My XX century
Published in Russian: Çàãðàåâñêèé Ñ.Â. Ìîé ÕÕ âåê. Ì.: Àëåâ-Â, 2001. ISBN 5-94025-009-2
Chapter 10. Commerce
The following text was translated from the Russian original by the computer program
and has not yet been edited.
So it can be used only for general introduction.
The night before the storm on the mast burning candles elm St.,
Warmed our hearts for all of last year.
When we return to Portland, we will be gentle as a lamb,
Yes, just go back to Portland we will not ever.
Well, if in Portland no return, let us bear
Let be strong Jamaican rum, everything else is nonsense.
When we return to Portland, by golly, I wish to repent,
Yes, just go back to Portland we will not ever.
Well, if in Portland no return let the merchant
die of fright,
Neither God nor the devil will help him to save their ships.
When we return to Portland, I swear - I
will runs on the block,
Yes, just go back to Portland we will not ever.
Well, if in Portland no return divide gold,
Because money does not accrue to others easily.
When we return to Portland, we will Rodina embrace
Yes, just go back to Portland't let us, o God, never.
The term “mafia” has long ceased to be purely Italian, moreover, is gradually becoming a purely Russian. In any case, in the eyes of the West.
Right or not - it depends on what is considered a mafia. If in the classic sense (at least based on the novel “the Godfather”, then, probably, all the same no - nepotism and the transfer of power from father to one of the many sons is the exception rather than the rule.
But if to assume that the mafia fusion of state and criminal structures to the formulation of its stable rules of the game, other than laws, officially accepted - then surely, Yes.
For example, in one degree or another mafia relationship is the mass of the Russian phenomenon of the late nineties - paid by the enterprises the salary in envelope. Since she never paid any taxes or other legal benefits, but it is a reward for the work done in the interests of the company, i.e. the laws of the state substituted by the laws of the optimal functioning of a particular company. Is not the mafia in miniature?
And when the two firms for the same purposes “tax optimization” is a contract at a lower (or, conversely, too high) price, and that the work is done without any agreement? Or the contract after the work is destroyed? That's the same thing.
If this happens at all levels, the state inevitably involved in these relationships and instead live on lawfully collected taxes, are involved in collecting taxes. That is caught not paying taxes - pay, but again, not the state, and the official, who caught (tax police, the Prosecutor and the like). And the last “share” with senior managers. That's a full-scale mafia.
State laws are ignored, but things are going, then some sort of ethics in relationships should still exist. And who monitors the implementation?
Correctly, the bandits. Or the same law enforcement bodies in possession of “private” no less coercive means. People whose rights are violated (for example, no refund), has the opportunity to “deal with the offender, not only through slow and helpless court, and quickly and directly. Seems to be good?
Yes, probably. But as you know, you can't beat nature. If a person over the execution of the functions of the state turns to the bandits, the taxes on it start to take them. And these “taxes” is not optimizer.exe, and their “rates” may at any time to change, and the punishment for non-payment can be different, depending on the wealth of imagination punishing... in short, “walk by gangsters” - is difficult and dangerous.
I must say that in the US, neither in Italy nor in the Soviet Union, this system is so comprehensive was not. According to such regulations originally lived mafia businesses such as casinos, brothels and drug trafficking, as well as a purely Soviet speculators many scarce goods.
But no one could think that in early capitalist Russia is extended to all spheres of business life, until the heavy industry and agriculture.
Now we have this kind used and perceived as self-evident. Fortunately, began to take shape, and the reverse trend, although to civilized business we still, as they say, to creep and creep. While “civilization” is the fact that the security forces ousted from the market, “Frank” bandits and becomes their place...
And the Italian mafia nepotism in the Russian reality takes specific forms - partners are not only the wife and the children, but childhood friends and schoolmates, and members of the Soviet “mailbox” or party work. In short, people who know each other for many years and may, in varying degrees to each other to trust.
In 1992-93, all this on a national scale was just beginning. But the business, where in the beginning of 1993 I was invited mark Dmitriev, was the mafia, even by Soviet standards - trade in meat products. Remember the seventies anecdote about a man with delusions of grandeur, imagined that he was a butcher Eliseevsky grocery store?
