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S. V. Zagraevsky

 

New researches of architectural monuments

of Alexandrov Sloboda

 

 

Published in Russian: .. . M.: -, 2008. ISBN 5-94025-095-5

 

Introduction

Chapter 1. The questions of the date of architectural monuments of Alexandrov Sloboda of XVI c.

Chapter 2. The reconstruction of Alexey Mitropolit Church

Chapter 3. A possible author of architectural monuments of Alexandrov Sloboda of 1510s

Chapter 4. The origin of hipped roof architecture

Annex. Wolfgang Kawelmacher

Part 1. W.W. Kawelmacher the historian of architecture and restorer

Part 2. W.W. Kawelmachers bibliography

Part 3. A little about my father (memoirs about W.W. Kawelmacher)

Part 4. W.W. Kawelmachers obituary

Notes

 

Annex.

Wolfgang Kawelmacher

 

Part 1.

W.W. Kawelmacher the historian of architecture and restorer

 

 

 

Attention!

The following text was translated from Russian original by the computer program

and has not yet been edited.

So it can be used only for general introduction.

  RUSSIAN VERSION

 

.Vmailmgr on excavation Alexandrov Sloboda. The end of 1980-ies.

 

Kavelmaher on excavation Alexandrov Sloboda. The end of 1980-ies.

 

Sufficiently detailed biography Kavelmahera (1933-2004) is presented in 3 hours, so we will not dwell on it. Suffice it to say that Kavelmaher was born in Moscow in 1937 was sent with his mother in a reference to Vorkuta, in 1951 he returned to Moscow in 1957 graduated from the Moscow architectural Institute, almost 30 years he worked in the trust "Mosoblstroyrestavratsiya, since the late 1990s lived and worked in Germany.

Here we will talk about W.W. kawelmacher as an historian of the ancient Russian architecture.

Usually it is believed that he spent most of his life he worked as a restorer of the practitioner, and only in the late 1970-ies professionally engaged in historical and architectural research. It is unlikely that such a position is completely fair.

First, in 1960-1980-s any restoration was accompanied by a full-scale historical and architectural research, and virtually every report on the restoration could be published (and if possible published as scientific papers.

Secondly, according to S. Podyapolsky, already in 1975 Kavelmaher read at the session of studying and promoting the protection of the monuments of the Moscow organization of the Union of architects of the USSR the report "About the time of construction of the so-called belfry petroc minor (from the history of the Kremlin bell towers)", clearly showing that exploded in 1812 the belfry not have dated the%1.

Third, to consider the history of architecture in the second half of the twentieth century, outside the context of restoration as impossible as outside the context of archaeology. As the saying goes, "a blessing in disguise": the majority of architectural monuments lay in ruins and, accordingly, was open to any research. Probably, this volume of primary architectural and archaeological information, as at this time, the Russian scientists will no longer ever.

In the 1930-ies monuments, usually torn down hastily, without a proper examination. But after the war came a truly "Golden age". The scope for restorative practices, and for architectural and archaeological research was unprecedented, and every practitioner restorer, regardless of skills and organizational abilities, led many objects, sometimes dozens.

Object Kavelmahera most famous those who gave impulse to its historical and architectural studies (the Church of the presentation of Podol in Sergiev Posad, the Nativity Church in the village Yurkin Istra district, Moscow region (hereinafter MO), Staro-Nikolsky Cathedral in Mozhaisk). In addition, he was the leading architect of the restoration of churches Nine Kizichesky martyrs and Trinity in Golenishchev (Moscow), cathedrals in Volokolamsk and Vereya, the Church of Nikola Posadsky (Kolomna), churches in Khotkovo, Mihailovskaya Sloboda, Suvorova and Sinkova (Ramensky district MO), Izvarine (Leninsky district MO) and Chernenkova (Shakhovskoy district MO)2.

Often VV kavelmaheru "attributed" and other objects, especially those which he published his fundamental works (the Church of the beheading of John the Baptist in Djakova and Paraskeva Pyatnitsa in Podol, the temples of Zvenigorod, the Trinity-Sergius Lavra, Alexander settlement and even the Moscow Kremlin), but really in all of these cases it was only a consultant to the "volunteer"and often "junk" (as in the Moscow Kremlin with the chief architect of Whitegrove, in the Trinity-Sergius Lavra in the leading architects in.

