Jury Dolgoruky and ancient Russian white stone architecture
Published in Russian: Çàãðàåâñêèé Ñ.Â. Þðèé Äîëãîðóêèé è äðåâíåðóññêîå áåëîêàìåííîå çîä÷åñòâî. M.: Àëåâ-Â, 2001. ISBN 5-94025-014-9
White stone and brick
The following text was translated from Russian original by the computer program
and has not yet been edited.
So it can be used only for general introduction.
To begin, we must see whether the Vladimir-Suzdal
For our purposes it is sufficient to distinguish two types of sculptural decoration in white-stone building:
- decor ornamented type (Fig. 1) - crenate belt, arcature, ornate cornices and any other decoration, except attributable to zooantropomorfnomu type. For ornamental type we assign and floral ornament post-Mongolian time (Fig. 2);
- zooantropomorfnogo type - all listed for decoration ornamented type, plus any zoomorphic and anthropomorphic bas-relief, high relief and volumetric sculpture of white stone (Fig. 3).
Fig. 1. The pre-Mongol decor ornamented type in the Holy Transfiguration Cathedral in Pereslavl-Zalessky.
Fig. 2. Post-Mongol decor ornamented type in the Cathedral of the Savvino-Storozhevsky monastery in Zvenigorod.
Fig. 3. Zooantropomorfnogo type on the Dmitrievsky
Mixed technique masonry (stone and brick) we will call the traditionally - "opus mixtum"2.
Polubutovaya the white stone walls, which consisted of two folding walls of carefully hewn limestone blocks and in filling the gap between the debris of the same stone, tufa, tile or boulders on lime mortar3will be called simply by the white stone walls. Other technologies white-stone building in the examined period is practically not used (except we specifically discuss).
Usually stone and brick building stone collectively referred to as - unlike wood. For our study, this approach is unacceptable. Stone will be called the only building stone (limestone, granite, Sandstone and other), featuring such equipment and the wooden and brick. A generic term for the construction of more durable materials than wood, we will use the word "capital".
Thus, the term "capital construction" includes the stone, and white-stone (as a special case stone, and brick, and mixed ("opus mixtum") construction equipment.
We also note that the tile everywhere we will call with brick, as the technology of construction of plinfy is a special case of a brick.
To Yuri Dolgoruky in Suzdal capital construction led only Monomakh (Grand Duke in 1113-1125). His temples:
- Suzdal, the virgin Nativity Cathedral. About 1101, technology "opus mixtum". It existed before the construction at the beginning of the XIII century on the site of a new temple;
- Vladimir, the Church of our Saviour on the Monomach yard. 1108. Her whereabouts are unknown, the estimated construction machinery - "opus mixtum"4;
Temples Yuri Vladimirovich Dolgoruky (Prince of Vladimir-Suzdal land with 10966 or 11137 year, the great Prince of Kiev in 1155-1157):
- Kideksha, the
- Pereslavl-Zalessky, Spaso-Preobrazhensky Cathedral. 1152. The white stone, ornamental decor type. Preserved;
- Suzdal, the Church of our Saviour. 1152. About it practically it is not known, and N.N. Voronin believed that it was a chapel to Monomachus9;
- Vladimir, the
Construction of Andrei Yurievich Bogolyubsky (Grand Duke in 1157-1174):
- Bogolyubovo. The Church of the Nativity of the virgin, a Palace and fortress walls. 1158-1165 years, the white stone, zooantropomorfnogo type. The Church collapsed in 1722, the Palace survived stairwell;
- Vladimir, the Golden gate and the Church of
deposition of the robe on them.
- Vladimir, the Church of the Transfiguration on
- the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl.