Mark, I knew from the time of the Institute, moreover, he was my Deputy during a sports-mass work in the Komsomol Committee. Business man and practical, even then with the habits of the “big boss”, he, however, was different soft and not without lyrics character that does not prevent him from doing business. Remember, I told my grandmother in 1988 sewed for him by the hair ribbons for 20 cents?
Mark, in addition to these rezinochek, managed to transactions on the Riga market scarves and hats, and then became Deputy Director in the business, which is turbulent and troubled waters of those years has grown into a large holding company. By the standards of 1990, the concept of “size”, was different from the present, the office they had at the back of the pavilion “Pig” on VVTS, and I, stopping occasionally to Mark chat, got a lot of fun, passing the pen with an abundance of pigs.
This holding company is something traded, too, such as clothing, footwear.
In 1991-early 1992, I Mark lost sight of it in this time had time to visit on the Board of Directors known banking group “Beta”, found unimaginable external solidity, coupled with personal driver, and then, earning a starting capital, went out and began the work - trade in meat products.
When we are with him in the late summer of 1992 again began to communicate (not on business topics, just visiting each other's homes), he was very “cool”, constantly filmed “luxury” in the Moscow house of rest “Planernaya”, wore expensive suits and dined in fine restaurants. He, incidentally, was not yet twenty - five-he's younger than me by four years.
I'm in late 1992, just the opposite has happened - I am poor.
To life in art, I was not ready. And financially, and, most importantly, morally I in 1992, “not yet ripe”. It took another six years.
Capital to start their own business I had, and got an elementary question: how to earn a living? I was about to become the head of the CC of any Unitron (I repeatedly suggested), but it means a working day from start to finish”to which I could go only at the very least.
No, of course, if there were “pressed”, then would I and the head of the CC, but some savings have remained, and it was time to look for more options.
I note that mark first I was offered to be in his company (it was called without regard to meat products - “Granite”), Department head of marketing at Kladno-bonus system. I refused - used to govern what-no, but the firms.
Then after a while mark invited me to have a full-fledged partners on export-import operations with the creation of a “me” separate company.
The last invitation was justified my good knowledge of English and significant (at the time) the experience of independent financial and business activities, so I agreed, without any salary, exclusively for share in future revenues are my savings is more or less allowed. Although, of course, all costs “my” company paid for mark, referring them to my credit, i.e. after deduction from my partner share. But the salary I had not received, and it allowed me to close with a very “cool” partner to save face.
This was principally because Mark already had a small (ten) team managers, riding for the provincial meat to organize the supply of meat in Moscow.
Headed the team of managers of the commercial Director of the firm “Granit” Vladimir Adulov years he was about forty-five, he first jealously reacted to my appearance, but later resigned and we can say that we became friends, though we had frequent conflicts. Who would have thought, what the outcome of his “friendship” with me, and with mark in 1998...
As mark in March 1993 established a new company, H-lane, I became its Director and engaged in the export of hides and rogakopita raw materials. Yes, horns and hooves, right on Ilf and Petrov.
Incidentally, horns and hooves were very valuable raw material for fertilizer, and Germany they were taken in any quantity, but that's how many accidents cows need to score to give a huge dvadtsatiletnej trailer “horns-legs”? Very much. And just then, in 1993, the animal has begun to add a terrible economic crisis of 1991-92, of which Gaidar gotten the country with the help of inflation.
The crisis the country, he certainly brought up, but to restore the livestock required for several years, as calm as possible and fertile, but they never have been. And already in 1993 and horn-hoof, and skin to get it became harder and harder. If meat is scarce, and address issues of supply in Moscow to the line managers, that “beat” more and more scarce and expensive products accounted for myself.
Moreover, once “agreed” with the Director, reassign managers further relations with him, I usually could not. Law mafia business officials prefer to deal only with the representative of the company, which with them “agree”. Any other options in order of increasing the likelihood of “coasters”and superopytnye in these matters to the Director of the meat is, of course, did not go.
