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Sergey Zagraevsky

 

Jury Dolgoruky and ancient Russian white stone architecture

 

 

Published in Russian: .. . M.: -, 2001. ISBN 5-94025-014-9

 

Introduction

Chapter I. White stone and brick

Chapter II. Galich, Caucasus and Volga Bulgaria

Chapter III. Suzdal masters and Romanesque

Chapter IV. The limit of reliability

Chapter V. Sculpture decoration

Conclusion

Applications, notes

 

Applications, notes

 

Attention!

The following text was translated from Russian original by the computer program

and has not yet been edited.

So it can be used only for general introduction.

      RUSSIAN VERSION

 

 

Application

The comparative calculation of the conditional value

the building of white stone and brick

in units of labour input (man-days)

 

The calculation is carried out on the example of the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl using calculations Voronin for the construction of the specified Church481 and the white-stone Moscow Kremlin482.

To bring indicators of the construction of the Kremlin to the indicators of the Church of the intercession of the adjustment factors are introduced in the smaller volume of construction and their increased complexity of masonry walls and vaults of the temple compared to the walls and towers of the fortress.

1. Conditional costs of transporting the stone from Podolsk quarries to the construction site on the Nerl.

The volume of the stone required for the construction is 408 cubic meters, a weight of 1 cubic meter - 440 kg. Just need to transport 180000 kg stone.

Transportation could be carried out in summer boat and the winter - on carts.

1.1. For transportation in the summer:

1.1.1. The average speed of the boat is about 1.5 km/h (including fiber and areas upstream).

1.1.2. Movement: 10 hours a day.

1.1.3. On the road at one end goes:

500 km : 1.5 km/h : 10 days = 33 days.

1.1.4. The turnover of the boat (2 way) 66 days.

1.1.5. 4 persons can be carried on the same boat about to 1000 kg (if they will help in portage).

1.1.6. For transportation of stone it is necessary to make lodka-rider:

180000 kg : to 1000 kg = 180.

1.1.7. For transportation of stone, you need person-days:

180 lodka-rider x 66 days x 4 persons = 47520 people-DN.

1.1.8. On the trail have to constantly work to about 10 people.

1.1.9. The complexity of the passage portage:

10 people x 150 days = 1500 people-dniowa in section 1.1:

47520 + 1500 = 48020 people-DN.

1.2. For transportation in winter:

1.2.1. The average speed carts: about 3 km/h.

1.2.2. Movement: 10 hours a day, i.e. the supply passes 30 km in the day.

1.2.3. Turnover carts: 1000 km : 30 km/day = 33 days.

1.2.4. On a cart can be shipped around 450 kg.

1.2.5. Podvoda-goer for transportation of stone: 180000 kg : 450 kg = 400.

1.2.6. You podvoda-day 400 podvoda-rider x 33 days = 13200.

1.2.7. The cost of the horse high and it needs maintenance. For simplicity equate the notional value of "service" horses to the notional value of the contents of the driver.

1.2.8. Need person-days: 13200 days of work of drivers + 13200 days horses = 26400 people-DN.

1.2.9. When the shoulder haul in 500 km organization of paragraphs night Parking, nutrition and health carts and horses. During the 33 day trip requires 33 such paragraph, each staff - 5 persons (actually in the wild edge with robbers need a lot more, but some of protection could take squad).

Need person-days. 33 points x 150 days x 5 people = 24750 people-DN.

Total item 1.2:

26400 + 24750 = 51150 people-DN.

Total item 1 (for simplicity, we take a cross between section 1.1. and item 1.2):

(51150 + 48020) : 2 = 49585 people-DN.

2. Conditional processing costs of white stone.

2.1. Treatment of white stone for masonry includes the transformation and processing - rough and clean. This work for the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl is 4746 people-DN.

2.2. From the calculation complexity of processing the figure of stone isolate those elements that can decorate and brick built, and leave only the elements that are typical of white stone building. They still leaves about 2000 people-DN.

2.3. Blacksmith work on the mandrel tool for stone.

2.3.1. Volume 49400 cubic m stone in the construction of the Kremlin blacksmith's work was 30690 people-DN. Bring them to the volume 408 cu m for the construction of the Church of Intercession:

2.3.2. A correction factor of the transition from construction of the Kremlin to the construction of the Church of Intercession:

408 : 49400 = 0,0083.

Total under item 2.3:

30690 x 0,0083 = 255 people-DN.

Total p. 2:

4746 + 2000 + 255 = 7001 people-DN.

Delivery:

(1 + 2) = 49585 + 7001 = 56586 people-DN.

3. The notional value of the building regardless of the material (excluding internal decoration and paintings).

3.1. Data on the construction of the Moscow Kremlin, result of the Intercession on the Nerl factor 0,0083 (calculated in paragraph 2.3.2):

3.1.1. The lime burning:

1620 people-DN. x 0,0083 = 13 people-DN.

3.1.2. The clearing to exhaust-kipelki:

968 people-DN. x 0,0083 = 8 persons-DN.

3.1.3. Preparation of the solution:

8300 people-DN. x 0,0083 = 69 people-DN.

3.1.4. The digging of trenches and pits with subsequent filling:

4206 people-DN. x 0,0083 = 35 people-DN.

3.1.5. The transportation of materials to the walls we can be neglected, as it is relevant only to the great length of the walls of the Kremlin.

3.1.6. Laying the foundations:

10020 people-DN. x 0,0083 x factor of 1.5 = 125 people-DN.

3.1.7. The device forests:

4682 people-DN. x 0,0083 x factor of 1.5 = 58 people-DN.

3.1.8. The front walls, vaults and drums:

67500 people-DN. x 0,0083 x complexity factor of 2.0 = 1121 people-DN.