Built Vsevolod Yurievich Big Nest (Grand Duke in 1176-1212):
- Vladimir, Dmitrievsky Cathedral. 1192-1197 years, the white stone, zooantropomorfnogo type. Preserved;
- Vladimir Cathedral of the Nativity monastery. 1192-1196 years, a white stone, zooantropomorfnogo type13. Dismantled because of its dilapidated condition in the middle of the XIX century, in its place built a new temple;
- Vladimir, the
The buildings Yuri Vsevolodovich (the Grand Duke in 1212-1216 and 1218-1238):
- Suzdal, the virgin Nativity Cathedral. 1222-1225 years, a white stone, partly tuff. Instead of backing used brickwork15. Zooantropomorfnogo type. Fell in 1445, completed the top of brick in 1528;
- Nizhniy Novgorod, the Savior Cathedral. in
- Nizhniy Novgorod, the
- Polsky (inheritance of Prince Svyatoslav
Construction Konstantin Vsevolodovich (Grand Duke
in 1216-1218), received at his father's will
We need statistics and on the main post-Mongol capital buildings. The word "post-Mongol" we mean "posleputinsky" - after the invasion of winter 1237-1238 period:
- Tver, the Savior Cathedral. in
- Kolomna, the Church at the Settlement. According to research Kavelmahera, belongs to the first half of XIV century24. White rock (rough), zooantropomorfnogo type. Partially preserved;
- Kolomna, the assumption Cathedral. From 1379-1382 years, the white stone decor ornamented type. Collapsed during construction, soon recovered and stood until 167228, when his place was built a new Church. Probably, at this place was, and still earlier the white-stone Church29;
- Nizhniy Novgorod, the
- Nizhniy Novgorod, unfinished construction of the white-stone Kremlin. 1372 year;
- Mozhaisk, Staro-Nikolsky Cathedral. The end of the XIV - beginning of XV century, the white stone decor ornamented type. Rebuilt in the XIX century;
- Mozhaisk, the
- Zvenigorod, the assumption Cathedral "on the Town". Around 1400, the white stone, ornamental decor type. Preserved;
- Zvenigorod, the Cathedral of the Savvino-Storozhevsky monastery. Beginning of the XV century, a white stone, ornamental decor type. Preserved;
- Bayou. The Cathedral of the Archangel and the
- Sergiev Posad, Trinity Cathedral. 1422-1427 years, decor ornamented type. Preserved;
- Kamenka village Naro-Fominsk district of the
At the end of the reign of Basil II (1425-1462) and the reign of Ivan III (1462-1505) begins widespread and fast - within 15-20 years is the transition to a brick building:
- The Trinity-Sergiev monastery refectory. in 1469, the technique mostly brick;
- Uglich, Cathedral of Paisievo-Pokrovsky monastery. 1471, brick;
- Holy Trinity, the
In parallel with these temples, until the turn of
the XV and XVI centuries, were carried out occasional white-stone building, but
in the future, a brick was in
So, since Yuri Dolgoruky up to the invasion of Batu in the Vladimir-Suzdal white stone were erected 22 large buildings from a brick - 5, with 4 of them were built by Konstantin Vsevolodovich actually outside the Grand estates.
Therefore, in the Grand estates of white stone built:
(22-1) : 22 x 100 = 95 % of the buildings.
In the post-Mongolian time until mid XV century, all
capital construction in
Therefore, the question arises - why addiction to
white stone at the Vladimir-Suzdal and
The only Russian Principality, where he was
carried white-stone building, is
Now let us ask ourselves the following question: maybe it was not important, what to build? It is known that brick, and the more "opus mixtum", cheaper and more white stone38but much?
The answer to the question of how the white-stone architecture of expensive brick on the surface, do not lie, and we have to delve into the area of settlements.
White rock (organic sediments "carbon" - Carboniferous period of the Paleozoic era), as it is known, is mined in quarries. The latter are not everywhere, but the stone was "ready to use".
Brick should burn in the furnaces, but the clay you can get almost anywhere. For example, in the city of Suzdal yields were good clay, and in the beginning of the XII century there was a large kiln bricks (capacity of about 5000 bricks per cycle), which was used for the construction of Monomachus temple39.
What is lost and gained anything in the economic and technologically Yuri Dolgoruky, began building of white stone, not brick?
N.N. Voronin, referring to the results of the
analysis, argued that the stone for the construction Dolgoruky had to haul
distance - known developments Myachkovo40. PA Rappoport specified
that he meant the area of
Indeed, the stone temples Yury all signs refers to "myachkovsky the horizon" (see geologic map in Fig. 4). But far from afar had to carry in Vladimir?
Fig. 4. Geological map of the European part of the
The numbers on the map:
2 - Halych;
3 - "myachkovsky horizon" coal deposits;
4 - quarries near Staritsa;
5 - quarries in the area Myachkovo
6 - quarries in the area Kasimov;
7 - quarries in the area of Kovrov.
Letters on the map:
Cenozoic group: Q - Quaternary system; N - Neogene; Pg - Paleogene; Tr - non tertiary system.