Started “pirate” life is a continuous traveling and adventures.
Go not immediately and not much anyhow. First in Moscow are sitting here all day on the phone, call up the meat and trying to get to you the Director told a secret phrase: “In principle, skins (rogosomani raw) feature, the price is about so-and-so, come, let's talk”. Then it became easier - the circle of Directors of meat was narrow, the news of the merchants, who “don't hurt”, spread quickly enough - within a few months, and the secret phrase: “Come, talk, this conversation on the phone” was heard more and more often.
The Secretary was going for a ticket, and I raced home, threw in a bag with a toothbrush, razor, bought a few bottles of vodka (the “preliminary” gifts) and forward.
In the autumn of 1993 went first product, the money for the company gradually began to act, and mark for a symbolic song gave me his old white “Volga” GAZ-24. It was ten years old, and supposedly “novya” on her son went to Brezhnev. I do not know, went son, but then she spent several years in a taxi cab that is “me” simply falling apart on the go.
But, first, other options were not, and secondly,
I “on staff” for believing the driver, who was engaged in a permanent repair. Thus,
Tver, Ulyanovsk, Orel, Kursk, Vologda, Smolensk, Ryazan region, Mordovia, and the Kalmyk ASSR is far not the full list of geographical regions in the vast expanses of our Motherland, where I have been on many of the local meat-packing plants, and if the product was then repeatedly.
Once, for instance, with Sergei, his driver got lost in the snow at the junction of Orel and Tula regions. The road outlined in the road Atlas bold green line “Republican values”, in fact, was abandoned many years ago, and eventually led to the need to go (or rather continuously to pull a car out of snow) five kilometers down the dirt road in the middle of the field. And in the night, and Orel region - not Moscow, where the village (especially on the outskirts of the regional) are separated from each other for tens of miles.
And once in the Tver region on the road from Ostashkov saved only good reaction of the same driver - at night, in the snow, in the opposite lane to meet us, driving a tractor without lights! Sergey managed to turn in a ditch, “Volga” miracle was not overturned (saved a huge weight of this machine and a thick layer of snow, trees on our way in a ditch, too, thank God, was not, and then we waited a long time to have any truck out of this ditch pulled...
A trip to Saransk on a twin-screw plane An-
A trip on the train or long-distance bus when I sleep in the arms of a portfolio that was not stolen?
A trip by car in Dimitrovgrad, when we, again, snowy winter night, a few hours in a traffic jam in the four hundred kilometers from Moscow, because somewhere in front stalled Laden trailer, it launched and it blocked the track?
Anyway, the road is fraught with a lot of “surprises”. When “back five hundred, forward five hundred”quite differently, and start to relate to the road, and the car. But there is a road and pros is near Moscow minutes on the road with his hand, and no one will stop and ask what happened. And on the road slow down almost any - it happened to me today, and tomorrow with him...
Well, of course, and communication with Directors - it was something! Since the Soviet times in your city or in the district, Director of the meat served hierarchical level somewhere between the Chairman of the Executive Committee and head of the trade. No wonder - meat in the Soviet times was primarily scarce commodity, and who is it distributed? Who decided how much to give the precious clippings? And all the orders party leaders went? With the same meat processing plant.
But, however, to itinerant merchants of Moscow, these Directors are not condescending attitude. Is that some and just a little. And that was not and this “little”, they had to behave respectfully, but on equal terms. In particular, in any case not to sit in the waiting room when “Ivan Ivanovich” busy. For example, in Cherepovets, a Director at a meeting late for ten minutes, and this time I pretended to smoke in the toilet. However, such cases were rare.
I usually come to eight in the morning and immediately met with the Director, then he “saved” me some soup, and I carried lunch in a so-called “tasting room, where overfeed sorts of “tails” and “ham”. And sometimes it leads. And sometimes I had lunch with the Director. In a word, everything depended on the local situation.
And with almost all the Directors, sooner or later had to drink vodka. Without that, while not treated any Russian business, as much meat...
My God, these people drink! Kashin, for example,
we once with the Director in his office “thundering” 5 (five) hours. Together!
