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Sergey Zagraevsky

 

Jury Dolgoruky and ancient Russian white stone architecture

 

 

Published in Russian: .. . M.: -, 2001. ISBN 5-94025-014-9

 

Introduction

Chapter I. White stone and brick

Chapter II. Galich, Caucasus and Volga Bulgaria

Chapter III. Suzdal masters and Romanesque

Chapter IV. The limit of reliability

Chapter V. Sculpture decoration

Conclusion

Applications, notes

 

Chapter III.

Suzdal masters and Romanesque

 

Attention!

The following text was translated from Russian original by the computer program

and has not yet been edited.

So it can be used only for general introduction.

      RUSSIAN VERSION

 

 

I

 

So, we start to consider the impact on Dolgorukiy and his descendants Western Romanesque architecture. Briefly sketch out what it could be.

First, of course, the fact that the construction of stone. The vast majority of the Romanesque cathedrals and castles in the heart of the Holy Roman Empire - Germany - were stone, brick there was built only minor construction of a civil nature and small provincial temples165. In Northern Italy Romanesque churches, as a rule, were built of brick, but either were made of stone (the Cathedral in Modena), or such facing is stipulated, but for various reasons is not placed (the Cathedral of San Ambrogio in Milan) or was not made completely (the Church of San Michele in Pavia).

The next most important feature of influence of the Romanesque is in the Vladimir-Suzdal architecture - sculpture decoration.

The many similarities of European and Suzdal sculptural decoration denied virtually none. V.N. Lazarev wrote that the Roman tradition of "leaked to the Rostov-Suzdal region no later than the middle of the XII century"166and there were also examples of the Romanesque churches with a similar decor and equipment construction167.

The question was only in the ratio of "borrowing" from Europe and local images. Naturally, academics mV Alpatov and V.N. Lazarev had been ideologically" to put the emphasis not on the Western and local motives168. Had to do it and N.N. Voronin169, and H. Wagner170, otherwise they would monographs were not appropriate "censorship" of the Soviet publishing houses.

But now for our study only important fact decoration of the Vladimir-Suzdal churches sculptural decoration, similar to the romance. Questions about whether attached Suzdal (or invited European wizard decor a local (or "author") color, whether they did the corresponding plot accents, we discuss in more detail in the main 5.

Therefore, the course of our logic can not affect even the point of view of E.E. Golubinsky, which does not recognize the Western influences in the sculptural decoration171. After the appearance of the Suzdal churches of the same decor as the Western, undeniable, even to this decor was even completely filled by local reasons.

For similarities, expressed in the sculptural decoration, is located close resemblance perspective portals172. The detail of Suzdal and European portals could vary, but these differences are not beyond the individuality of their authors.

Another sign of similarity - stair tower in Suzdal churches, although similar towers in Russia were in other regions173.

N.N. Voronin investigated the influence of the Romanesque at Suzdal churches, but not built with the Yuri Dolgoruky, while Andrew Bogolyubsky174. A.I. Komech said that "he found (NN Voronin - SZ) Parallels from the world of Romanesque art in Germany XII. taken into account and developed the surveillance of domestic and European scientists. The problem has generally been sufficiently clarified and currently is not hard in their General"175. But this applies only to the time Bogolyubsky.

And we are currently interested in the influence of the Romanesque is on Dolgoruky, the first who began to use in Suzdal European stone technology.

As we know, the minimum ornamental decoration was already on the churches of Pereslavl and Kideksha, the features of his resemblance to the European shows in M. ioannisyan176. In Kideksha was planned and promising portal (Fig. 7).

 

 

Advanced portals:
and - the Church of Boris and Gleb in Kideksha;
b - the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl.

Fig. 7. Advanced portals:

and - the Church of Boris and Gleb in Kideksha;

b - the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl.

 

 

Attention stretched up drums temples jury, which, in combination with a relatively small four gives the "towering" - very European - form of construction.

Even E.E. Golubinsky recognized that in Suzdal churches in comparison with the Byzantine more, in his words, "sheynost"177. Add: this "sheynost" so much more that the role of the dome in the external appearance of the Cathedral is reduced to a minimum, and from inside to see it you have to stand directly under it. Therefore, the term "cross-scheme" to temples Dolgoruky applies only formally. Instead, the dome could be, for example, a tent, and in engineering for almost anything in the building would not have changed.

H. Wagner wrote that the temples "towering" type have a dynamic striving upward, and it is possible that if the development of "high-rise" architecture was not interrupted by the Mongol invasion, then Russia would have known something akin to Gothic178.

Approval Wagner that Gothic (and any other) architectural trends were interrupted by the Mongol invasion, as we will see in chapters 4-5, very controversial. Furthermore, for example, the Rostov Church of Boris and Gleb (1287) had three complete179visually creating "towering" and quite appropriate forms of early Gothic.

But the fact that the development of Gothic trends in the architecture of Vladimir and Suzdal, and then and the Moscow Russia took place180to deny it is impossible - it is spoken form of the assumption Cathedral "on the Town" in Zvenigorod (Fig. 8), the Trinity Cathedral of the Trinity-Sergiev monastery, Cathedral of the Andronikov monastery (Fig. 9), and all of hip architecture of the XVI century181.

 

 

 

Fig. 8. Assumption Cathedral "on the Town" in Zvenigorod. Reconstruction Bagnava. Keeled zakomaras create a "towering" and "the Lancet".

 

 

The Cathedral of the Andronikov monastery (after restoration, the shaded part, preserved from the Cathedral of the beginning of the XV century). Strong jagged arches enhances the "towering" buildings.

 

Fig. 9. The Cathedral of the Andronikov monastery (after restoration, the shaded part, preserved from the Cathedral of the beginning of the XV century). Strong jagged arches enhances the "towering" buildings.

 

 

The same trends were developing in parallel and other principalities (Kiev182, Smolensk183, Novgorod184, Pskov185 and others)

Somewhere in this process was slower, somewhere faster. For example, Galich, already in the pre-Mongolian time was built the Church of St. Panteleimon, who had in the plan's cross quite European forms (Fig. 10).

 

 

Reconstruction of the original appearance of the Church Panteleimon in Galicia (Eurogites).

 

Fig. 10. Reconstruction of the original appearance of the Church Panteleimon in Galicia (Eurogites).