Mesozoic group: Cr - Cretaceous system; (J - Jurassic system; T - Triassic system.
Paleozoic group: P - Permian; C - Cambrian system; Pz - upper Paleozoic system; (D - Devonian system; S - Silurian system; O - Ordovician system; Cm - Cambrian system.
Pt - Proterozoic.
Ar - archaea.
G - granitoid intrusions.
PA Rappoport determined the distance
(the"leverage") the supply of stone from
We do not know how to calculate Rappoport crept
so annoying inaccuracy, but actually it's not even a straight-line distance
It is unclear how PA Rappoport could make a route of transportation of stone across the river Vorya43 it flows through the far North. Theoretically, a possible way to Pekhorka, but they could not use it - Pekhorka too shallow, and its upper reaches of the swamp.
Stone, probably drove the regular trade routes, which arose Moscow44: Moscow-river Yauza - Volok - Klyazma.
The measurement of this road on a topographic map
(scale 1:200000) using the odometer gives the distance from Myachkovo to Vladimir,
Consequently, an average of Vladimir-Suzdal
shoulder transport stone was approximately
In the end of XIII century in Tver was built from
new quarries near Staritsa, Torzhok and Zubtsov45. It is relatively
close to Tver, and the stone was easy to carry - down-stream of the
But it's a different time, but now we are talking
about Yuri Dolgoruky, Andrew Bogoliubsky and other Vladimir-Suzdal princes of
the pre-Mongol epoch. Nothing is closer Myachkovo they were not. To Staritsa,
zubtsova and Torzhok from
Quarries in the area Kasimov was developed much
later, most likely, already in post-Mongolian time, to the same and are no
closer to Vladimir - on the way (straight - about
The geological map (Fig. 4) shows that the
theoretical and closer to
On the map (Fig. 4) seen a narrow layer of coal
deposits in the South-East of
Tuff usually used in masonry arches and domes. Exceptions - Vladimir Detinets 1164 and the Cathedral in Suzdal 1222-1225, partially made of tuff47.
It is likely that there, in the area of Kovrov,
were and quarries, where together with the tuff was produced low-quality white
stone used in the construction of the assumption Cathedral in Rostov and paving
the Cathedral square in Rostov when Andrei Bogolyubsky48. But from
A high-quality stone was used for facing of the
temples Dolgoruky and most of the buildings of his descendants, all signs
refers to "myachkovsky the horizon and, consequently, it had to carry for
The calculation of the conditional value in units of labour input (man-days) for construction of white stone and brick I propose to spend on the example of the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl - the complexity of its construction are given in Voronin49.
N.N. Voronin for this temple were calculated only the costs of the transformation and processing of white stone, so to determine the cost of construction work we can use other, less detailed and well-grounded calculations of the same researcher on the construction of the white-stone Moscow Kremlin50by applying correction factors for lower volume of construction and their increased complexity of masonry walls and vaults of the temple compared to the walls and towers of the fortress.
A complete calculation is given in the Appendix, but here we will focus only on the most important intermediate results.
Conditional costs of transporting the stone from myachkovsky-Podilsky quarries to the construction site on the Nerl make summer 48020 person-days, in winter 51150 people-DN.. on average - 49585 people-DN.
Treatment of white stone for masonry includes the transformation and processing - rough and clean. By NN Voronin, this work is 4746 people-DN.51
Processing elements figured stone, typical white stone building, still leaves about 2000 people-DN. Include blacksmith work on the mandrel tool for stone52 received input processing of white stone, equal 7001 person-days, and taking into account delivery - 56586 people-DN.
The notional value of the building regardless of the material, excluding interior decoration and paintings, equal 1623 people-DN. Adding a device roofs, floors, doors, window-sill, other details and graphic elements common to brick and white stone building, one obtains the labor content of building works with any material, equal 3723 people-DN.
In the hypothetical case where the temple was built of brick, the total complexity of its construction would consist of the cost of the building regardless of the material (3723 person-days), plus the cost of production and processing of brick, equal 2272 people-DN.
The total estimated cost of conventional (labor), the white-stone building of the temple of the protection of:
56586 + 3723 = 60309 people-DN.
The total estimated cost of conventional (labor) brick building similar to the temple:
2272 + 3723 = 5995 people-DN.