And the most annoying, the Director of the home after drinking to go home ten
minutes, and I -
Even now, in the process of writing these lines, I have to like “pictures of the past” had a headache. You know how Kashin - charming old town, and still first memory of him - drunk drowsiness in long-distance bus, the train, then on the back seat of the “Volga”. And the hangover, catch more in the way, that is doubly disgusting...
Not surprisingly, the drink I gave up immediately after the visits to meat-packing plants (somewhere in the middle of 1994) and since then all I can not look at alcohol. Even the champagne on holidays.
It is curious that, despite the “nomadic” life (in average, almost one business trip in a week), I am very fatter and took the image of a jowly and shiny “new Russian”. There are two reasons: first, in 1993 I quit Smoking, and secondly, prior to 1993, I saw meat only in the form of slices cooked stew in a disgusting gravy avtokombinata of Stolovich, and here - in the morning, afternoon and evening, the tenderloin, the language, the other delicacies, which in Soviet life and I never heard.
At the same time I am strong advise Mark has acquired and the trappings of a “new Russian” - textbook crimson jacket and no less crimson cashmere coat. Funny, but such was the form of social protest against the Soviet seryatiny (remember the film “Office romance” and the wretched suits his characters?)
Crimson jacket, however, was not worn with sports trousers, and with quite a “civilian” black pants and a tie - still I was a business and not a “buddy”.
And cell phone, I started - they then steadily worked only in the center of Moscow, but were of such a size and weight that they have in the steppes of Orel region could fend off a pack of wolves. However they cost (phones, not wolves) is not much cheaper car “Zhiguli”, and some models and much more...
And one more detail - it was at this time I was a mouthful “Volfgangovicha” turned into “Zhirinovsky. At the meat to communicate without middle name was not accepted, there was a “party” status: “you”, but “Ivan Sergei Zhirinovsky. Thank you, Mr. Zhirinovsky, about this time appeared on the political scene - without it I would have guessed “reduce” middle name and created a sea of problems inarticulate Directors, and thus himself.
But if all the problems that accrue business relationship with the Directors of meat! The goods else had to be brought to Moscow, and “truck” (huge dedcation trucks) that broke their “shaking” local or Moscow traffic police, the provincial drivers in Moscow was lost in transit to the customs terminal, there were some inconsistencies in piles of documents for customs...
There have been funny cases when, for example, we received by rail car skins and unloaded it in stock. By the way, the same “native” Mostransekspeditsii (me as an acquaintance did the minimum fare). Night in a panic called warehouse superintendant that around skins, attracted a specific smell, gathered rats and think to eat them or not. To hide immediately placed a guard on rats (not a cat, a man with a gun), but then the guards, because it became clear that Moscow fat Crysis disdain macromolecule cow skins.
I once sent a “wagon” from Saransk, and in an hour the driver returned to the panic on meat, for the exit from the city traffic police stopped him and demanded some mysterious help from the meat-packing plant. I have cursed, because he could not “agree”, and the driver was young and so was scared that I started to cry, so I went to Moscow is not on the train, and with it, because the road will be even traffic police posts, and suddenly again something will require... I quickly said goodbye to the Director (even drink did not have time) and drove Mordovia and the Ryazan region on a huge slow “wagon”.
Another purely Russian “Jolly” took place on another occasion. The matter is that, according to the current legislation of Russia, with exports expected reimbursements of VAT - value added tax. Who was in the West, probably faced with a system of “Tax Free”, when purchasing something in the store and then leaving country on the border of the return value, namely VAT, in English VAT.
This is due to the avoidance of double taxation contained in the international conventions and clearly regulated by our legislation. But when we came to the tax office with the request for payment from the state budget VAT for our export goods, they looked at us as the loonies or suicide. And only the tremendous efforts (and considerable cost to our consultant-auditor), after we have a great number of ordeals managed to receive from the state budget money.
was repeated several times. Each such receipt was preceded by a full tax check
- and we passed it! And in the end of
And as we contrive to financial schemes! But I will not bore the reader. My visit to the meat soon ended with the catastrophic decline of the slaughter in the Russian regions and the reorientation of our company with mark from exports to imports of meat and dairy products to Russia.