 

 

Why in the Principality, the process of "Europeanization" in the end of XII-beginning of XIII century was more intense, it is clear: in 1188 Galician land was occupied by Hungary and became de jure flax Hungarian king, then the Hungarians in 1190 gone, but after the death of Prince Roman Volynsky in 1205 came back and turned the Galician princes in their vassals already de facto186.

Even the Moscow Dormition Cathedral, built Fioravanti, S. pod'yapol'skii noted that "in the interpretation of certain parts of the building master refers to the forms of the Gothic, Romanesque and often"187. Kavelmaher believed that this Cathedral is "the number gotitsizmov dominates much less noticeable italianissimi"188.

The summary says it all: the presence of Gothic trends in Russian architecture of the XII-XVI centuries to date has not been disputed by almost no one, and the question is only in building the "graphics development of such trends. But this is not the subject of this study.

It is important for us only state that has temples Dolgoruky, with neither a three-blade terminations or keel Gables, or stepped arches or large pedestals under the drums, thanks to the common "towering" mean exactly with the external forms of early Gothic.

And because at the time Dolgoruky of the Gothic early to speak, all the above can be rightfully applied to romanik, noting the impact on Yuri contemporary European Romanesque architecture.

 

II

 

With the approval of Voronin that Yuri was "convinced Grecotel, he married a Byzantine Princess, a friend of Novgorod Archbishop Nifont and his like-minded in matters of Church policy"189that is objectionable for several reasons.

First, Yuri's marriage to Byzantine Princess is a very dubious legend190but even if it is true, that about any "philhellenism" does not show. It is known that Dolgoruky in 1110 year he married the daughter of the Polovtsian Khan191 and even led to Izyaslav Polovtsian102but no one believes that George was "the love of Polotsk".

Secondly, N.N. Voronin's words about "friendship and Concord" Dolgoruky and Nifont not sufficiently substantiated.

Niphon was Bishop in Novgorod 1130 and, probably, the Greek193so his "philhellenism" quite likely. But whether he was a friend and soul mate Yuri?

The Bishop of Novgorod was actually a professional diplomat and periodically settled princely strife (for example, in 1135194 and 1141194 years). In 1148 Nifont came to Yuri - with a mission to make peace with Izyaslav, but achieved nothing. "Come Niphon the Suzdal dividing the world to Gurgevo, and made with love Gurgi, and the Church St. St. Virgin velikim sacred, and Newthrea all wyprawy, and guest everyone a whole, and the Ambassador with the Cestius Novogorod, N. world not give"196.

Mentioned in this chronicle fragment sanctification Nifont of the Suzdal Nativity of the virgin not indicate any special relationship between the Bishop and the Prince (by the way, and not about any new buildings or capital repair of" Monomakh's Cathedral). Churches were blessed (or rather, to pereosviashchena, although the Church, this does not accept the term) as often and for many reasons. 197.

In 1149 Kyiv Metropolitan Clement (Klim Smolyatich), a protege of Izyaslav mstislavovitch198, locked Nifont at the Kievo-Pechersk monastery of the sharp remarks in his address. Dolgoruky, capturing the end of the same year, Kiev, Nifont of the "caves" was released, and the Bishop went back to Novgorod, where he died in 1156199. The release Nifont absolutely naturally follows from the political situation and the "friendship and oneness of mind" does not show.

From all has been said about Nifont we can make a conclusion: of course, and Niphon, and Yuri were enemies of Izyaslav and Clement. But it is hardly possible to speak even about allied relations, and especially about "friendship and Concord" the Bishop of Novgorod and Suzdal Prince. Mutual respect, as I thought Karamzin200, - maybe, but nothing more.

As regards initiatives invitations to Kiev Greek Metropolitan Constantine in 1156201 then effort Dolgoruky offset Metropolitan Kliment could lead to success only in case of arrival of the "indigenous" Byzantine, blessed by the Patriarch, and about any "philhellenism" here it is impossible to speak - this was a purely political move.

The same political move was the formal (note - only formal, no troops Dolgoruky on the use of Byzantium were sent) adoption of the jury side of Byzantium in the latest conflict with the Hungarian king Gesai II202. On the side of the Byzantine Empire was the Holy Roman Empire, Geza was the son-in-law and ally Izyaslav Mstislavich, so this is the position Yuri quite logical and also no evidence about any "philhellenism".

We see that our facts are not enough to take George "grekofilom". And the fact that Dolgoruky began to build in Suzdal white stone temples in European technology, regardless of the cost, ten times higher compared with the technique of Byzantium, proves the opposite.

It is hardly necessary to "hang tags", but it turns out that Yuri Dolgoruky was not "grekofilom"but rather "oksidentalistom.

 

III

 

The question associated with the topic that was discussed in the previous Chapter: maybe some kind of "architectural influence" on the part of the Galician land still took place? Suppose, as we have shown in paragraph 6 of the main 2, it was not directly Galitsky, but maybe through Galich came to us romanik?

V.N. Lazarev wrote: "Contacts with the West, not East-defined style of Vladimir-Suzdal plastics. And here mediating role, certainly played, as already noted, Galich Duchy... that area of Galich Duchy served as the main channel for the penetration of the Latin forms of Rus"203.

Remember the version M. ioannisyan the arrival of Galich in the farm of Malopolska, reasonable resemblance Galician churches with Malopolska204. In paragraph 4 the main 2 we saw that the arrival of the farm could not be, but some architectural Polish influence Galich could take place. While Poland was a country with a very European culture and its forms of Romanesque architecture.

We have no reason to doubt the similarity of Suzdal, Galician and lesser temples - M. ioannisyanom this question detail205.

Doubt is too long "chain of intermediaries: the Vladimir Galitsky was an ally Dolgoruky, built in Galich as built in lesser Poland - the South-Eastern outskirts of the Polish Kingdom... it Turns out that the authority of the distant Malopolska (even indirectly - through Galich) so affected by George, that he refused an economical and technologically brick building.

This is very unlikely. As we showed in paragraph 8 of the main 2, the experience of Poland or any other "border" of the state was unlikely to outweigh the enormous complexities associated with white stone building in Suzdal.

Therefore, we must recognize the impact of the "Holy Roman Empire", more precisely, its center - southern Germany and Northern Italy.

