in his time was actually the father and teacher gave him a lot of "professional secrets".
But in late 1970-early 1980's Peter D. was already very old, and sadly this state, with very few people considered.
Consequently, almost none of the reports Wolfgang Volfgangovicha not went smoothly, none of his scientific discovery was not accepted without a "battlefield". Personally, I remember how my father on the report of Boris and Gleb Cathedral in Staritsa debated with a very aggressive and very "drunk" David. Debate immediately switched to the level of mutual personal attacks against the restoration of professionalism of both opponents.
Of course, neither the father of David, nor from Altshuller, nor from Podyapolsky, nor from any ministerial or party bosses did not depend on. And yet, of course, it was difficult to work as a historian of architecture, constantly breaking the tacit implications of the decision "not to let Kavelmahera in science."
Not surprisingly, in all my life my father did not "received" no scientific titles and degrees. His reward was the only state medal "Labour Veteran", which issued in 1986 on the proposal of the trust "Mosoblstroyrestavratsiya" (father jokingly called this medal "Stanislav third degree").
And in the early nineties, my father got a very honorable, but it is absolutely unnecessary certificate "restorer of the highest category - on presentation of the same, by that time had almost disintegrated, the trust. In "Mosoblstroyrestavratsii" father truly loved, despite all his "rough edges". Max B. Chernyshev, Stanislav Petrovich Orlov, Nikolay Nedovich, Arkady A. Molchanov, the late Nicholas Sveshnikov, - these fellow father I remember from childhood. And what would be the reorganization of the trusts may occur, whatever he was doing, I will not mention his name neudoboproiznosimoe other than a kind word.
I can not remember greeting my father's colleagues on the trust in connection with its 50 th anniversary in 1983. It was called "excerpts from the memoirs Pyatnitskaya citizen, born in Sergiev Posad, now Zagorsk" (of course, meaning the Pyatnitskaya church Podol).
I'm trembling all over, I merknu like a shadow,
Once I remember how once
To me almost every day
I went to this bearded robber.
Oh, how ardently he looked at me,
And what tricks dare!
In place of a minute did not sit:
Everything under the hem to get to eat!
And then one day got,
And something interesting found
And in a flash before the hearing came Baldin,
With that in me all the time was wrong ...
How to Baldin, the poor, it endured?
He was indifferent to me!
But our hero immediately cooled,
And in that moment disappeared without delay,
Disappeared immediately, as soon as spotted
Another object of ardent longing for ...
It is for me no sympathy,
Joining me in the inheritance of some suffering,
Such an object is found in Mozhaisk
And it has sent all the efforts.
However, as always, with impatience
In place of a minute is not sitting:
Kopaev himself, and he directs
Forty-pound turns over stones,
And Sweden, and the reaper, and the дуде игрец ...
And well done ... I swear, well done!
In the "free flight" father went to the late eighties, for some time, the number of trust "senior specialist", but is doing very history of architecture. During this time he started strong and fruitful collaboration with the museums of the Alexander of the settlement, the Moscow Kremlin, the Cathedral of the Intercession on the Ditch, Istria and Kolomna - the museum workers have always been able to appreciate the selfless assistance to researchers and helped them to themselves, as they could. Of course, there were unfortunate exception, but Alla Petruhno, Tatiana Panova, Tatiana Timofeeva, Irina Y. Kachalova Lyubov Assumption and many other executives and employees of Russian museums have become real friends and colleagues father.
In the mid to late nineties, "grown up" a new generation of archaeologists, restorers and historians, whose name Kavelmahera already associated with the highest professionalism, a broad outlook, deep study of each issue, scrutiny of facts and, finally, with honesty, selflessness and dedication.
But, unfortunately, can not say that my father was surrounded by enthusiastic admirers and attentive students - and architectural historians have been, and there was very little, and everyone is too busy with their own problems of survival in a "market economy". Two or three random graduate student (his father due to lack of degree does not even have the right to formally called their supervisor), one or two lectures, three or four "junior colleagues, periodic consultations, when the history of architecture is seriously engaged in his own son, - here, perhaps, and all communication Wolfgang Volfgangovicha with "tribe young, unknown. And this despite the fact that on any issue at any time, he was ready to give the most detailed and qualified reply, and he did it with ill-concealed satisfaction.
Well, any objection against the position of his father meant to his hand a long polemic with absolute commitment - involving all possible arguments, references to relevant literature, and sometimes talk in raised voices with lots of personal attacks, accusations of superficiality and dilettantism, inattention and other "deadly sins . Results of controversy could be very different, but it is important that Wolfgang Volfgangovich at any time, in the words of Alexei Ilich Komech, "was ready to jump into battle with the visor open.