I can not remember the passages from a long line of Sergei Gandlevsky, touching and lyrical andegraundovtsa seventies and eighties. For the post-Soviet generation will explain that Osh is a town on the once-Soviet Pamir and Shostka plant - remember that it was written at the end of almost all Soviet films? Shot on film Shostka Association “Svema”.
Cheerful my work blossomed wheel
Ferris from Omsk to Osh.
Have the odd and Simonov in unison
Know little by little chant: “You remember, Alyosha?”
...I learned the ancient science of lies,
Forgot to ask about the weather without the Mat.
Flickers in front of me, my Odyssey
The film Shostka plant.
Nothing, nothing, nothing I fear,
Is it only the lazy masked killers.
Will laugh off somehow, something to live for
With God's help in silly shepherd.
So we came to lazy masked killers”. Simply put - thugs, Riot, “spetsnaz” and others, who in any case is no need to fear, but fear is.
Of course, in my “myasoprodukty” work in abundance met attacks and other similar jitters.
However, the latter concept is hardly applicable to the business if even for a second, will give nerves, go crazy. One problem is overlapped by another, for this time decide the third, but the decision does not bring happiness - until she decided, a fourth... furthermore, any failure in solving these problems can lead to either a prison bunk, or in “another world”.
- It is right and on the bench, and in “another world”? - ask me.
No, not once. Typically, first talk.
But, for example, why in the circus trainer applaud the lions? Because any potentially lion might in a moment of break handler, and hardly anyone has time to help. And not break because there is a kind of brake system on the basis of let shaky, but understanding. What a “mental parity”.
If a lion something could on the subject to think, that, probably, is the following: this fine man is alien to me, strange and disgusting, but I eat until I am. First, I'm hungry, secondly, if the rent, then start the noise, noise, shooting, could be trouble. Now if he gave me quite “get it”, while still eat - heartbeat, always have time...
And the trainer knows himself with a lion to allow and what not. So we live.
But the slightest error handler can be fatal - the lion is the lion, and the arguments of the last instinct may at some point be more dubious arguments hypothetical mind. We know also that if the trainer stumbled and fell, the predator something “works” and he can throw...
Now, we must understand that any bandit - predator from absolutely other world, and your “franska” his life is not a concern and is worth just as much as are the costs to overcome his natural laziness, before you drive, track, “Bang” and leave. The same, incidentally, applies to the “cops” - their conscious objective is to fill you Butyrskaya Nar, they do a child's mother sucked... Well, if not from childhood, the graduate school of interior.
But you're at a certain literacy and tact can create a situation where even at the intersection of interests (for example, sent them to you to sort out your competitor or unsatisfied lender) can solve the question of “amicable” and to leave in wonderful ways.
- But how?
Well, first of all, even if you have a “roof”, it does not always make sense to connect it directly. Can only raportit - for example, gang “roof” angry “cops”and Vice versa. And if you “shake”, for example, the President's security service, the General in the coffin they saw all the others...
If you have documents confirming your right about the issue that you “hit”, it is unlikely, watching them, “nejausi” there is a desire to continue a “showdown”, because then they, seeing your “roof”, is wrong, and in the criminal world can and “wet”and “COP” is to dismiss from the authorities. Yes, and “wet”, by the way, too.
Unfortunately, you may find that your “problem” and was provoked by the “cops”to, for example, through you go on your “roof” (if they are bandits) and obtain a formal excuse to start a war with it. Or one of the gang decided to get even with the other. The gentry are fighting, and the serfs forelocks crack.
You're in this situation in all affected, so there should not rush to the “arrow” with its “roof”. For a start, where more winning position is: I am a honest businessman, not bothering anyone, fix the stove, and if you have against me have any facts, then I certainly will answer any questions... most Likely, “nathusii” will leave you alone and I'll try to search for their goals more “sweet”.
And if you're “wrong”, that is actually broke a contract with a competitor, has the money, something else “slip”and it's documented - and no “roof” will not help, and best of all immediately return or claim feet.”