Again try to take "the Galician version", but in a slightly different form: Poland was a vassal of the "Holy Roman Empire"206, that is, theoretically, in Galich could affect the credibility not Poland, and the Empire.

But then the "chain of intermediaries" even more prolonged. From Suzdal to Galich very far, and the way led through several principalities, Union Izyaslav. And Germany - the center of the Empire, respectively, were even further: from the West Galich bordered only Hungary, Bohemia and Poland.

But Suzdal land had common borders Novgorod the Great, which after the last military confrontation in 1148207 peace was established208and in 1155 Dolgoruky's son Mstislav became Novgorod's209. And in any case, the specifics Novgorod was that trade was a top priority and the war that led Novgorod, practically did not interfere. Therefore, never stopped and "cultural exchange".

And Novgorod through their North German trading partners was with the "Holy Roman Empire" is connected directly. So Dolgoruky could communicate with all of Europe, bypassing and Hungary, and Poland, and Galicia, and many a hostile Principality.

So to say that the authority of the Empire, influenced mainly by the lesser Poland and Galich, hardly justified. For penetration in Suzdal land Romanesque architecture were other, much shorter path.

 

IV

 

The influence of Romanesque architecture in Suzdal could occur in different ways. Here are the options:

- the arrival of the Empire whole building cooperative;

- the arrival of the Empire and the architect of several highly skilled masters-builders;

- sharing with the Empire of information and experiences, training craftsmen.

We consider the first two options together - because, by and large, for us, unprincipled, came one architect, with a group of master masons, or with a team of construction. Only the architect has the right to determine how the type and style of construction in accordance with the requirements of the customer - Prince or Bishop.

The initiative to invite the architect could come from Yuri Dolgoruky, who wanted to build a "as in the best houses of Europe", as could be, and Vice versa - the architect was able to come on their own initiative and convince the jury of the necessity for European construction equipment, despite the enormous cost.

In any case, the question is: could Dolgorukogo in the early fifties to be the architect of a Central region of the "Holy Roman Empire"?

Theoretically, of course, I could. But as soon as we begin to consider the practical aspects of the issue, it turns out that there.

We have already noted in paragraph 4 of the main 2 that the invitation to the architect (as the farm) was an extraordinary event and was to serve the ideological goals of princely power. What could serve these objectives Dolgoruky at the invitation of the European architect?

First, the "big name" of the architect. But such names in the middle of the XII century, we in Europe know very little, besides the fact of invitation of any architect of world renown hardly escape the attention of the chroniclers.

Secondly, the principal novelty of architectural forms. But we Yuri see210.

Third, the ability to build a white stone. But in paragraph 9 of this Chapter, we will show that it could and local masters.

Fourth, the spaciousness and height of churches (at least the ability to build churches more than in Kyiv, and more than in Suzdal in Monomakh). But in Petrograd 9 main 1, we have seen significant positive regression white stone churches with respect to Kiev and Suzdal Monomach times.

A striking example is the invitation in 1475 the renowned engineer-architect211 Aristotle Fioravanti, before whom Ivan III has set the task that failed to meet Russian masters: to increase several times the inner space of the Moscow Uspenie Cathedral. Such motivation invitation of the Italian architect is absolutely justified. Yuri nothing like we do not observed.

The same positive regression temples Dolgoruky compared to monomahom exclude "unauthorized" coming to Yuri European cooperative (or architect): they would have to first prove their worth in comparison with the local masters and surpass them, as a minimum, the ability to build a more spacious and high temples.

Moreover, the credibility of such a "wandering" the architect had to be high enough to persuade the Prince to build a completely new and very expensive building machines. It is quite unlikely.

 

V

 

To make sure that George was not European architects and craftsmen, will illustrate our arguments example of how European architects and craftsmen (and probably not the best times left their homes and went to crusade) built in no less difficult than the Suzdal, and far more restless and unsettled Palestine.

All the churches in the Holy Land were built from local limestone, Sandstone and basalt. Dpring wrote that the quarry was located near the site of the construction, but the best view of the Sandstone any processing in all directions, sometimes transported over several kilometers, and in Belvoire in Galilee white limestone high quality for the chapel (1168-1187 years) lucky "even" 15 km212.

"We", as we remember, was carried for 500 km.

This is the issue of "Western" construction organization in the "East". And the issue of "Western" sizes even minor Palestinian cathedrals (not to mention the colossal Temple of the Holy sepulchre): Cathedral in Nazareth - 68 x 30 min Dash is about the same, at Caesarea - "only" 55 x 22 m213. This is more or less comparable with Vsevolod's assumption Cathedral in Vladimir (38 x 31 m), but not with the churches of Yuri Dolgoruky (average 20 x 15 m).

It was built in a poor and unsettled Palestine, in conditions of constant war with the Muslims. And in the Empire Romanesque churches were, of course, much more. Cathedral in Pavia (Northern Italy), for example, has a size of 60 x 42 m and the span of the arches of the Central nave about 10 m214. And in Germany, Worms Cathedral middle of the XII century - about 105 x 36 m, and also with the ten spans codes215.

It is futile "blame" for poor soil Suzdal land. Throughout Central Russia are sod-podzol, as in Germany. In France and in Constantinople soils brown216 that the builders of nearly the same. The difference between these soils only in the fertile layer, and the foundations necessarily brought to the mainland soil217.

Availability in soils granitoid intrusions, i.e. gravel (for example, in Bavaria, Austria and the Czech Republic - see map in Fig. 13) for builders also changes little: his influence on durability of the building is not comparable with the influence of rubble that lay in the Foundation of that in Suzdal and done218.

And a white stone, no worse and often better than that of limestone (and Sandstone), which built huge European Romanesque and Gothic cathedrals. In Fig. 11 and 12, you can compare the quality and safety of the stone, which make up the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl and the Gothic Church in Regensburg.

 

 

Laying the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl.

 

Fig. 11. Laying the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl.

 

 

The laying of the Cathedral in Regensburg.

 

Fig. 12. The laying of the Cathedral in Regensburg.

 

 

Geological map of Western Europe.