3.1.9. The filling: 23350 people-DN. x 0,0083 = 194 people-DN.

Total under item 3.1:

13 + 8 + 69 + 35 + 125 + 58 + 1121 + 194 = 1623 people-DN.

3.2. The notional value other works:

3.2.1. Roofing: about 100 people-DN.

3.2.2. The device of floors: about 100 people-DN.

3.2.3. Doors, windowsill, and other details: about 500 people-DN.

3.2.4. Figured elements common to brick and white stone building: about 1,400 people-DN.

Total under item 3.2:

100 + 100 + 500 + 1400 = 2100 people-DN.

Total under item 3 (labor content of building works in any material):

(p. 3.1 + 3.2 p.) = 3723 people-DN.

4. The total estimated cost of conventional (labor), the white-stone building of the temple:

56586 + 3723 = 60309 people-DN.

5. The notional value of construction in the hypothetical case where the temple was built of brick.

5.1. Conditional cost of production of brick:

5.1.1. 10 construction of furnaces required for construction:

20 person-days. one oven = 200 person-days.

5.1.2. Obtaining 408 cubic meters of clay:

1 person - 1 cubic meter per day, i.e. 408 people-DN.

5.1.3. Delivery of clay from the quarry, forming, loading in the furnace and subtraction from it:

3 people on 1 cubic m day: 3 x 408 = 1224 people-DN.

5.1.4. The supply of wood for the oven (1 supply):

2 people-DN. x 220 days = 440 man-day.

Total under item 5.1:

200 + 408 + 1224 + 440 = 2272 people-DN.

5.2. The notional value of a brick building equal to the result obtained in paragraph 3, i.e. 3723 people-DN.

Total for section 5:

2272 + 3723 = 5995 people-DN.

6. A comparison of the notional value of the building of white stone and brick.

(item 4 : p. 5) = 60309 : 5995 = 10,1.

7. Conclusion: the temple of white stone is more expensive such as brick 10.1 times.

 

 

Notes

 

1 Borisov NS Ivan III. M., 2000. C. 6.

2 Rappoport P.A. Construction production of Ancient Rus. St.Petersburg, 1994. C. 74.

3 Ibid., C. 79.

4 Voronin N.N. The Architecture Of North-Eastern Russia. So 1. M., 1961. (Hereinafter referred to Voronin, Architecture, so 1). C. 44.

5 Voronin, Architecture, so 1. C. 38.

6 Lemons Y.A Vladimir-Suzdal Rus. Essays on social and political history. Leningrad, 1987. C. 20; D.S. Likhachev Gradoselskaya semantics Assumption churches in Russia. In the book: Assumption Cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin. Materials and research. - M, 1985. C. 21.

7 Sakharov A.N. Vladimir Monomakh. - In the book: Commanders Of Ancient Russia. M., 1986. C. 534; Russian encyclopedic dictionary. M., 2000. (Hereinafter - RES). So 2, S. 1868.

8 Voronin, Architecture, so 1. C. 72.

9 Voronin, Architecture, so 1. C. 64.

10 Voronin, Architecture, so 1. C. 94.

11 Voronin, Architecture, vol 1. C. 195.

12 Voronin N.N. The Architecture Of Vladimir-Suzdal Russia. In the book: The history of Russian art. M., 1953. (Hereinafter referred to Voronin, the History of Russian art ). So 1. C. 358.

13 Voronin, Architecture, vol 1. C. 389.

14 Voronin, History of Russian art, so 1. C. 382

15 O.M. ioannisyan, P.L. Zykov, Torshin E.N. The work of architectural and archaeological expedition in 1996. - In the book: The State Hermitage Museum. Report of the archeological session for 1996. Theses of reports. SPb, 1997. (Hereinafter - ioannisyan and other Theses, 1997). C. 59.

16 Voronin N.N. The Architecture Of North-Eastern Russia. So 2. M., 1962. (Hereinafter referred to Voronin, Architecture, so 2). C. 52.

17 O.M. ioannisyan, Torshin E.N., Zykov P.A. the Church of Boris and Gleb in Rostov the Great. - In the book: Old Russian art. Rus. Byzantium. The Balkans. XIII century. SPb, 1997. (Hereinafter - ioannisyan, etc. Rostov the Great). C. 260.

18 Voronin, Architecture, so 2. C. 64.

19 O.M. ioannisyan Complex of ancient buildings of the Saviour monastery in Yaroslavl. - In the book: Old Russian art. Rus. Byzantium. The Balkans. XIII century. SPb, 1997. (Hereinafter - Ioannisyan, Yaroslavl). C. 222.

20 Ibid.

21 Ibid.

22 Ibid., C. 227.

23 Voronin, Architecture, so 2. C. 142.

24 Kavelmaher V.V., Orlov S. p. Two architectural fragments from the Dormition Cathedral in Kolomna Kremlin (the question of the early stone construction in Kolomna). - In book.: Materials creative report of the trust Mosoblstroyrestavratsiya". M., 1984. C. 86.

25 Voronin, Architecture, so 2. C. 158.

26 Kavelmaher CENTURIES, Panova ETC. Remnants of the white-stone Church of the XIV century in the Cathedral square of the Moscow Kremlin. - In the book: Culture of medieval Moscow XIV-XVII centuries M, 1995. C. 76.

27 Voronin, Architecture, so 2. C. 265

28 Ibid. C. 194-195.

29 Kavelmaher CENTURIES, Panova ETC. Decree. cit., 86 S..

30 Voronin, Architecture, so 2. C. 213.

31 Voronin, Architecture, so 2. C. 245.

32 Ibid.

33 Ibid. C. 401.

34 Voronin, Architecture, so 2. C. 264.

35 Voronin, Architecture, so 2. C. 231.

36 David L.A., B.L. Altshuler, pod'yapol'skii S. restoration of the Saviour Cathedral Andronikov monastery. - In the book: Old Russian art. Sergius of Radonezh and artistic culture in Moscow XIV-XV centuries, St. Petersburg, 1998. C. 360-389.