More precisely, the “roof” can help, but only under one condition: announce that you're working on them, and translated by arrows, and with them the right to claim for themselves. But for you, “rotten pigeons, this means bondage for life on unpredictable financial conditions. Perhaps, then, sooner or later you'll have to “Lam” in the hope that you too lazy to look, if you're small fry and have little money.
The method of struggle with “arrivals”when you are just going to the nearest police station (and better in the Department of RUBOP - regional Directorate for combating organized crime), write an application for extortion, then get to send “nathusii” labeled money, all authorities “accept” and “bar”, can work in two cases.
The first case: you “rights” in fact (not to take no part, do not hit in the six hundredth “Mercedes”), but with the people you met irresponsible, and the “roof” you do not.
However, while these people have not begun to you to revenge because you “locked”, you better find somebody to explain to them that you are “rights”, and if they went out and will continue you worry, it will be even worse. This role in the case of your “rightness” can, by the way, to take on the same Robovce.
Case two: you're “wrong” per se. For example, really need someone for something, the money may come “to understand”, and you “framed cops”. In this case your “surrender Bratkov” can only lead to gains in time to collect my things and get out in the ephemeral hope that you will not find, because all the “concepts” they have the right thereafter to do with you everything you want to kill, to take any property...
Keeping business ethics and certain tact, in principle, can not have a permanent “roof”, of course if you do not trade as prostitutes, drug or stall - where all the “territories” are divided. But if you know your business is risky (“zones of risk” now, unfortunately, applies to any trade, more or less profitable production and even banking activity), it is better to find a “roof” myself, not wait, when you'll come to you and offer your services.
The best way to “cover” to agree on the work of “one-off” calls (this is ideal, but unlikely, although “an acquaintance” is sometimes possible) or salary. But in any case, you cannot give them a percentage of the profits - then they are your “partners” and have the right to climb in all your Affairs.
Another important point. Who would you come with “collisions” - “cops”, bandits, prosecutors, tax police, and the like - in any case it is not necessary to rave about, just throw a call, let alone try to Dodge the meeting. We must speak calmly and with dignity, to know what they want because of it they came to you, not you to them.
There is an old “thieves” principle applies when dealing with any potential or apparent enemy, whether it is a “COP”, a gangster or a competitor. This principle is known to everyone, but not everyone remembers, and even more uses: “do Not believe do not be afraid, do not ask”.
Wonderful principle! “They” totally alien to you the world and not connected with you any ethical standards - meaning, do not believe. Fear can make you commit reckless acts and (or) to say something - then fear not. “They” have to feel your confidence in the rightness means nothing pray. You can not ask for, and to offer, but the form of a request to have it should not.
The thing is that if you “missed” the situation is so that someone paid money just to kill you, then it is unlikely that someone will come and talk about, chances are you just not able to understand which side flew bullet...
- That's the life of “businessmen”! "you say. - Do I need to do business and make money, if it involves such “production costs”? Correctly spoken all over the world about the Russian mafia...
Having said this, you will be absolutely right. But everything is much more complicated and much worse, because the real tragedy of this system is its comprehensiveness.
Take, for example, the food trade. Perhaps, in civilized countries, the “informal” relations in this industry and gone, but we still during Soviet times, any scarce commodity traded informally, that is not under the rule of law, and under the rule of “concepts”. And in the USSR in the deficit was almost everything. For example, fish type of frozen hake with stalls rarely disappear, but in “fishing” industries such product was caviar, that's relevant here “tradition”.
Well, God bless her, with a mafia Soviet-Russian trade. There, the system has developed over the years and working in it, people Willy-nilly, to adapt.
The same thing happens when a person professionally sells drugs, prostitution or weapons: he usually knows what is coming, and consciously accept the “rules of the game”. The same applies to any other industry, where specificity dictates a higher risk. Those who went for the “big money” to eliminate the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, usually too knew what they were.
Actually, this is still bad. Worse others: you're going on the road to his textbook “Zaporozhets”, “cut” you at least textbook “Mercedes”, or simply “Zhiguli”, police you felt guilty in the accident. There is a considerable chance that comes to you no subpoena, and a pair of thugs.