Letters on the map:
Cenozoic group: Q - Quaternary system; N - Neogene; Pg - Paleogene; Tr - non tertiary system.
Mesozoic group: Cr - Cretaceous system; (J - Jurassic system; T - Triassic system.
Paleozoic group: P - Permian; C - Cambrian system; Pz - upper Paleozoic system; (D - Devonian system; S - Silurian system; O - Ordovician system; Cm - Cambrian system.
Pt - Proterozoic.
Ar - archaea.
G - granitoid intrusions.

 

Fig. 13. Geological map of Western Europe.

 

Letters on the map:

Cenozoic group: Q - Quaternary system; N - Neogene; Pg - Paleogene; Tr - non tertiary system.

Mesozoic group: Cr - Cretaceous system; (J - Jurassic system; T - Triassic system.

Paleozoic group: P - Permian; C - Cambrian system; Pz - upper Paleozoic system; (D - Devonian system; S - Silurian system; O - Ordovician system; Cm - Cambrian system.

Pt - Proterozoic.

Ar - archaea.

G - granitoid intrusions.

 

 

Strong exposure to erosion of the limestone blocks that built the German Church, well seen on the background of late turnings. Let us note that the shift had their greater part of the external cladding.

The strongest argument in favor of white stone - the fact that after the fall of the (at least partial) of St. George's Cathedral in Yuryev-Polish VD Yermolin collected it again from the same material. This hardness in combination with elasticity hardly achievable for most European varieties of stone. And, for example, construction of the Church of the Nativity in Bogolyubovo was so strong, that was kept as a monolith, even landslides, soil underneath219.

Thus, the Russian soil and construction materials were not very different from the European one, and we may conclude: the leading Western masters, if they worked in Suzdal, views of professional ethics would not be allowed to build in their invited Prince temples, comparable in size with the churches in the small Bavarian villages.

 

VI

 

But, maybe, Yuri and does not need the temples of their increased size?

N.N. Voronin wrote about the city-fortress Dolgoruky: "it does not require extensive and magnificent temples, calculated on the Christianization of the problem and a powerful ideological influence on the consciousness of "ignorance". And it is clear that here was created the temples of different type... satisfy simultaneously the tasks of the Church court of the Prince of the Governor or Governor - yard, with which the Church was tied in a single complex and parish Church of the city"220.

MA Il'in, speaking about the primacy of foreign material-plastic forms of Vladimir-Suzdal churches over the inner, relatively weak developing space of the building221 indirectly claimed about the same thing.

But against this position, there are several arguments.

First, Dolgoruky fought for Kiev table, and his Grand ambitions could not find expression in architecture - the mirror of the epoch". And state power in the middle ages was expressed first of all sizes of palaces and temples.

Secondly, it is difficult to agree with the opinion Voronin that in cities Dolgoruky not require extensive and magnificent temples, calculated on the Christianization of the problem and ideological influence on the consciousness of the unbaptized. At the end of the XI century on the areas of Rostov were the idols, and in 1071, the Gentiles was killed Rostov Bishop Leonty, in a small settlement type Kleschina (next to which was founded Pereslavl) mass Christianization to Dolgoruky certainly was not.

Thirdly, besides the size of the temples of the state power were far more mundane considerations arising from the practice of the parish: the churches should have placed the maximum number of believers.

That all churches George were "household", we cannot allow: problems of missionary work in developing the region, which we just mentioned, would not allow the Prince to build a "house" stone churches and not a single city. And here we can all agree with the position Voronin: the churches were required at the same time "to meet the challenges" and the Church yard Prince, the Prince Regent, or Governor, and the parish Church of the city.

In this connection, let's look at the internal dimensions of temples Yuri (approximate, without pillars, apses and distortion of forms):

- Kideksha, the Church of Boris and Gleb: 13 x 12 = 156 sq.m;

- Pereslavl, Spaso-Preobrazhensky Cathedral: 13 x 13 = 169 sq.m;

- Vladimir, the Church of St. George: 12 x 11 = 132 sq.m;

- Polsky, St. George's Cathedral: 11 x 11 = 121 sq.m

We see that the churches Dolgoruky very close to the inner volume. The average size of the interior of the temples:

(156 + 169 + 132 + 121) : 4 = 143,5 sq.m;

The average spread of values:

(169 - 143,5) : 169 x 100 = 15 %.

Tasks princely governors, governors, volunteers and parishioners in different cities could not be so monotonous.

For example, Pereslavl the area more of Yuriev-Polsky in 4 times to the same number were some remnants Kleschina. It is important to note the value of Pereslavl: this is not a fortress, a large city, much more of the Moscow Kremlin times and Dmitry Donskoy, Ivan III. The length of the walls of Pereslavl - about 2.5 km, and the Kremlin - about 2.2 km.

N.N. Voronin spoke about the "courage" of the location of the largest fortresses Dolgoruky not on the hills and in the plains222. Perhaps the word "courage" is not quite applicable - Yuri was forced to build on the plains, as in the surrounding hills there was no room for such large cities. Where Dolgoruky had the opportunity (allow those tasks), he built a fortress on the hills (Moscow, Zvenigorod).

A "task" Pereslavl were embedding Kleschina population and further growth, and Transfiguration Cathedral was designed to meet precisely such "problems". Naturally, Dolgoruky could not foresee that after 1155 - his departure to Kiev - the growth of Pereslavl cease (for termination of growth indicates a thin layer of culture223).

Therefore, the only building opportunities Dolgoruky hard coded upper limit of the amount corresponding to the temples in Pereslavl and Kideksha.

And if the jury came to highly qualified European masters, then this limit, of course, would have been much greater. In Europe, a city like Pereslavl, fully consistent with, for example, German or Gernrode Hildesheim huge cathedrals of XI-XII centuries224.

So, the masters of the Empire, worthy of the princely level, Dolgoruky was not.

But, as we saw in paragraph 1 of this Chapter, in the temples of Yuri present a number of features of Romanesque architecture. If the "European" is not built leading European masters, then who?

Remains the only option that caring Prince of reflection in Suzdal architecture of state power and ideology: the temples erected Dolgorukogo best local craftsmen, based on European experience.

 

VII

 

But did George have their masters?

Remember that many researchers225 denied such possibility and believed that the master of Monomakh for thirty or forty years retrained, old or died, and since in the late forties-early fifties XII century Yuri fought with most Russian principalities and vassals of the Empire, Bohemia and Poland), the masters of him to take was nowhere and he was forced to ask for a construction team of the vladimirka Galician.