37 Ilyin M.A., Maksimov P.N., Kostochkin CENTURIES the Stone architecture of the epoch of blossoming of Moscow. - In the book: The history of Russian art. So 3. M., 1953. (Hereinafter - Ilyin and other History of Russian art, so 3). C. 292.

38 Voronin, Architecture, so 1. C. 469.

39 Rappoport P.A. Decree. cit., S. 22.

40 Voronin, Architecture, so 1. C. 106, 469; so 2. C. 117.

42 Rappoport P.A. Decree. cit., S. 39.

43 Ibid.

44 Zabelin I.E. the history of the city of Moscow. M., 1905. - Reprint ed. M., 1990. C. 16.

45 Voronin, Architecture, so 2. C. 147.

46 Small Soviet Encyclopedia. M., 1959 (Hereafter - ITU). So 9, 434 S..

47 Rappoport P.A. Decree. cit., S. 80.

48 To this author kindly pointed M. ioannisyan 2002.

49 Voronin, Architecture, so 1. C. 326.

50 Ibid. So 2. C. 232.

51 Ibid. So 1. C. 326.

52 Ibid. So 2. C. 233.

53 Wagner G.K. Ryazan. M., 1971. C. 7.

54 Personal interviews with VV kavelmaherom. 2002.

55 Voronin, Architecture, so 1. C. 328.

56 PSRL. M., 1962. (Hereinafter - PSRL). So XXIV, STV. 77.

57 Lemons Y.A Decree. cit., S. 20; D.S. Likhachev Decree. cit., S. 21.

58 Karamzin N.M. history of the Russian state. M., 1991. So 2-3, S. 143.

59 Ibid., C. 168.

60 Ibid, s 336.

61 RES, so 2, S. 1868.

62 Karamzin N.M. Decree. cit., so 2-3, S. 338.

63 Lemons Y.A Decree. cit., 74 S..

64 Karamzin N.M. Decree. cit., so 2-3, S. 369, 521.

65 General history of architecture. M., 1966. (Further - VIA). So 3 601; Wagner G.K. Sculpture of Vladimir-Suzdal Russia: the year of Yuriev. M., 1964. (Hereinafter - Wagner, Yuriev). C. 5.

66 VIA, t 3, 601 S..

67 P.L. Zykov TO the question of reconstruction of the Suzdal Cathedral end XI-beginning of the XII century - In the book: Medieval architecture and monumental art. Theses of reports. SPb, 1999. C. 25.

68Voronin, History of Russian art, so 1. C. 394.

69 Komissarzhevskaya FF History of costume. Mn., 1999. C. 461-466.

70 Wagner, Yur'ev, S. 5.

71 The A.I. Komech Stone chronicle of Pskov XII-beginning of the XVI century, M, 1993. C. 41.

72Ibid., C. 52.

73 Rappoport P.A. Decree. cit., S. 80.

74 Voronin, Architecture, so 1. C. 310.

75 Skvortsov A. I. Historical experience of the conservation of white-stone architecture of Vladimir-Suzdal Russia. In the book: Zubovsky reading. Collection of articles. Vladimir, 2002. C. 55.

76 Voronin, Architecture, so 1. C. 464.

77 Kostochkin V.V. About the daubing of Novgorod and Pskov defensive constructions. - In the book: Monuments of culture, research and restoration. M., 1959. C. 94.

78 Voronin, Architecture, so 1. C. 107-109.

79 Rappoport P.A. Decree. cit., S. 130.

80 Voronin, Architecture, so 1. C. 107.

81 O.M. ioannisyan Architecture of ancient Galich and architecture of Malopolska. - In the book: Acta Archaeologica Carpathica. 27. Krakow, 1988. (Hereinafter - Ioannisyan, Krakow, 1988). C. 190.

82 O.M. ioannisyan Main stages of development of the Galician architecture. - In the book: Old Russian art. Art culture's - the first half of the XIII century, M. 1988. (Hereinafter - Ioannisyan, 1988). C. 41-44.

83 Rappoport P.A. Decree. cit., S. 84.

84 Ioannisyan, 1988. C. 42.

85 Voronin, Architecture, so 1. C. 108.

86 Ioannisyan, 1988. C. 47-48.

87 PSRL. T. II, STV. 462.

88 Voronin, Architecture, so 1. C. 109.

89 Ibid.

90 Ioannisyan, 1988. C. 42.

91 A.A. Guber, Dobroklonsky M.V., Reinhardt L.Y. Art of Western and Central Europe in the epoch of developed feudalism. The Art Of Germany. Romanesque art. - In the book: General history of art. Vol.2. M., 1960. (Hereinafter PROVIDED, so 2). C. 315.

92 Ioannisyan,1988. C. 44.

93 O.M. ioannisyan ON the early development of the Galician architecture. - In the book: THE USSR ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. Short communications. No 164. Slavic-Russian archeology. M., 1981. (Hereinafter - Ioannisyan, 1981). C. 38.

94 PSRL. So XXIV, STV. 77.

95 Voronin, Architecture, so 1. C. 110.

96 Ioannisyan, 1981. C. 40.

97 Ibid.. S. 39.

98 Rappoport P.A. Decree. cit., S. 131.

99 Ioannisyan Rostov the Great and others. C. 255; Ioannisyan, 1981. C. 41.

100 Ioannisyan,1988. C. 44.

101 PSRL. So I, STV. 351.

102 PSRL. So I, STV. 411.

103 Ioannisyan,1988. C. 44.

104 Rappoport P.A. Decree. cit., S. 128-129.

105 Voronin, Architecture, so 1. C. 325.

106 Ibid., C. 285.

107 Ibid., So 2. C. 233.

108 Voronin, History of Russian art, so 1. C. 388; Voronin, Architecture, so 1. C. 107.

109 Vygolov VP Architecture of Moscow Rus middle of the XV century. M., 1988. C. 224.

110 A.A. Guber, Kolpino UD the Art of Western and Central Europe in the epoch of developed feudalism. Introduction. Romanesque art. - In the book: General history of art. Vol.2. M., 1960. C. 232.