It is often said that until the old man was in fact ... my father did not live to old age (except in modern times in 1971 - it is old age? "), So let's say: all my life he was physically very strong, incredibly resilient person. High (about 180 cm), broad-shouldered, with a straight back and excellent posture. It is unlikely to be applicable Wolfgang Volfgangovichu word "handsome" - rather, he was a figure of a retired weightlifter middle weight categories. Certain "science-like" appearance gave his only glasses, a beard and a typical (alas) for the majority of Soviet and Russian scientists cheap faded clothes. But, thank God, in Science poverty is not considered and is not considered a vice.
And, of course, can not but recall the voice of Wolfgang Volfgangovicha: soft, enveloping tone literally fascinated listening to his reports (for the sake of fairness, note that in the controversy, he often switched, and at very high sound). And my father terrific read poetry. Perhaps nowhere else have I heard such a professional and with an intelligent reading.
Women's attention was so interesting and unusual man, a father, has never been left out, but he was, as the saying goes, "a model family man, loved his wife and, when in 1996 she moved to Germany, he went with her. In the late nineties, Wolfgang Volfgangovich some time traveled back and forth, but less and less. In 2001, the last time he conducted excavations (in the Settlement in Kolomna), in 2002, arrived in Moscow for about a week, and more in Russia was not.
At that time, Wolfgang Volfgangovich finally became a recognized "the patriarch of the history of ancient architecture" (as he put it, "survived all the opponents"). What happened, why he stopped coming?
Most likely, "met" several factors.
First, the "family": her father was afraid to leave her mother alone, especially with dogs - Inna periodically picked up on the streets of homeless animals.
Secondly, the "scientific": Wolfgang Volfgangovich was not the primary archaeological material like a fish out of water, and the possibility of probing and excavation has virtually disappeared - architectural monuments in large numbers were transferred to the Russian Orthodox Church.
Third, "family-research": the history of architecture professionally engaged son and father, apparently decided that "gave it" (although humorously interpreted this situation as that of science it has supplanted the "new Russian").
Fourth, the "comfort": how would an ascetic life my father was, he was entranced by the beauty of Bavaria, and from her life and of its climate and the friendliness and kindness of its citizens. He often recalled Tyutchev words about the "end, where iridescent azure gaze at the mountain lake", and once again, walking past the cemetery, we recognized each other, which would be buried not just anywhere but in this wonderful land.
In short, Wolfgang Volfgangovich "ass" in Germany and started to learn his wife's German language and driving skills. The latter he taught and could not, but traveled on trains and Bavaria and northern Italy. Paradoxically, these years can be called the apotheosis of his work as a historian of architecture - confirmed his assumption that the ancient and Western architecture.
Sometimes, when I was a week or two to come to Germany, we went to see churches of Bavaria and Franconia together, and we had to see facial expressions Wolfgang Volfgangovicha when he said something like: "Look what the console!"
In Germany, the father got up every morning even earlier than in Russia - in four or five. He got up and wrote. About the Church of the Transfiguration in the Island, "Tverskaya gates" in Alexander's settlement, the Annunciation Cathedral, with "wall-pillars" (the latter, as I understand many drafts, was to be the revocation of my book "Architecture of the North-Eastern Russia the end of the beginning of XIII-XIV century). And yet - his father back to literary criticism. Many articles on the poetry of my mother, which he wrote for various German publishers, has reawakened his interest in this scientific discipline. But he said more than once (and this is true) that he knows and feels better than poetry, and even better than the history of architecture.
In the seven or eight in the morning my father went to sleep for an hour, and when awakened, started the German way of life. Garden, roses, shopping, walking dogs, house repairs ... He's going home took quite "burgher" form: Wolfgang Volfgangovich organically incapable of doing anything bad. He or essentially refused to do or have done with full dedication.
"Ruptured" - the term is not scientific, but it seems most applicable to what happened. Even in Vorkuta since having "northern" quenching, the father is never sick. The only thing that bothered him for several decades - high blood pressure and salt deposition in joints. In the blessed Bavarian climate and these problems have been infrequent. And at night from 28 to 29 May 2004, he went to sleep and not wake up. Extensive infarction.
Wolfgang Volfgangovich Kavelmaher buried in the "Northern Cemetery» («Nordfriedhof») in Munich.
© Sergey Zagraevsky