Calculate the ratio:
60309 : 5995 = 10,1.
Therefore, the temple of white stone is more expensive such as brick in more than 10 (ten) times.
It may seem that the notional value (in units of labour input) does not reflect the real value, as a skilled worker is paid above the low-skilled and the peasants, "driven" by the Prince on serving a feudal obligations, can not gain money - only tools and food.
This is true, but let's not forget that in the huge difference between the complexity of white stone and brick building the dominant role of a transport component, and the work of the Transporter (in our case - the boatman or the driver) in all ages has been highly qualified and, accordingly, well-paid.
Even if he had been serving a feudal obligations, the farmer with horse cart or a big boat is not a poor handyman, and a very wealthy man, requiring respect and fair pay. Otherwise, the horse "sick" and will not go anywhere, but the boat "accidentally run aground". Supervisors at each kilometer of the route will not put any Transporter is always left to myself.
However, let's calculate the value notional value of the building of white stone and brick in the hypothetical case of finding the Cathedral is so close to the quarries that we can ignore the transport component.
We have just seen that for the Church of the scale of the Intercession on the Nerl, the relative value processing the white stone is 7001 people-DN. The notional value of manufacturing bricks - 2272 people-DN. The volume of construction work regardless of construction machinery is 3723 people-DN.
Then the ratio of estimates "white stone and brick building is:
(7001 + 3723) : (2272 + 3723) = 1,78.
Consequently, "estimates" building of white stone, even with complete exclusion from the calculation of the transport component is still almost twice exceeds the "estimates" of the construction of brick.
Not surprisingly, all of the pre-Mongolian
Another "stroke to the portrait of the" white stone. Kavelmaher, in the fifties of the XX century worked belokamenschikom, talked about the enormous complexity of the transformation and processing of this material. In the quarries alternate hard and soft layers, and the search for good grades is very heavy work. Too hard stone not sawn and broken, and too soft you could cut it with a knife. It happens so porous stone that water flowing through it - this is also not suitable for construction54.
N.N. Voronin on the same occasion recalled a saying of "Words" Daniel the exile: "Lepse is the stone of Dolomiti than evil wife teaches"55.
Anyway, the stone Cathedral is not household items that can be bought for ten times higher price on the basis of any personal bias. In the XII century capital construction required effort and mobilization of all Principality, and it turns out, for example, that instead of four white stone churches Yuri Dolgoruky in the same labor and financial costs could build forty brick.
And yet, consider another option, personal preferences Dolgoruky. In the end, Printing record under 1152 said, "Then George Duke in Suzdal be, and otvryl him God razumniy eyes on the Church building, and many churches, postavila in Suzdal country..."56 - so, perhaps, there was some purely volitional action that is economically unreasonable, but took the form of "divine revelation"?
Of course, the term "divine revelation" we are not entitled to operate, but still can not ignore the possibility exceptionally strong-willed decisions Dolgoruky, the Prince of Vladimir-Suzdal land with 1113 (perhaps even from infancy - 109657) years, i.e. to 1152 ruled several decades and, undoubtedly, has practically unlimited "administrative resource".
We can even suppose that after a brief occupation in 1149 Yuri Dolgoruky Kiev58 (during the struggle with Izyaslav Mstislavich for the Grand buffet) he got heavily that he found it necessary to spend on the temples.
But, speaking about the theoretical possibility exceptionally strong-willed decision of Suzdal Prince to white-stone building, let's not forget that Andrew, and Vsevolod, and grandchildren, and more distant descendants of George continued to build temples as Dolgoruky - from the white stone.
And Yuri Dolgoruky - no-Vladimir Red Sun, not Yaroslav the Wise and not Vladimir Monomakh.
Kiev Yuri hated
But it is characteristic that, although this mode
of Suzdal Prince drew the
Therefore, we can not speak about any credibility it poses Yuri, made his descendants to white-stone building for three hundred years.
Then suppose (though this is less likely)that Andrei Bogolyubsky also had a resolute decision - building of white stone, despite the enormous cost.
Image Bogolyubsky in the annals of a far more attractive than his father, which allowed the Church a few centuries to canonize him. But praise the court chroniclers63 it is one thing, but reality is another. And the facts are as follows: when Andrey was killed by conspirators, his body lay under the wall of the Palace - and this despite the fact that squad, and the townspeople knew about his death. Then the priests were not allowed to make his body the Church, and it is wrapped in a carpet, two days lay in the vestibule64.