111 Voronin, Architecture, so 2. C. 119.

112 Rappoport P.A. Decree. cit., S. 131.

113 Ioannisyan, 1981. C. 39.

114 Priselkov PPM History of Russian Chronicles of the XI-XV centuries, St. Petersburg, 1996. C. 120.

115 PSRL. So XXIV, STV. 77.

116 Voronin, History of Russian art, so 1. C. 344; Ioannisyan, 1981. C. 40.

117 Karamzin N.M. Decree. cit., so 2-3, S. 143-155.

118 Ibid. C. 336.

119 Voronin, Architecture, so 1. C. 63.

120 E.E. Golubinsky E.E. Golubinsky history of the Russian Church. V.1, including 1. M., 1901. Vol.1, part 2. M., 1904. Reprint ed. M., 1997. So 1, 2 hours, S. 184.

121 Ibid. So 1, 1 o'clock, S. 343.

122 Milicic M.I., Pillar G.M. Western camera Cathedral Mirozhsky monastery in Pskov. - In the book: Old Russian art. Art culture's-the first half of the XIII century, M. 1988. C. 87.

123 Karamzin N.M. Decree. cit., so 2-3, S. 317.

124 "Pluralitas non est ponenda sine necessitate" ("should not multiply entities beyond necessity" - lat.). Cm. Encyclopaedia Britannica. Deluxe edition CD-ROM, 2002. (Hereinafter - Britannica); the Latest philosophical dictionary. Mn., 2001. C. 1069.

125 Voronin, Architecture, so 1. C. 94; ibid. So 2. C. 466.

126 Vygolov VP Decree. cit., s 71; Yakhont O.V. Sculpture Moscow museums. Restoration and attribution. M., 2000. C. 140.

127 The author is grateful Omiani at this point is made in a personal conversation in 2002.

128 Voronin, Architecture, so 1. P.116.

129 Personal interviews with VV kavelmaherom. 2002.

130 Rappoport P.A. Decree. cit., 121 S..

131 Voronin, Architecture, so 1. C. 106; O.M. ioannisyan, P.L. Zykov, Serve A.V., Glazov VP, Karacheva NM Architectural and archaeological study of Nativity Cathedral in Vladimir. - In the book: The State Hermitage Museum. Report of the archeological session in 1999. Theses of reports. SPb, 2000. (Hereinafter - ioannisyan, etc., Cathedral of the Nativity). C. 50.

132 Voronin, Architecture, so 1. C. 336.

133 Ibid., C. 47.

134 Karamzin N.M. Decree. cit., so 2-3, 122 S..

135 Fishermen B.A. "the Word about Igor's regiment" and his contemporaries. M., 1971. (Hereinafter - The Fishermen, "The Word"). C. 280.

136 Karamzin N.M. Decree. cit., so 2-3, 118 S..

137 Ibid, p 123.

138 Ibid, 124 S..

139 Ibid., C. 149.

140 Ibid., C. 155.

141 Ibid., C. 156.

142 Ibid., C. 159.

143 Rybakov, "The Word". C. 119.

144 Karamzin N.M. Decree. cit., so 2-3, S. 394.

145 Ibid., C. 395, 425.

146 ITU. So 2, S. 814.

147 Lemons Y.A Decree. cit., S. 27.

148 Ibid., C. 31.

149 Voronin, Architecture, so 1. C. 107.

150 Ioannisyan, 1981. C. 41.

151 Voronin, Architecture, so 1. C. 56, 57.

152 Shchapov yn The state and the Church Ancient Rus X-XIII centuries M, 1989. C. 43.

153 Voronin, Architecture, so 1. C. 202.

154 RES, so 1, S. 314.

155 Rappoport P.A. Decree. cit., S. 38.

156 Ioannisyan, 1988. C. 44.

157 E.E. Golubinsky Decree. cit. Vol. 1, 2 hours. C. 89.

158 Voronin, History of Russian art, so 1. C. 370.

159 Voronin, Architecture, so 1. C. 341.

160 Lemons Y.A Decree. cit., S. 22.

161 Lazarev V. N.. Byzantine and old Russian art. M., 1978. (Hereinafter - Lazarev, 1978). C. 246.

162 Gumilev L.N. From Rus to Russia. M., 2002. C. 94.

163 Ibid., C. 105.

164 Karamzin N.M. Decree. cit., so 2-3, S. 190.

165 Die Kunst der Romanik. Architektur, :, Malerei. Koln, 1996. (Hereinafter - Romanik). With. 19.

166 Lazarev, 1978. C. 239.

167 Ibid. C. 240, 249.

168 Lazarev V. N.. Sculpture Of Vladimir-Suzdal Russia. - In the book: The history of Russian art. Vol. 1. M., 1953. C. 399-400).

169 Voronin, Architecture, so 1. C. 268-269, 319.

170 Wagner G.K. Sculpture of ancient Russia. Vladimir. Bogolyubovo. XII century. M., 1969. (Hereinafter - Wagner, Vladimir). C. 7-45.

171 E.E. Golubinsky Decree. cit., so 1, 2 hours, S. 56.

172 Kudryavtseva T.N. To the question of "romance" influences in the Vladimir-Suzdal architecture. - In the book: Architectural heritage, 23. M., 1975. C. 33.