In paragraph 3 main 2 we showed that such a course of events is very unlikely, but now we come to the same question: but could it be possible that the jury's still not had their masters and he, having no alternatives, "went on about" some visitor minor European architect, who is able to build only the village Church?

No, and again no. Masters in Suzdal was - and architects and skilled builders, and the more "ordinary" masons and carpenters.

Will try to justify this position.

The long domination of the Galician version of "led to the stereotype that Yuri built almost from scratch. In fact, the place was not empty.

In the Nikon chronicle under years of the reign of Monomakh was said that the Vladimir - "kamenosechtsy and on"226. In'll, of course, the stone building was not, but in Vladimir and Suzdal (perhaps in Rostov) were Monomach temples.

N.N. Voronin believed that in parallel with the first white-stone buildings Dolgorukiy was conducted civil brick construction227. Consequently, we may make a conclusion about the continuity of such construction since Monomakh.

We can assume that the assumption Voronin wrong and no civil brick building with Yuri was not conducted. We can assume that none of Monomach builders have not lived another thirty years, and could not manage the construction of Dolgoruky in the early fifties. But to allow both at the same time - it is difficult.

So most likely that George were specialists Monomach times, have retained skills, building and civic buildings. In turn, if the brick is built, the experts could share their experience with young generation, fostering new architects and skilled craftsmen.

It is anticipated objection: in any case they were not experts on the white stone and brick.

Yes, but here we come to another important issue - the preparation of the white-stone building.

 

VIII

 

You can invite any, the most skilled and known masters, but they need to provide building materials. In the case of brick everything is quite simple - clay in Central Russia lacks, but the deposits of white stone was necessary to explore.

And until the early fifties of the XII century white stone building was not conducted not only in Suzdal, but anywhere else in Russia, except the distant Galich. The Foundation stone was laid everywhere from the time of the tithe Church in Kyiv228but for the type of Foundation stone unprincipled.

In Chernigov, perhaps, churches were decorated with white stone and earlier fifties229. But for decorations could come by chance met layer of white stone - southern edge of the "myachkovsky horizon" comes close to Chernigov, there is even more ancient deposits - Devonian period (see Fig. 4).

For masonry walls requires a large quarry allows extracting high-quality homogeneous rock.

Of course, in the first half of the XII century Suzdal not know where the end of the strata of the Jurassic period and starts "myachkovsky horizon" coal deposits. They could be fragmentary information about the presence of white stone in those or other areas "myachkovsky horizon", but it was very far from the Vladimir and Suzdal.

Naturally, the Prince was not interested in transporting construction material to several hundred kilometers, so "geologists could not get a job to find a white stone as close as possible to the places of future construction. You can imagine how many unsuccessful exploratory excavations were done until Suzdal not convinced that high-quality stone you cannot get closer than 500 km.

And not for nothing that all the old quarry - and Podolsk, and Staritsa - are at the edges "myachkovsky horizon" on the part of Vladimir, moved geologists (see map in Fig. 4).

Galich, this problem was - deposits of stone in the Dniester valley were close. But the exploration of white stone in Suzdal could take many years. And it is not surprising that in the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl quality blocks higher than in the temples of Yuri - the search for new layers and new quarries certainly continued, and when Andrey Bogolyubsky.

And for purposeful exploration quarries required organization and financing of geological prospecting parties." Therefore, such an Agency could be started only after the adoption of strategic decisions about the beginning of white stone building.

Thus, the decision to build a white stone was taken long before the beginning of construction.

IX

 

Yuri Dolgoruky reigned in Suzdal from the end of the XI-the beginning of XII century. In 1116 he had the rank of independent magistrates led the campaign for the Volga Bulgars230. We can include the date of his birth at the beginning 1090 x, i.e. in the early fifties of the XII century Dolgoruky was about sixty years old. Possibly beyond sixty.

Yuri was the sixth son of Monomakh, i.e. initially had little chance Kyiv table. Even after the victory over Iziaslav I of Kiev in 1149, he was forced to give in Kiev his eldest brother Vyacheslav.

It follows that no objective reasons that caused special urgency white-stone building in Suzdal, we do not see the Prince was at a very advanced age, whose impulsive decisions, and it is the fate of any "sharp turns" was not forthcoming. Struggle for Kiev table began in 1146 and proceeded with variable success.

But even if we assume that Dolgoruky in the early fifties were any subjective reasons promptly white-stone building, no "urgency" at all desire would not work - quarries it was impossible to explore within one construction season.

In paragraph 6 of the main 2, we said that in the case of special urgency" Yuri could take Chernigov construction equipment - this would be a cheap and fast, and quite prestigious. And now we see that the "special urgency" he would simply have nowhere to take the white stone, and he still would have had to build a brick.

So, we can finally say that the following two options are equally acceptable:

the first option - "Galician". If we adopted the Galician version", we would have to talk like this: Dolgoruky, being in a very respectable age, suddenly decided to build something, for lack of their masters began to feverishly look for them somewhere on the side, and because at that time there was a war, found them only in Galicia; Galician masters were able to build only in white-engineering, the Prince was forced to accept them, as he had no alternatives;

- the second option - the arrival of the masters of the Empire. In this case, the last "logical link" would look like this: jury found some minor European masters and was forced to accept them, as he had no alternatives.

And finally, these options are unacceptable because in both cases the master simply would not have a building material. In the case of special urgency" Prince could only lead brick building.

And since Dolgoruky built not of brick and white stone, the situation as it is unequivocal: there is no "special urgency" was not, and the decision on the beginning of the white-stone building was made long before the beginning of the fifties.

Thus, Yuri prepared for white-stone building long and seriously, in the long-term and targeted policy elevation "of its" Suzdal land.

 

X

 

And how long and how seriously will help us to understand the version that the campaign of Vladimir Monomakh on the Polovtsy in 1111 year was a form of participation of Russia in the Crusades231.

Hardly, of course, this trip had the official status of the cross, to the same "preemptive strike" Monomakh and has a much more pragmatic explanation: the Polovtsy always went to Russia in the autumn, during the summer adormim horses, and the Prince struck in the early spring, when the Polovtsy't expect him, and their horses during the winter weakened232.