Of the practitioners of restorers second half of the twentieth century, except Kavelmahera, the most famous PD Baranowski, L. David, GV Alferov Altshuler, AV century, NN Sveshnikov and MB Chernyshev. Note that S. pod'yapol'skii, 1960-e years worked as the restorer of the practitioner, later reduced the practical work to a minimum and concentrate on teaching and research RA

PD Baranowski, L. David, GV Alferov, AV century, NN Sveshnikov and MB Chernyshev never become professional historians of architecture, while engaged in such research in the framework of its restoration activities. Their reconstruction and own Dating (PD Baranowski - Paraskeva Church in Chernihiv, L. David Church Trifon Naprudnom and conception of Anne, GV Alferov is the Church of the Resurrection in chadashah, AV century - St. George's Cathedral in Yuryev-Polsky, NN Sveshnikov - the Cathedral of the Dormition in the town of Klin, MB Chernyshev - New Jerusalem) anecdotal. Altshuler also unlikely to have the necessary professional historian of architecture breadth of coverage of problem. We in any case will not detract from the importance of its main discoveries made in collaboration with MH aleshkovskii, groups of churches with wall supports, but it is first of all architectural and archaeological, and made by researchers on the basis of historical and architectural findings over the disputed3.

In connection with this we may note the exceptional significance of activities Kavelmahera: he was almost the only classic restoration, which became a classic history of ancient architecture. Perhaps with some reservations the same can be said about the SS pod'yapol'skii. Among the archaeologists of the twentieth century, these names we can call much more: it and K. Romanov, and MK Karger, and N. Voronin, and PA rapopport.

In principle, this "inequality" is not surprising. Usually, speaking about the primary architectural and archaeological information, mean and archaeological data (relatively speaking, that "under the earth"), and the data obtained in the result of the examination of the remaining parts of the building (relatively speaking, that "above the earth", although this includes the study of cellars and basements). But, paradoxically, still do not even have a special name for the science that studies the remaining part of the "what on earth".

Architectural archeology - the full range of study sites (and "above"and "below ground"). Restoration is a term primarily means "physical" restoration of monuments. And this "unnamed" science includes the reading of masonry, and analysis of construction engineering and manufacture of probing, and many other techniques, and the restoration of this research may in the%8

Ask for this science the name "archaeology architecture" and decide: architectural archeology (the whole complex research of the monument) is divided into actually archaeology (research unpreserved or covered parts of the monument) and "archaeology architecture" (study of the remaining parts of the monument).

There is a temptation to be the founder of "archaeology architecture" PD Baranowski (developed in the early twentieth century, the read method brick "tails"), but it is doubtful whether this is true: the almost complete complex of restoration research techniques owned in the middle of the XIX century Fee. Feelers and other research masonry and construction equipment at a high professional level conducted and Pin, and Dpotop, and N.n.sobolev, and Ndeveloped, and PN Maksimov, and L. David, and Altshuler, and Nowcholesterol, and NN Sveshnikov, and MB Chernyshev, and many other researchers.

But it VV kavelmaheru the credit belongs to the transformation of all of these techniques into a single system, allowing (in combination with the historic and archeological data) to date and reconstruction of temples, as well as to conduct a systematic analysis of the architectural forms and styles with exit to study General regularities of development of ancient Russian architecture.

Review of scientific works Kavelmahera we begin with the Church of Paraskeva Pyatnitsa on Podol in Sergiev Posad [3, 4] (here and further in brackets we will provide links to relevant items bibliography Kavelmahera - see 2 hours). It was the first public publication of the researcher (until then he had the opportunity to be published only in the "creative reports" trust "Mosoblstroyrestavratsiya issued with the stamp "for official use", and do occasional research papers, one of which is on the Kremlin belfry - we have mentioned above).

Being in the 1970-ies the leading architect of the neighboring Church - Introduction at the hem, Kavelmaher parallel examined Pyatnitsky the temple and showed the illegality of Dating him an existing building 1547, stating as the date for the second half of the XVII century. It may even seem strange that someone could date the existing Pyatnitsky the temple middle of the XVI %

It is important to note that in this work, the researcher has pioneered a comprehensive analysis of the peculiarities of construction equipment as one of the reasons for Dating. Of great interest and resulted in the formation of a review composition of the monastery Church and the refectory in the XVI-XVII centuries.