173 Voronin, History of Russian art, so 1. C. 124.

174 Voronin, Architecture, so 1. C. 331-334.

175 The A.I. Komech Architecture of Vladimir 1150 - 1180's. Artistic nature and Genesis of the "Russian romanik. - In the book. Old Russian art. Russia and the countries of the Byzantine world. XII century. SPb, 2002. C. 231.

176 O.M. ioannisyan TO the history of Polish-Russian relations in the architectural late XI - early XIII century - In the book. Old Russian art. Russia and the countries of the Byzantine world. XII century. SPb, 2002. C. 213.

177 E.E. Golubinsky Decree. cit., so 1, 2 hours, 40 C..

178 Wagner G.K. of originality of style formation in the architecture of Ancient Russia (return to the problem). - In the book: Architectural heritage. Vol. 38. M., 1995. C. 25.

179 Ioannisyan Rostov the Great and others. C. 238.

180 Voronin N.N., Lazarev V. N.. The art of the Central Russian principalities XIII-XV centuries. - In the book: The history of Russian art. So 3. M., 1953. C. 55.

181 Kavelmaher CENTURIES sovereign yard in Alexandrova Sloboda. - In the book: Jacob Ulfeldt. Trip to Russia. M., 2002. (Hereinafter - Kavelmaher, sovereign yard). C. 475.

182 Voronin, History of Russian art, so 1. C. 151.

183 Ibid., C. 322.

184 Karger M.K. Novgorod architecture. - In the book: The history of Russian art. Vol.2. M., 1953. C. 22.

185 Voronin N.N. The Architecture Of Pskov. - In the book: The history of Russian art. Vol.2. M., 1953. (Hereinafter referred to Voronin, the History of Russian art, so 2). C. 312.

186 Karamzin N.M. Decree. cit., so 2-3, S. 395-398.

187 Pod'yapol'skii S. TO the question of originality of architecture of the Moscow Uspenie Cathedral. - In the book: Assumption Cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin. Materials and research. - M, 1985. C. 42.

188 Kavelmaher, sovereign yard. C. 476.

189 Voronin, Architecture, so 1. C. 110.

190 Karamzin N.M. Decree. cit., so 2-3, S. 345.

191 Ibid., C. 266.

192 Ibid., C. 318.

193 Christianity. Encyclopedic dictionary. M., 1995. (Hereinafter - Christianity). So 2, 222 S..

194Karamzin N.M. Decree. cit., so 2-3, 111 S..

195 Ibid, 119 S..

196 Ibid., C. 317.

197 Christianity. So 2, S. 258.

198 Karamzin N.M. Decree. cit., so 2-3, S. 134.

199 Ibid., C. 320.

200 Ibid., C. 168.

201 Ibid.

202 Voronin, Architecture, so 1. C. 60.

203 Lazarev, 1978. C. 246.

204 Ioannisyan, 1988. C. 44; ioannisyan, Krakow, 1988. C. 190-210.

205 Ibid.

206 Paco M Frederick Barbarossa. Rostov-on-don, 1998. C. 34.

207 Karamzin N.M. Decree. cit., so 2-3, S. 160.

208 Lemons Y.A Decree. cit., S. 25.

209 Ibid.

210 Voronin, Architecture, so 1. C. 110.

211 Pod'yapol'skii S. Decree. cit., S. 48.

212 Pringle Doctor Of Architecture Of The Latin East. 1098-1571. - In the book: The history of the Crusades. M, 1998. C. 190.

213 Ibid., C. 193-195.

214 Romanik. C. 85.

215 Ibid., C. 58.

216 ITU. So 3, C. 784.

217 Rappoport P.A. Decree. cit., S. 71.

218 Ibid., C. 70.

219 Voronin, Architecture, so 1. C. 309.

220 Ibid. C. 103.

221 Ilyin M.A. carved Decorative belts of early Moscow stone architecture. - In the book: Old Russian art. Foreign relations. M., 1975. C. 234.

222 Voronin, Architecture, so 1. C. 102.

223 Kindly communicated in M. ioannisyanom 2002.

224 Romanik. C. 40-41.

225 Voronin, Architecture, so 1. C. 107-109; Rappoport P.A. Decree. cit., S. 130; ioannisyan, 1988. C. 41; Ioannisyan, 1981. C. 41.

226 Voronin, Architecture, so 1. C. 45.

227 Ibid. So 1. C. 106.

228 Rappoport P.A. Decree. cit., S. 62-74.

229 Voronin, History of Russian art, so 1. C. 147.

230 Karamzin N.M. Decree. cit., so 2-3, 93 S..

231 Sakharov A.N. The decree. cit., S. 505.

232 Ibid. C. 480.

233 Karamzin N.M. Decree. cit., so 2-3, 89 S..

234 Ibid., C. 272.

235 Ibid., C. 64.

236 Ibid., 88 S..

237 Voronin, History of Russian art, so 1. C. 317.

238 Ibid., C. 322.

239 Ibid., C. 151.

240 Karger M.K. Decree. cit., S. 22.

241 Voronin, History of Russian art, so 2. C. 312.

242 Ibid. So 1. C. 147.

243 Ibid., C. 392.

244 Ibid., C. 307.

245 Individual interviews with AI Komech. 2002.

246 Vygolov VP Decree. cit., S. 191.

247 Ioannisyan, 1988. C. 41.

248 Ibid.

249 Personal interviews with VV kavelmaherom. 2002.

250 Voronin, Architecture, so 1. C. 103.

251 Rappoport P.A. Decree. cit., S. 71.

252 Romanik. C. 74-92.

253 A.A. Guber, Kolpino UD Decree. cit., S. 241.

254 The VIA. So 3, C. 195.

255 PSRL. So I, STV. 411.

256 PSRL. So I, STV. 351.

257 Voronin, Architecture, so 1. C. 139.

258 Ibid., C. 132.

259 Ibid., C. 330.

260 O.M. ioannisyan, P.L. Zykov, Serve A.V., Glazov VP, Karacheva NM Architectural and archaeological study of Nativity Cathedral in Vladimir. - In the book: The State Hermitage Museum. Report of the archeological session in 1999. Theses of reports. SPb, 2000. C. 20.