But the relationship of Russia with Crusader movement (the first crusade, as you know, took place in the years 1096-1099 on the initiative of Byzantium) is very likely. For example, Karamzin believed that "Alexius Comnenus no doubt invited Russians to act against the common enemies of Christianity; our country had its own; but it is likely that this circumstance did not prevent some Russian Vityazi to look for hazards and glory under the banner of the Cross of the host of"233. It is also characteristic of the visit of Russian Abbot Daniel to Jerusalem Baldwin234.

This relationship was one of the most important component for us the process of integrating Russia into the European community". Another sign of this process are numerous dynastic marriages with the European Royal houses and Vsevolod Yaroslavich235and when Vladimir Monomakh236.

What took shape this process in the Yuri Dolgorukiy and his descendants, we are yet to speak, and only put forward its vision and strategic decisions about the beginning of the white-stone building: it could be taken up to 1125 - even in Monomakh.

It is absolutely necessary that this decision has been recorded elsewhere. It could not be expressed either explicitly or as a certain imperative. This could be, for example, indirect result of one of the "assemblies" Russian princes, or just for the atmosphere of the Grand court.

We cannot say that Monomakh was "autocrat of all Russia", but his authority was high enough to ensure that all Principality, in varying degrees, embraced the possibility of building a "European".

This was manifested in the original interpretation of cross-system in the Polotsk Principality237, and in the construction of temples, under the overall influence of the Romanesque and Gothic (Smolensk238, Kiev239, Novgorod240, Pskov241), and application in the framework of the traditional brick technology of white-stone details (Chernigov242, Ryazan243), and multi-colored decoration of the facades (Volyn244). And the two principalities, where was intensive development of new lands and problems reflection in the architecture of state power and ideology were on the first place - Galicia (in Monomakh still called Przemysl) and Suzdal - began construction in completely white-engineering.

But whenever we made a strategic decision to build in Russia "European" - under Vladimir Monomakh, Mstislav the Great, or the Yuri Dolgoruky, - we may say the most important fact: acting in accordance with this decision, Dolgoruky began exploration quarries in Suzdal.

And as such inspection is likely to take many years, Yuri had enough time to send their architects and masters ' training (internship) in the Empire.

A.I. Komech about this position, noted that about these actions of the Russian princes pre-Mongolian time we know nothing245. This is the case, but the silence of the annalistic sources regarding the shipment of architects and artists to study and internship has sufficient reasons.

In paragraph 4 the main 2 we showed that the princes used primarily local talent. Therefore, training of architects and craftsmen in another city, Principality, or country should be quite common - one of the main forms of "exchange of experience".

And since this phenomenon was common then and chroniclers, most likely, did not consider such facts are noteworthy. Besides, it was not about "celebrity Inns, and "her". As is well known, "a prophet is not without honor except in his own country and in his own house" (Matt. 13:57).

However, although three centuries, but the mention of this kind of training or internship met in the Chronicles in connection with the masters from Pskov, which was invited to identify the causes of the fall of the assumption Cathedral in 1474: "Pont same Bo and minute from the German came, navicli customs to cause kaminoseki tricks"246.

Hence, it is possible with enough confidence to make a conclusion that in case of similarity of building technologies in different cities, the principalities and the States we "default" bound to apply the principles of tracking collectives, and "exchange of experience" (first of all by giving architects and skilled craftsmen for training and internship). This applies to Kiev and Chernigov, Smolensk, and Suzdal.

Naturally, the transition artisanal versions are acceptable in the cases specifically mentioned in the chronicle sources and (or) resulting from the analysis of the economic-political situation in the principalities.

For example, the "younger" princes - Volodar Rostislavich or his son, Vladimir, is not associated "princely" ideology, it could go the way of "least resistance": how and believes M. ioannisyan, to invite in Galich artel from neighbouring Poland and, having explored the quarries, to start building of white stone, much earlier Yuri247.

However, slightly more probable that option: the architects and masters Dolgoruky were trained in the West earlier than in Suzdal were explored the quarries, and are "free time" was built in Galicia (at least, Church of the Savior). For vladimirka it was very humbling to receive artists from the "older" Prince, but also worked in the European white-engineering.

And the similarity of construction equipment and decoration of Suzdal and Galician churches with Malopolska248 due to the fact that the architects Yury while on probation in the Empire and having an opportunity of choice for Suzdal a number of alternative techniques white-stone building in different regions of Europe, stopped at the Malopolska technique is relatively simple, "unsophisticated", but relevant capabilities Suzdal construction personnel.

Moreover, as we will show in the main 5, in Suzdal at this time for ideological reasons it was impossible to decorate temples sculptures zooantropomorfnogo type. And ornamental decoration in Europe at that time prevailed only in the suburbs - in particular, in lesser Poland. Perhaps there Suzdal master it and saw and learned to play - it was not difficult because of the severity and monotony of the decor.

However, there is a considerable probability that researchers will ever manage to find a common source of Suzdal, Galicia and lesser Poland architecture is a city in Germany, in Italy, or even in France, where there was a formal or informal "architectural University, where craftsmen from various Slavic principalities in different time studied or interned.

 

XI

 

Kavelmaher believes that the "sign" of churches in Russia have always built or foreign masters, or Russian, trained abroad249. With this statement we quite agree, albeit with the proviso that the times of Dolgoruky applies only to the second part - training or training craftsmen in any area of the Empire.

We see that the Suzdal managed during training to learn European skills of working with stone, but to build temples European scale, they still could not - this required the highest building culture, brought up many generations.

Besides, let us not forget that the master Dolgoruky were originally bred not European, and in the Monomach building tradition, and not in vain N.N. Voronin called the temple Yuri "simplistic" and "condensed edition" six pillars of Monomachus temple250.

Suzdal masters were bound and "Orthodox" cross system. But they had the experience it cross-building, that they facilitated the task of transition from brick with white stone.

And in the end of princes specification" - the construction in the European half-rubble technology with a minimum of neat solution and masonry - Suzdal wizard has completed, through their contribution to the architectural expression of state power and the ideology of the Suzdal province.

And they built a qualitatively and reliably, strengthening the foundations251 and on the basis of their abilities erection of walls, arches and drums in white-engineering - albeit at the expense of size. The relatively low durability of many temples, as we will see in the main 4, occurred not by the fault of the builders.