Less known but not less significant for the history of architecture) research Kavelmahera in the 1970-ies in its "own" the object - Vvedensky Church on Podol (1547, rebuilt in 1621) [5]. Was found a fragment of the window jamb, in the form of rosettes, similar to the Windows of the Church of the Nativity of the Theotokos in the Moscow Kremlin (1393) and the assumption Cathedral "on the Town" in Zvenigorod (at the turn of the XIV and XV centuries). In this regard, the researcher showed that Vvedenskaya Church - "replica" dukhovskoi (1476). Based on these studies, V. kavelmaherom was developed reconstruction of the original form of the spirit Church4.

Besides the works on Pyatnitskaya and Vvedenskii churches, Kavelmaher researched and most churches of the Holy Trinity-St. Sergius Lavra ("illegal"because it prevented VI Baldin). In the early 1970-ies Kavelmaher (together with Eni) proposed a reconstruction of the original form of the monastery refectory (1686-1692 years) [2]. The researcher also elaborate the similarities Assumption Cathedral in the monastery (1559-1585) and the Moscow Kremlin (1475-1479 years) [1]. In the future these studies were used VV kavelmaherom during the reconstruction of the original form of the assumption Cathedral Fioravanti, as will be discussed below.

Written in the mid 1980's (and published much later - in the late nineties) work on the Dating of Nikon's monastery Church (often called Nikon's chapel of the Holy Trinity Cathedral) in 1623 year [6] is moot. Here VV kavelmaheru failed to use its main "trump card" - the ability to accurately read brickwork": he was not allowed to object and was forced to confine the analysis of stylistic features of the temple. And if the Dating of the top Nikon's Church XVII century is absolutely true, then on the white-stone quadrangular, the decor is similar to the decor Vvedensky and spirit of the churches, there are serious doubts in the late Dating5. But we in any case will not detract from the significance of this work Kavelmahera: it carried out a fundamental study of the Trinity masters of the first half of the XVII century, including the well-known "apprentice Elisha.

Unfortunately, virtually unknown to the scientific community remains opening VV kavelmaherom old St. Nicholas Church in the village Chernenkova Shakhovsky area MO [11, 12]. Working in 1970-ies of the acts of the Iosifo-Volokolamsk monastery, the researcher has found a mention about this Church, has left "in place" and found that a large four-column Church of XVI century, partially rebuilt in the XIX century, has reached our days in a relatively high degree of preservation, but was not included in any reference to monuments of architecture.

Kavelmaher conducted a field study cherenkovskogo of the temple and its preservation, on the basis of Assembly records dated it between 1543 and 1562 years, and showed that it was a small Church of the monastery "attached" to the Iosifo-Volokolamsk.

In the Iosifo-Volokolamsk monastery Kavelmaher in the seventies-eighties comprehensively investigated the building history of the bell tower (Church of the Hodegetria, 1495, rebuilt in 1671-1672 and 1692-1694 years, destroyed in 1941) [18]. Also noteworthy is his work is dedicated to one of the Iosifo-Volokolamsk commemorative plates [19, 20]. This plate served as "newsworthy" for the study of history kind of Field that is closely related to the monastery.

You might say that the popularity in the wide circles of the scientific community VV kavelmaheru brought carried them in 1977 together with MB Chernyshev excavations of the Borisoglebsk Cathedral in Staritsa (1558-1561 years, was demolished in the beginning of XIX century). Despite the "locality" the main conclusion of the researchers - proof of origin famous ceramic panels on the assumption Cathedral in Dmitrov (beginning of the XVI century) from the destroyed in the XIX century Staritskogo the Cathedral of STS - these studies have received considerable publicity, and on this subject VV kavelmaherom and MB Chernyshev in 1980th years there have been several scientific reports [8]. However, full-scale publishing this work still has not waited6.

Another famous work Kavelmahera (1980-ies) - the Dating of the Church of the beheading of John the Baptist in Djakova [25, 26]. Researcher criticized existed in the literature of argumentation Dating temple as 1529 year and the second half of the XVI century, and on the basis of entries in registers chronicle suggested the existence at the place of the Dyakovo Church earlier Molen temple 1529 (the Conception of John the Baptist with chapels). Believing that vowed Church of the beheading of John the Baptist with the chapels of St. Thomas and St. Peter the Metropolitan in Old Vagankovo burned in the fire of 1547, he proved the high probability of transfer of its thrones not found over at the Vagankovo, in Djakovo. Accordingly, Kavelmaher dated Dyakovo Church abroad 1540's and 1550 s.