261 Romanik. With. 85.

262 There also, with. 86; Il Duomo di Modena. Atlante grafico. Modena, 1988.

263 Romanik. With. 87.

264 The A.I. Komech Decree. cit., S. 234.

265 Ibid., C. 245.

266 Ioannisyan, 1981. C. 41.

267 Personal interviews with VV kavelmaherom. 2002.

268 Voronin, Architecture, so 1. C. 430.

269 Ibid., C. 362; Wagner, Vladimir. C. 96.

270 Voronin, Architecture, so 1. C. 150, 354.

271 Individual interviews with AI Komech. 2002.

272 Voronin, Architecture, so 1. C. 354.

273 Ioannisyan and other Theses, 1997. C. 59.

274 Voronin, Architecture, so 2. C. 19.

275 Ibid., C. 194-195.

276 Ibid., C. 182.

277 Ibid.

278 Ibid., C. 186.

279 Ibid., C. 318.

280 Ibid., C. 140.

281 Ibid., C. 138.

282 Wagner G.K. From symbol to reality. The development of plastic image in the Russian art of XIV-XV centuries. M., 1980. (Hereinafter - Wagner, 1980). C. 70.

283 E.E. Golubinsky Decree. cit., so 1, 1 o'clock, S. 338.

284 Zabelin I.E. Decree. cit., S. 70.

285 PSRL. So X, STV. 190; so XVIII, STV. 89.

286 Vygolov VP Decree. cit., S. 194.

287 Ibid.

288 Voronin, Architecture, so 2. C. 153.

289 Ibid., C. 155.

290 Ilyin and other History of Russian art, so 3. C. 297.

291 Ibid., C. 298.

292 Pod'yapol'skii S. Decree. cit., S. 48.

293 Fedorov V. Uspensky Cathedral: the study and conservation of the monument. - In the book: Assumption Cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin. Materials and research. - M, 1985. C. 61.

294 Kavelmaher CENTURIES on the initial appearance of the assumption Cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin. - In the book: Architectural heritage. Vol. 38. M., 1995. C. 214.

295 Voronin, Architecture, so 1. C. 77, 264.

296 Rappoport P.A. Decree. cit., S. 46.

297 E.E. Golubinsky Decree. cit., so 1, 2 hours, 89 S.; Voronin, Architecture, so 1. C. 307.

298 Voronin, Architecture, so 1. C. 80.

299 Rappoport P.A. Decree. cit., 74 S..

300 Ibid., C. 71.

301 Romanik. C. 19.

302 Jacobson A.L. Regularities in the development of medieval architecture of IX-XV centuries, Byzantium. Greece. South Slavic countries. Rus. Transcaucasia. Leningrad, 1987. C. 15.

303 Ibid., C. 21.

304 Voronin, History of Russian art, so 1. C. 132.

305 Ibid, 153 C..

306 E.E. Golubinsky Decree. cit., so 1, 2 hours, S. 49.

307 Jacobson A.L. Decree. cit., S. 200.

308 Ibid., C. 83.

309 Rappoport P.A. Decree. cit., S. 95.

310 Personal interviews with VV kavelmaherom. 2002.

311 Romanik. C. 22.

312 Voronin, Architecture, so 1. C. 209.

313 V.I. Fedorov Decree. cit., S. 59.

314 Voronin, Architecture, so 1. C. 102.

315 To this author kindly pointed M. ioannisyan 2002.

316 Razin E.A. History of military art VI-XVI centuries, SPb, 1999. C. 170.

317 Jacobson A.L. Decree. cit., S. 52.

318 Voronin, Architecture, so 1. C. 309.

319 Rappoport P.A. Decree. cit., S. 79.

320 Skvortsov A. I. Decree. cit., S. 51.

321 Stoletov A.V. Construction of the Vladimir-Suzdal white stone monuments and their strengthening. - In the book: Monuments of culture, research and restoration. M., 1959. C. 194.

322 Rappoport P.A. Decree. cit., S. 39.

323 E.E. Golubinsky Decree. cit., so 1, 2 hours, S. 49.

324 Voronin, Architecture, so 1. C. 310.

325 Skvortsov A. I. Decree. cit., S. 55.

326 Ibid., C. 54-55.

327 Ilyin and other History of Russian art, so 3. C. 292.

329 Voronin, Architecture, so 2. C. 52.

330 Ibid., C. 68.

331 Kavelmaher CENTURIES Cornerstone of Lapidarium George's Cathedral in Yuryev-Polish (to the question of the so-called cross Svyatoslavovom). - In the book: Old Russian art. Rus. Byzantium. The Balkans. XIII century. SPb, 1997. (Hereinafter - Kavelmaher, St. George's Cathedral). C. 196.