As for the size, it is unlikely that in the XII century someone, but experts thought that the buildings were less Dolgorukogo Kiev and Chernigov. Visually Suzdal churches even seem to be higher due to the "towering" appearance.

 

XII

 

So, the question, why in Suzdal began to build stone, we said it was caused by the desire Dolgoruky to see the temples, erected by "European". But there can not be another question: why in Europe were made of stone?

Of course, the last question is not included in the subject of our study. But we can make some observations.

First, it polubutovaya technique was used in Ancient Rome, only instead of limestone buildings often were faced with marble (as well as in the Romanesque-Gothic Italy252).

Secondly, in the pre-medieval Europe were mainly of brick or technology "opus mixtum, and during Romanesque almost everywhere began to build stone.

Third, where in the Roman age were built of brick, often imitated the shape of the stone with the help of a laying of different shapes and sizes. This architectural technique was especially common in late Romanesque and early Gothic Northern and Eastern Germany253.

Fourth, in the heyday of Gothic, when France commonly built of stone, the only large brick Church was built in 1282-1380 years in Albi - region, devastated "Albigensian wars.

Fifthly, the marginal position of regions Romanesque brick building relative to the center of the Empire (Swabia, Bavaria and Lombardy) and no less rich in France said first of all not about the lack of stone, and save money. After all, brick construction was considerably cheaper stone regardless of the remoteness of the quarries (see paras. 6-7 chief 1).

Sixth, brick churches were built in villages and "ordinary" civil buildings in cities.

Seventh, in the XV century in Europe builders have moved on brick254 - at this time, capital construction has a mass character, and the economic situation is very influenced ruinous hundred years ' war.

This set of facts (albeit superficial) suggests that in the Romanesque and Gothic Europe, the construction of stone symbolized state power and Imperial ideology.

This is confirmed by the desire of the Vladimir-Suzdal, and then the Moscow princes to build a "European" whatever it was, despite a huge investment. That symbolized the Imperial ideology in Europe, was to symbolize the same thing in Vladimir and Moscow.

And why in medieval Europe it was a stone building in line with the Imperial ideology - the subject of a separate research, much larger than the present. Perhaps it was in the tradition of Ancient Rome, perhaps in a set of factors.

But in any case, the construction of stone costs Europe is much cheaper than Suzdal. There is nowhere had to carry construction materials several hundred kilometers: on the map (Fig. 13) shows enormous geological diversity of the Western part of the continent.

 

XIII

 

Our study would be incomplete if we did not touch the question of the masters employed by the descendants of George. And if chronicle directly indicate that Vsevolod the Big Nest "who is not looking masters from the Germans, but used the wizards from the clergy of the Holy virgin and of his"255, Andrei Bogolyubsky all significantly more difficult.

A well-known stereotype associated with coming to Andrew "masters of all lands", refers only to the decoration of the assumption Cathedral 1158-1160: "That summer was given the established Church Holy mother of God in Volodimira noble and Bogolubsky Prince Andrew, and decorate W marvellous manifold icons, and dragon stone be-Wisla and Church vessels and the top of her poslati by the faith of him, and on its efforts to sweatey mother of God, given to him by the God of all lands, all the masters and decorate W pace of INAH tserkvei"256.

But there is no doubt that the expression in the architecture of state power and ideology took Andrew no less, if not more, than his father. Proof of this are many:

- huge excess height (14 m) opening the Golden gate in Vladimir. For the purposes of fortification even had to hold over the gate wooden gallery257that significantly reduces the reliability of strengthening. Note that some part of the buildings immediately after the building collapsed258;

- increased compared with temples Dolgoruky size of the assumption Cathedral in Vladimir and the same name of the Cathedral in Rostov;

- construction of "from scratch" Church of the Intercession on the Nerl, who played the role of Grand design bifurcation major waterways Klyazma and the Nerl. This role is confirmed by the impossibility of finding water meadows any Posad or monastery, and use for the construction of the Church of the selected white stone, and the laying of the unique foundations, and the device "Grand" open galleries (Fig. 14);

- the Palace and the strengthening of Bogolyubovo, not built from wood and white stone;

- the appearance of the Church of Andrew zooantropomorfnogo sculptural decoration.

 

 

The Church of the Intercession on the Nerl. Reconstruction Bagnava.

 

Fig. 14. The Church of the Intercession on the Nerl. Reconstruction Bagnava.

 

 

All of the above makes a very plausible messages Tatischev: "on making Bo him (Andrew) Dadi him God masters for the construction thereof, of the smart lands"; "stavshemu in Vladimir structure, and above the gate of the city, it is seen that the Architect was sufficient... the Masters were sent from the Emperor Frederick the First, with which Andrew was in friendship as below will be"259.

But what were the masters? Was it only the "architect" with a few assistants, or had a parish of the whole building cooperative? For example, the farm of Lombardy, as suggested by M. ioannisyan260, referring to the sculptural decoration of churches in Modena and Pavia, similar to the arcade?

First of all, from the text, vntatischev, that master of Frederick Barbarossa built, at least, Vladimir assumption Cathedral and the Golden gate. And this is logical, as we see on these sites attempt to build a much larger scale compared with the temples of jury:

- dome side of the square in the assumption Cathedral - 6,4 mspan of the Golden gate - 6 m (and in the Holy Transfiguration Cathedral of Pereslavl - 5,1 m);

- the height of the arches of the assumption Cathedral 18 m, the arch of the Golden gate (where the top was built not drum and heavy multi-tier structure with the Church of deposition of the robe) - 14 m (and in Pereslavl - 12 m).

But it's still not comparable to what we see in Northern Italy. We have already given the size of the Cathedral of Pavia (60 x 42 mspan arches of the Central nave about 10 m)261. Slightly smaller and the Cathedral in Modena (54 x 21 mspan arches 7.5 m, the height of the Central nave 25 m)262. Besides these cathedrals totally different architectural forms263 (Fig. 15) and, as rightly noted by A.I. Komech264much more "refined" technique of decoration.

 

 

The facade of the Romanesque Cathedral in Modena.

 

Fig. 15. The facade of the Romanesque Cathedral in Modena.