It should be noted that in the late 1990-ies Kavelmaher began to stick a few more late Dating Dyakovo Church, considering it to the full the contemporary Cathedral of the Intercession on the Moat (1555-1561 years)7. But, of course, questions of architectural-stylistic positioning the unique Church of the beheading of John the Baptist require further research8.

In the late 1970's-early 1980-ies Kavelmaher together with You held a large-scale excavations Staro-Nikolsky (now Peter and Paul) Cathedral in Mozhaisk (XIV century, completely rebuilt in the XIX century) and the Cathedral of the resurrection in Volokolamsk (the end of the XV century) [9], and together with Sporovski Dormition Cathedral in Kolomna (about 1380, completely rebuilt in 1672-1682 years) [10]. Note that these (and all other) archaeological research Kavelmaher and his colleagues conducted the "volunteer" and personally, without involving any "labour force".

In Volokolamsk and Mozhaisk research has greatly clarified the original appearance of the temples. In Kolomna was open, extremely important for the history of ancient architecture: were found carved white-stone blocks belonging to the building earlier than the assumption Cathedral of Dmitry Donskoy. In addition, researchers have shown that additional surgery (in the XVI century, was believed Altshuler and Mahalasksmi9) Assumption Cathedral were not exposed.

Archaeological research Kavelmahera and SP Orlovsky also showed that the reconstruction plan and, accordingly, the initial form of the assumption Cathedral Voronin10 more adequate than BL Altshuller and MH aleshkovskii. Unfortunately, these findings remained unpublished11.

Another significant work Kavelmahera - the Church of the Nativity in Yurkin (beginning of the XVI century) [27, 28]. Spending in the 1970-ies the preservation of the Church, he had thoroughly researched. At that time the "classic" Dating of the monument to 1504 - questioned David L. assuming the identity of the temple creativity Aleviz New, arrived in Moscow in 1504. But %

In recent years, in connection with research VV kavelmaherom ties old Russian and Western architecture, scientific circles have a stereotype perception of the scientist as "oksidentalist". But the work is dedicated to Yuri, refutes this stereotype: Kavelmaher substantiated Central Asian roots groin vault (however, the question of the Genesis of this phenomenon of ancient Russian architecture remains open12).

Unfortunately, unpublished until recently excluded from the circulation of scientific discovery remained VV kavelmaherom unique Church of the XVI century in the village Sinkova Ramensky district of Moscow region. Through early 1980-ies excavations in the existing Church of Archangel Michael (XVIII century), the researchers found, cellars, basements, a fragment of the North wall, many pieces of construction material and decoration of the previous building. The Church XVI century was pillarless, single-headed, white-stone with brick arches and was not only a unique asymmetrical plan, but also the unique asymmetric facades13.

In the early 1980-ies Kavelmaher started to basic research of ancient bells and bell-towers[13, 14, 15, 17]. Perhaps his main discovery in this area was "ochapny" old Russian bells (by rocking the bells). Besides, in these papers was deployed whole picture Russian Church bells ringing and the review of architecture of ancient bell towers (special attention was given to Ivan the Great, who, like other Kremlin churches, Kavelmaher investigated with the friendly assistance of the staff of the Museums of the Kremlin, against the chief architect of the Kremlin Fedorov). Were also investigated large evangelists Moscow, traced their historical destiny, determined their churchwarden.

In the 1980-ies the bell were the main theme of work Kavelmahera. And at the end of this decade, he together with TD Panova made another highly significant discovery in this area: the researchers were able to find in the archives of information about the fact that in 1913, during excavations on the Cathedral square of the Moscow Kremlin were opened, superficially examined and photographed the remains of the white stone building octagonal shape [16]. Kavelmaher showed that these remains belonged to the first bell tower of St John Climacus, built in 1329. In this work, the researcher also paid close attention to the hypothesis of memorial and funeral character of the Church "under the bells".

At the end of 1980-ies V. kavelmaheru have (unfortunately, again "semi") to explore the attics of the assumption Cathedral Fioravanti. It turned out that in the XVII century vaults of the monument were entirely rebuilt. This allowed VV kavelmaheru, based on my study of the assumption Cathedral of the Trinity-Sergius, built on the model of the temple Fioravanti, to develop a reconstruction of the original form of the Moscow Cathedral [22]. In parallel conducted a review of the history of restoration of the monument.