352 PSRL. So XV, STV. 355.

333 Voronin, Architecture, so 2. C. 122.

334 Kavelmaher, St. George's Cathedral. C. 193.

335 Ibid., C. 185.

336 Voronin, Architecture, so 2. C. 71.

337 Wagner, Yuriev. C. 18.

338 Voronin, Architecture, so 2. C. 72.

339 Personal interviews with VV kavelmaherom. 2002.

340 Voronin, Architecture, so 2. C. 68.

341 Ibid., C. 69.

342 Ibid., C. 161.

343 Kavelmaher CENTURIES, Panova ETC. Decree. cit., S. 76.

344 Voronin, Architecture, so 2. C. 245.

345 Ibid. C. 264.

346 Voronin, Architecture, so 2. C. 439.

347 Ibid., C. 442.

348 Personal interviews with VV kavelmaherom. 2002.

349 Voronin, Architecture, so 2. C. 438.

350 Ibid, 109 S..

351 Ibid, 104 S..

352 Ibid, 109 S..

353 Kavelmaher, St. George's Cathedral. C. 196.

354 Voronin, Architecture, so 2. C. 253.

355 Kavelmaher V.V., Orlov S. p. Decree. cit., 86 S..

356 Karamzin N.M. Decree. cit., so 4, S. 263.

379 For the first time such a view was expressed V. kavelmaherom in personal conversations in the author as a hypothesis. The author of this book is currently working on collecting information on "Gorodische" Church and similar buildings. Application of methods of historical and motivational model (unfortunately based on incomplete data) confirms the hypothesis Kavelmahera.

358 Ilyin and other History of Russian art, so 3. C. 300.

359 Borisov NS Decree. cit., S. 393.

360 The assumption FI history of the Byzantine Empire. M. 1997. So 1, S. 603.

361 The VIA. So 3, C. 195.

362 Borisov NS Decree. cit., S. 577.

363 Voronin, Architecture, so 1. C. 105.

364 Ibid, 119 S..

365 Zagraevsky SV Jesus of Nazareth: the life and teachings. M., 2000. (Hereinafter - Zagraevsky, 2000). C. 117-120; Zagraevsky SV God is not the murderer. M, 2001. (Hereinafter - Zagraevsky, 2001). C. 112-114.

366 Chronicle of Christianity. M 1999. (Hereinafter - Chronicle of Christianity). With. 109.

367 The Assumption F.And. The decree. op., t. 1, with. 671.

368 Britannica. Article Nicaea, Council of.

369 Chronicle of Christianity. C. 109.

370 Acts of the Ecumenical councils. Kazan, 1871. So 7, C. 688.

371 E.E. Golubinsky Decree. cit., so 1, 2 hours, 57 S.; Voronin, Architecture, so 1. C. 336.

372 Zagraevsky, 2000. C. 64, 201.

373 Ibid., C. 117; Zagraevsky, 2001. C. 112.

374 Field V.M. Byzantine Art. In the book: General history of art. M., 1960. So 2, including 1, S. 60.

375 Ibid.

376 Individual interviews with AI Komech. 2002.

377 E.E. Golubinsky Decree. cit., so 1, 2 hours, 57 S..

378 Acts of the Moscow cathedrals 1666-1667, M, 1893. CH. 43.

379 The decrees of the Holy governing Synod from 1721 to 1878 - In the book. A guide to Orthodox clergy. M., 1878.

380 CIT. in the book. Chronicle of Christianity. C. 150.

381 Macarius, Metropolitan of Moscow and Kolomna. Orthodox dogmatic theology. SPb, 1883. Reprint ed. M, 1999. So 1, S. 11.

382 Voronin, History of Russian art, so 1. C. 147.

383 Ibid., C. 307.

384 E.E. Golubinsky Decree. cit., so 1, 1 o'clock, S. 34.

385 Shchapov yn The decree. cit., S. 47-48.

386 Lemons Y.A Decree. cit., S. 53.

387 PSRL. So I, STV. 351, 352.

388 Shchapov yn The decree. cit., S. 70; E.E. Golubinsky Decree. cit., so 1, 1 o'clock, s 386.

389 E.E. Golubinsky Decree. cit., so 1, 1 o'clock, S. 487.

390 Ibid., C. 492.

391 Karamzin N.M. Decree. cit., so 2-3, S. 134.

392 Ibid., C. 143.

393 Ibid, p 168; Shchapov yn The decree. cit., S. 191.

394 Voronin, Architecture, so 1. C. 119; Lemons Y.A Decree. cit., S. 48.

395 Voronin, Architecture, so 1. C. 110.

396 Ibid, 119 S..

397 Ibid., C. 120.

398 E.E. Golubinsky Decree. cit., so 1, 1 o'clock, S. 597.

399 Voronin, Architecture, so 1. C. 123.

400 E.E. Golubinsky Decree. cit., so 1, 1 o'clock, S. 553.

401 Ibid, p 223.

402 Ibid., C. 596.

403Paco M Decree. cit., S. 24, 26.

404 Chronicle of Christianity. C. 149.

405 Karamzin N.M. Decree. cit., so 2-3, with 349.

406 E.E. Golubinsky Decree. cit., so 1, 1 o'clock, S. 597.

407 Lemons Y.A Decree. cit., S. 69.

408 Voronin, Architecture, so 1. C. 331.

409 E.E. Golubinsky Decree. cit., so 1, 2 hours, 57 S..

410 Ognev B.A. ON the roof coatings (to the question of restoration of the roof coatings temples of North-Eastern Russia XII-XV centuries). - In the book: Architectural heritage, 10. M., 1958. C. 55.

411 Ibid., C. 51.

412 Lazarev, 1978. C. 238.

413 Voronin, History of Russian art, so 1. C. 147.

414 Voronin, Architecture, so 1. C. 108.

415 Voronin, History of Russian art, so 1. C. 193, 194.

416 The assumption FI Decree. cit., so 3, C. 316.

417 Fishermen B.A. Applied art of Kievan Russia of IX-XI centuries and southern Russian principalities XII-XIII centuries. - In the book: The history of Russian art. Vol. 1. M., 1953. (Hereinafter - the Fishermen, the History of Russian art, so 1). C. 281; B.A. Rybakov Paganism of ancient Russia. M, 2001. C. 610-613.