For example, the father of one of my friends, very old pensioner, was Chairman of the old co-op Parking lot. And once with his Parking at night drove a Mercedes, knocking on the head guard. Now, and this guard, and Chairman of Parking some bandits immediately put in a damp basement and three days was kept there, occasionally beating them to confess, with whom agreed to steal a car. “ And if my friend is not engaged in business and did not have the bailout bonds, it is unknown what would happen to his father.
“Fun”, Yes? That is the real horror of a comprehensive system of mafia - in these “rules of the game at any moment can become involved each. Where there mafia don Corleone, only the “roof” of gambling business in several cities in the USA...
In the end, a lot of people in the absence of spiritual alternatives makes the following conclusion: in the business risk increases many times, but many times better paid.
It is even a sort of “excuses”: you can, for example, fall under fell from the roof to the nose, so why not walk the streets in a thaw? And if you bring the idea to an absurdity, it is better not to leave the house at all - brick on the head can fall at any time of the year...
So it turns out that if in conditions of “new Russian” business somebody someone offers to take delivery in Moscow, for example, drug users or prostitutes, the motivation of the refusal (or consent) of the moral aspect of the problem is considered on a par with profitability, risk, hlopotnoe and other evaluation criteria of any business.
Break the law or standards - more problems, but more money is not violate less problems then if less money is not much, it is better not to disturb... Cynical mathematics cynical game called “Russian business end of the twentieth century”. And it goes logically and convincingly, right?
Unfortunately, these rules are adopted and I for my former work. Fully and unconditionally.
And attempts at self-justification, saying that “in those years I had only one, but rather a clear alternative, or art, or anything, but as long as I am not yet ready to fully dedicate himself to art, I was doing anything,” sound out of tune and vymochennoy.
Already in 1994, I was in charge of financial issues and, the funny thing is security throughout the holding company “Granit”, and not only in the company, H-lane”. No, you imagine that the artist, programmer, and candidate of technical Sciences Zagraevsky dealt with security issues in a company trading in meat products, that is “dealt” with the majority of attacks?..
No wonder that drew me in these years, “bottom”, less and less, and in the years 1995-98 completely abandoned “oil on canvas” for the cumbersome and uselessness, all going to watercolor.
the company went uphill. In early 1994, mark moved to new and in those times
luxurious office close to Tishinskaya area of
As an anecdote: mark decided (seriously!) to put all the employees of the office of the female sex (accountants, secretaries, “cooks”) into a single form. Even contacted a firm, and we brought the samples.
Then this idea, thank God, “left in the sand, but the badge “business card” with the name and position of the mark was still forced to wear, and from this dubious honor were released only members of the Board of Directors, i.e. mark himself, and I Volodya of Adulov responsible for sales of meat products in Moscow.
latter also taking part in the decoration of the office, but is usually
unsuccessful. The fact that he had a tendency to buy the incredibly cool and
things like maloneobhodimye thousand hundred-dollar suits and ties. For
example, in 1993 he bought six thousand dollars (!) cell phone, which will soon
have to throw it away, because he could use only radius
And in the office, we “tip” placed super-expensive telephone station, which a couple of years, no company could not reprogram, since this model has been rare. No wonder - when you buy for ten thousand dollars that you can buy for a thousand, then do not expect any maintainability, or interchangeability, for analogues will be very little...
I “slipped” from this office only in the beginning of January 2000, almost simultaneously with the “Millennium”, and frankly speaking, it does not miss is still the owner there was not me, and mark.
In recent years our partnership and formally, and in fact was absolutely equal, but this office was a Keeper of traditions years 1994-96, when the money in the firm were only in Mark, and every penny, including from my partner share, had... Well, not exactly begging, but on the face of Mark in the issuance of any amount were always pained expression, and the moment of parting with the money he tried to delay as much as possible for a long time. By the way, in vain - a couple of days delay is usually nothing in my purse for Mark is not solved, and hurt people who depend on him heavily.
But it's not only that. Mark to the office treated lovingly kept there all the household Affairs, and this office, of course, psychologically belonged to him and not me.