At the same time - in the late 1980s and 1990-ies - Kavelmaher worked on the Dating of the Cathedral of the Smolensk Hodegetria Novodevichy convent [37]. In its work on this issue, study the history of the monastery, its architecture, churchwarden, dedications of churches and chapels. Special attention is paid to the construction history of the Church of God, justified his Dating abroad 1560-1570-ies.

In the second half of the eighties Kavelmaher began research Alexandrov Sloboda and led them during the 1990-ies. His excavations and probing revealed a fundamental fact: Pokrovsky (now Trinity) Cathedral, hip Trinity (now Pokrovskaya) Church, assumption Church and pillar-shaped Church of Metropolitan Alexei was built in the same building period

Accordingly, V. kavelmaherom was a true revolution in the history of old Russian architecture of the hip, as the first Church marquee was considered to be the Church of the ascension in Kolomenskoye, and the researcher showed that hip Trinity Church in the village was built much earlier.

Work Kavelmahera on Zvenigorodskiy rank" [7] and St. George's Cathedral in Yuryev-Polish [36], are known through publications in the late 1990-ies in the book "Ancient art".

The study of the origin of "Zvenigorod" (three icons from the Deesis tier found in Zvenigorod in 1918 and attributed to Andrei Rublev) again led Kavelmahera in the Trinity-Sergiev. The researcher was able to prove that "Zvenigorodsky chin" comes from the wooden Trinity Church in 1411, which in 1476 was rebuilt and today known under the name of Holy spirit. In parallel work was the study of the original altar barrier of Zvenigorod councils and the Holy Trinity Cathedral of the Trinity-Sergius Lavra. Kavelmaher confirmed in respect of icons "Zvenigorod" blame Andrei Rublev.

The work is dedicated to St. George's Cathedral (1230-1234 years)is the only study Kavelmahera related to the pre-Mongol period.

You know the message of the Tver chronicle that the feudal Prince Svyatoslav "be the master himself. N.N. Voronin challenged the correctness of this message, referring to the fact that the originator of the Tver arch could visit in St. George, %D16. Kavelmaher, proving that the inscription on the act of Svyatoslav in ancient times was in the Trinity chapel, in parallel proved that the chronicler could not so grossly mistaken and had other data about the authorship of Svyatoslav against St. George's Cathedral. Important and General comments Kavelmahera about the history of the reconstruction of the St George Cathedral.

At the turn of the Millennium Kavelmaher investigated Archangel [23] and Annunciation [21, 24], the cathedrals of the Moscow Kremlin. Grand Prince burial vault (1505-1508 years) was devoted to the study of the history of the temple aisles, based on the depth of the issues of building history of the Cathedral, documents and common tradition of initiations of thrones. With AA Sukhanova researcher spent feelers in surviving the basement of the Annunciation Cathedral (XIV century), which made an adequate reconstruction of the original plan of the temple.

In recent years the main theme of the work Kavelmahera were communication old Russian and Western European architecture. Part of these studies were reflected in the works dedicated to the Pokrovsky gates (now Trinity) Cathedral of the Alexander settlement [34], partially remained unfinished15.

Unfinished remain and work Kavelmahera dedicated to the Dating of the Church of the Transfiguration in the Island16 the results of the excavations of the Church at the Settlement in Kolomna and in the Church of Archangel Michael in the village Sinkova Ramensky district, the latest research on the assumption Cathedral Fioravanti and other churches of the Kremlin, a number of other monuments. Archives Kavelmahera waiting to be explored17.



Part 2. W.W. Kawelmachers bibliography

  

Sergey Zagraevsky

 

Introduction

Chapter 1. The questions of the date of architectural monuments of Alexandrov Sloboda of XVI c.

Chapter 2. The reconstruction of Alexey Mitropolit Church

Chapter 3. A possible author of architectural monuments of Alexandrov Sloboda of 1510s

Chapter 4. The origin of hipped roof architecture

Annex. Wolfgang Kawelmacher

Part 1. W.W. Kawelmacher the historian of architecture and restorer

Part 2. W.W. Kawelmachers bibliography

Part 3. A little about my father (memoirs about W.W. Kawelmacher)

Part 4. W.W. Kawelmachers obituary

Notes

 

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