Can we assume that the credibility of George and Andrew in the immediate progeny was so great that "legitimized" their white stone building technique has been around for centuries, despite the non-technological and economic reasons? Of course not.
And to stretch the chain of arbitrary decisions to Vsevolod the Big Nest is impossible - it just derogate from the white technics (the assumption Cathedral of the Knyaginin monastery, Vladimir Detinets).
Hence, the beginning of white stone building with Yuri Dolgoruky had character is not volitional action, and a serious strategic decisions, and so serious that this technique hovered more than 300 years. Therefore, any attempt to look for "tough" rooted in the Vladimir-Suzdal white stone architecture (as well as to explain the beginning of building of white stone, any other random factors) is doomed to failure.
There is another possible explanation of transition Dolgoruky on a stone building - the beauty of white stone. This argument is most often found in tourist guidebooks and popular books, but he indirect tribute to the professionals - the beauty of white stone said many65.
In addition, the white stone is sometimes
associated with the
Indeed, the beauty of the temples, built of white stone, it is difficult to deny, and I must admit that at the time and the author of the study tended to "aesthetic" arguments. And to be quite Frank, it is disappointing in such a motivation transition to a white stone, and prompted the author to a more profound study of the issues raised in this book.
Unfortunately, the objections to the "aesthetic" arguments go to white stone building is too much.
First, even assuming Yuri Dolgoruky subtle aesthetic taste, the stability of the flavor of the set of his descendants - of Andrew Bogolyubsky to Vasily the Dark is extremely unlikely.
Secondly, as we have said, the temple is not the subject of articles, and overpay. Large-scale capital construction required the mobilization of all resources of the territory, and even a small rise could cause negative macroeconomic consequences. And here we are talking about tenfold.
Third, any non-alternative choice between the
spectacular white-stone masonry and sloppy "opus mixtum" was not - it
was possible to build temples in
With the brick allowed to build temples much
their increased size than the white stone. Compare, for example, the dome of
space (we define them on the side of the dome of squares) several churches: St.
And if Dolgoruky competed with Kiev, why does he not built in Kiev, brick that would surpass the tenure Izyaslav Mstislavich, and the number of temples, and their size?
Fourth, the heavenly
Fifth, with regard to "significant" white stone churches in the distance, the red, according to the laws of physics, visible from afar much better - he has more length of light waves and, consequently, faster dissemination. White, though a combination of all colors, has a small red component and perceived weaker. Not for nothing prohibiting and warning signs are usually red.
And in the presence of snow cover, which is in North-Eastern Russia is present in almost six months, to speak about a special "visibility" white stone churches generally unlawful. Red brick would be much more noticeable in summer and more in winter.
Sixth, in the Russian language is always a "red" meant "beautiful" is not by chance there were red banner with the Saviour, and ceremonial cloaks princes, and shields warriors69, and the coats of arms of cities of the Vladimir-Suzdal land.
Seventh, the white-stone ornaments on the red brick look much brighter and more striking, therefore, an indirect argument that the white stone churches were built for the opportunity to decorate their sculptural decor70also untenable. Moreover, the decoration on the temples Dolgoruky quite modest.
Eighth, white churches Yuri very conditional is
not in vain in the literature generally praised white
Ninth, in a few decades (or even years) after the construction of the temples were not white and not yellow, and dirty-gray from soot furnaces and frequent fires, and the practice of cleaning them appeared only in the XIX century.
Tenth, in the case of any particular addiction Yuri Dolgorukiy and his descendants to the white color could be to build temples of brick or even cheaper technology "opus mixtum", and then grout them.
For example, the grout solution is one of the forms of plastering - took place in the churches of Novgorod71 and Pskov72. It was erased solution tuff masonry Suzdal Cathedral of the beginning of the XIII century73. Tuff vaults of the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl and Vladimir assumption Cathedral were aligned coating74. In a number of pre-Mongol Suzdal churches were plastered fragments of walls, intended for the frescoes75. Bishop John in 1194 whiten Monomakh Cathedral in Suzdal76.
Therefore, in the XII century plastering was not
something out of the ordinary.
From all the above it follows that the "aesthetic argument" was unable to explain the transition in the middle of the XII century from brick with white stone.
© Sergey Zagraevsky