418 Rybakov, "The Word." C. 34.

419 Karamzin N.M. Decree. cit., so 2-3, 475.

420 Fishermen, History of Russian art, so 1. C. 276.

421 Groznova E.B. Features of the cult of Holy Friday and Anastasia in Russian religious life of the XVI century - In the book: Research on Russian history. SPb, 2001. C. 22.

422 Zagraevsky, 2001. C. 165, 170-172, 178-180.

423 In Orthodox Christianity and Hellenism penetrated through not "sovereign" symbols and Greek philosophy. The path of this penetration was difficult and long. The author of this book has focused on basic aspects of this question in one of theological studies (see Zagraevsky, 2001. C. 130-136), and here it makes sense to name only the major milestones along the way in length in one and a half thousand years:

- ancient Greek philosophy;

- the old Testament prophets;

- Philo of Alexandria (about 25 BC-about 50 BC);

- Gnosticism;

- Justin (Justin) Philosopher (OK-165);

- the Church fathers (the teachings of the Church fathers);

- medieval scholasticism.

Central link in this chain was Justin the Philosopher, the founder and the first representative of the Church fathers, by which the Church dogmatics penetrated Gnosticism. And the latter, in turn, was formed Judeo-Hellenic philosophy Philo of Alexandria (see Posnov ME pre-Christian and non-Christian gnosis. - In the book: The Gnostics. Kiev, 1997. C. 29-34).

The author of this book believes that "thanks" Justino all Church theology II-III centuries gone the way of Gnosticism, and then in this same way and went all subsequent Patristics from Athanasius of Alexandria to St. John of Damascus (see Zagraevsky, 2001. C. 135).

424 Rybakov, "The Word." C. 72.

425 Gaius Suetonius Tranquille. Life 12 Caesars. SPb, 1999.

426 Britannica. Article "Alexander the Great".

427 Individual interviews with AI Komech. 2002.

428 Voronin, Architecture, so 1. C. 433.

429 Ibid., C. 437.

430 The assumption FI Decree. cit., so 3, C. 137.

431 Zagraevsky, 2000. C. 77.

432 Voronin, Architecture, so 1. C. 436.

433 Romanik. C. 339-343.

434 Medieval Bestiary. M., 1984.

435 Eco U. The Name Of The Rose. SPb, 2000. C. 149.

436 Lazarev, 1978. C. 243.

437 Lidov A.M. ON the symbolic idea of the sculptural decoration of the Vladimir-Suzdal churches of the XII-XIII centuries - In the book: Old Russian art. Rus. Byzantium. The Balkans. XIII century. SPb, 1997. C. 172; Vysotsky A. M. the Temple of Ezekiel as a source of external sculptural decoration of the Vladimir-Suzdal churches of the XII-XIII centuries, Sic et non. - In the book. Old Russian art. Russia and the countries of the Byzantine world. XII century. SPb, 2002. C. 255; Smooth MS, Skvortsov A.I. Periodization of the reliefs of the Dmitrievsky Cathedral in Vladimir. - In the book: Old Russian art. Art culture's - the first half of the XIII century, M. 1988. C. 307.

438 Voronin, Architecture, so 1. C. 433.

439 Lazarev V. N.. Painting The Vladimir-Suzdal Russia. - In the book: The history of Russian art. Vol. 1. M., 1953. C. 462-477.

440 Ovchinnikov A.N. Suzdal Golden gate. - In the book: Treasures Of Suzdal. M., 1970. C. 148.

441 Ibid., C. 146.

442 Chronicle of Christianity. C. 164.

443 Voronin, Architecture, so 1. C. 348.

444 Ibid.

445 Ibid.

446 Voronin, History of Russian art, so 1. C. 382.

447 Voronin, Architecture, so 1. C. 389.

448 Ioannisyan, and others, the Nativity Cathedral. C. 56.

449 Wagner, Vladimir. C. 41, 222.

450 Ioannisyan and other Theses, 1997. C. 59.

451 Voronin, History of Russian art, so 1. C. 382.

452 Voronin, Architecture, so 1. C. 430.

453 Ibid., C. 454.

454 Ibid., C. 467.

455 Voronin, Architecture, so 2. C. 55.

456 Ibid. C. 142.

457 Wagner, 1980. C. 50.

458 Ibid, s 62.

459 Ibid., C. 55.

460 Personal interviews with VV kavelmaherom. 2002.

461 Kavelmaher V.V., Orlov S. p. Decree. cit., 86 S..

462 Voronin, Architecture, so 2. C. 204.

463 Wagner, 1980. C. 74.

464 Borisov NS Decree. cit., S. 191.

465 Wagner, 1980. C. 134.

466 Ibid., C. 194.

467 Zagraevsky, 2000. C. 64, 116.

468 Chronicle of Christianity. C. 174.

469 Zabelin I.E. Decree. cit., S. 70.

470 Ibid.

471 Karamzin N.M. Decree. cit., so 4, 102 S..

472 Ibid, 106 S..

473 Ibid., C. 269.

474 Ibid, 119 S..

475 Zabelin I.E. Decree. cit., S. 73.

476 Voronin, Architecture, so 2. C. 167.

477 Ibid., C. 81.

478 Mokeev GY Mozhaysk - the Holy city of Russians. XVI century. M., 1992. C. 41.

479 Voronin, Architecture, so 2. C. 68.

480 History of Russia: reference. M., 2002. C. 3.

481 Voronin, Architecture, so 1. C. 326.

482 Voronin, Architecture, so 2. C. 232.

 

Sergey Zagraevsky

 

Introduction

Chapter I. White stone and brick

Chapter II. Galich, Caucasus and Volga Bulgaria

Chapter III. Suzdal masters and Romanesque

Chapter IV. The limit of reliability

Chapter V. Sculpture decoration

Conclusion

Applications, notes

 

To the page Scientific works

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