 

 

According to AI Komech, more similar are the patterns of buildings Bogolyubsky and cathedrals Germany265. But the size of the German churches even more than the Lombard, and this excludes the work in Bogolyubsky Imperial building the farm - we talked about this in paras. 5-6 main 3 in connection with the construction Dolgoruky.

From this we can conclude the following: to Andrew came from Barbarossa master of sculptural decoration and perhaps the architect. But if the arrival of the latter took place, before it was delivered fairly narrow objectives:

- development of iconography of the decoration and management by the craftsmen;

- increasing the size and quality of buildings.

The first task of the architect, of course, fulfilled. On the buildings we see Andrew sculptures quite the European level.

But did the architect to perform the second task?

During its execution, he was forced to start from the capacity of the local construction personnel, as evidenced by signs of princely masters, identical to the stones of the Golden gate and the Bogolyubov266. And the capabilities of local masters hardly increased significantly since the days of Yuri Dolgoruky, so in the end, the architect Barbarossa failed to achieve any radically new design, nor significantly their increased size, high reliability of Vladimir assumption Cathedral. Soon we will see that in 1185 the Cathedral had to build up high galleries, performing the function of buttresses.

About the catastrophe of the Golden gate, immediately following the completion of construction, we have already mentioned.

Perhaps the architect of operation Barbarossa erected and other buildings Andrew, but they can not be called achievements of construction engineering. Rostov Cathedral (dome side of the square - 6.7 m) stood short - 42 years. As for the churches on the Nerl and in Bogolyubovo was built less "boldly" from an engineering point of view, than churches George: in Bogolyubovo dome side of the square is about 4.2 mand on Nerli 3.2 m.

Careful selection for the Church of the Intercession of white stone, a unique Foundation and the device open gallery is hardly a "style" of the architect, otherwise we would have seen something similar in his other buildings. Much more likely that a "front" Church of the Intercession on the Nerl river was built in accordance with a special order of the Prince, that is, the authorship of its unique image belongs personally Bogolyubsky. Technically, the same building was completely available and architects of the time of Yuri Dolgoruky.

In General, we have to state: if V.N.Tatischev rights and Frederick Barbarossa to Andrei was sent to the architect, the latter carried out their tasks only in the decoration of churches. Therefore, the evidence Tatischev not prevent us to make a statement about the decisive role of local construction personnel not only Dolgoruky, but when Bogolyubsky.

And not in vain Vsevolod the Big Nest "not looking for artists from the German" and built temples, comparable in size to the temples Dolgoruky, increasing the inner space through the extension of the covered galleries.

 

 

XIV

 

The question as to build up their churches, galleries porch Yuri Dolgoruky and Andrei Bogolyubsky, remains unresolved to this day. No trace of these galleries are still not found. Consequently, there are two possibilities: either they were not, or were wooden. Kavelmaher, referring to the presence of outflow taking place at the level choirs around the perimeter of the walls of the temples in Pereslavl and Kideksha, spoke out in favor of the second variant - the wooden porch, which could build on this tide267.

In principle, such a low tide, we can explain much simpler reason: Yuri builders, not having a smooth transition from the thicker parts of the walls to more subtle, dilute the ledge of the wall. Hence, it is unlikely that reflux was made specifically for the gallery. But Kavelmaher absolutely right that rely on it to the gallery could.

But could the wooden porch of the gallery to be modern churches?

Most likely, Yuri, and Andrew, overloading the fledgling economy Vladimir-Suzdal land enormous material costs of the white-stone building, could not resist any violation of the architectural integrity of their buildings, which was to Express the state power and ideology. Therefore, if the construction of the wooden galleries (to expand and insulation of the temple) and had, it was not for the life of the churchwarden.

Vsevolod the Big Nest, with much more robust the Grand status, probably less need of reinforcement of its external effects, allowing himself and the building of cathedrals "unsightly" porch, and brick construction268.

No exception from the General "pragmatic" approach Vsevolod building high galleries assumption Cathedral of Andrei Bogolyubsky of Vladimir.

On the one hand, the enormous height galleries shows that this building did not pursue the purposes simple enlarge the inner space of the temple to accommodate a greater number of believers - this was quite such galleries as, for example, in the Cathedral of St. Demetrius. On the other hand, judging by the absence at the assumption Cathedral of Vsevolod "own" sculptural decoration (with the exception of a column-type belt)269, Grand Prince did not belong to the building of the Cathedral galleries how to self, and the more prestigious building.

N.N. Voronin believed that this building was forced due to the fact that in the fire of 1185 burned down the wooden ties270 and, therefore, the gallery had to play the role of buttresses.

A.I. Komech noted that there are no signs of an emergency condition of Bogolyubsky's Cathedral271 but, most likely, position Voronin and AI Komech are not mutually exclusive: burnout wooden ties could not lead to the immediate arrival of the Cathedral in the state of emergency. It is very likely that the master Vsevolod, understanding the impact on the strength of ties with such a large dome space, built the temple galleries, buttresses, without waiting for an accident. So, even if this measure was preventive, it is still enforced.

And "architectural pragmatism" Vsevolod in this case is reflected in the fact that he did not demolish the Cathedral Bogolyubsky and build in its place a new, but rather to expand and strengthen the old.

In the end, the external dimensions and reliability of the construction of the assumption Cathedral increased considerably. But the inner space, despite the erection of additional light drums and punching the walls of the arches, was dark, narrow and labyrinthine, contrary to the basic principles of the nascent Gothic.

In the Cathedral Vsevolod disappeared and towering "bringing churches George and Andrew with the architectural achievements of the early Gothic and Romanesque.

We are not entitled to apply to architecture as an art, the word "regression" - an architectural work may be a masterpiece regardless applied in its design solutions. And the assumption Cathedral 1185-1189 years eventually became a very impressive building, prevail over the city. But "mainstream" modern European architecture dictated the principles of domination of internal space, and in this respect vsevolodov Cathedral was defined as "a step backward in comparison not only with Andrew's Cathedral, but also with temples jury.

 

Chapter IV. The limit of reliability

 .

Sergey Zagraevsky

 

Introduction

Chapter I. White stone and brick

Chapter II. Galich, Caucasus and Volga Bulgaria

Chapter III. Suzdal masters and Romanesque

Chapter IV. The limit of reliability

Chapter V. Sculpture decoration

Conclusion

Applications, notes

 

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