The same thing applies to business. Mark has always been “a generator of ideas”, which is not surprising if one thinks about his work day and night, ideas are born.
I “day and night” about “myasoprodukty” work never thought except the most critical moments, when it was about life and death of a company, or me personally, or Brand. And usually left the office (sometimes, however, it happened late at night) and forgot about business until tomorrow.
Another thing, why in the eyes of all employees (and their best times were about thirty-forty) mark was “real” boss, but I am not.
Mark has always been a personal driver, and I one day realized that it is better to lose in the image than I will always stand beside a stranger from different social categories, which problems the firm “to the light”, which is all the time something begging, and if it is called at an inopportune time, all kind radiates discontent.
Generally speaking, the service personnel in Russia is a separate topic. Let me just say that in the West or traditions of others, or training better, and we have that the drivers that the waiters that sellers, - though possible and friendly, but hatred of the exploiters, apparently, sucked them back in the Soviet time with his mother's milk and Marxist dogmas of class struggle. When the cook (as Lenin) thinking about running the state, it is with their direct duties begin to cope poorly, with observations chef angered her. Besides at us in Russia the authorities are not always loved.
Yes, I knew it didn't take offense, but that was no reason to put up with the constant presence of the strange and unfriendly person - but with the driver when I then spent traveling most of the time!
I drove the car more than normal, since the end of 1993, the car I was always new, so repair problems were relatively few, and even in the summer of 1994 driver after his small boorish antics I fired since then drove himself. And on business trips at the factory, which was less and less, I took as a replacement of the driver or one of his “deputies”, or an office worker, a brave lady with a lot of driving experience, with which I was then “office romance”. In the latter case, even a thousand trip became much nicer...
And about repair - mark at the end of 1994 were so intoxicated with success, even opened near the junction of Dmitrov and Korovinskoe shosse own car service, designed primarily to serve the numerous cars employees. Whenever possible, of course, still some money to bring.
Note that this service was a serious “slap” on the part of nature that will not cheat - we are with mark can not always be there and watch as those who work! Naturally, the Director of the service immediately began to fill his own pockets, “free” cars employees repaired very badly, and we are in a year this service has closed over the loss ratio and headache - there continuously came unfamiliar gangsters, policemen, firemen, Director of them allegedly something was off... in short, puffed us who could and where they could.
But, on the other hand, we are with mark and problems in the core business enough so deeply reluctant to get involved in the functioning of the car was not there.
At this time, in mid-1995, our company was facing a far more serious problems than thieving Director of auto service, and I once again had to change orientation “and unfamiliar thing to do - banks.
Our mark and firm in mid-1994 began in Promstroybank credited, and credit for firms - drug: if he “hooked”, “peel” is already extremely difficult.
But in April of 1995, the Promstroibank burned, and literally, there was a fire and burned half of the huge building. Who profited to set fire to this esteemed Bank on Tverskoy Boulevard (I do not believe in randomness of incidents) - I do not know, but we eventually left without lending, for all the money in the Bank was left to “liquidate the consequences of fire” and the rules for granting loans were tightened immediately.
For our company it was a huge blow, because the profitability of meat imports from the Russian regions to Moscow fell to a critical level, that is, to do it became unprofitable, and we decided to play on the financial market (in particular, in the famous “short-term government bonds - Treasury bills), and for this it needed a lot of money in circulation. But due to the collapse of Promstroibank we were left without working capital, and these “games” had to collapse, despite their considerable profits.
However, thank God - yet another crisis, when the collapse of all the “Charms”, “Germany” and other, remained not so much time (this happened in the autumn of 1995), and we are due to our weak professionalism and small experience, most likely, would have lost money, which then would have to answer before Promstroibank. At this time the former state banks have mastered the “bandit” knock-out technology money from debtors, so that all in the end it turned out for the best.
And so we in the summer of 1995 the first miracle was the twisted Saga of the so-called “StarBank”, in which we have made on the order less, than those which were available in the “old days” credit Promstroybank.
Actually, this year the financial “pyramid” took a much more subtle and complicated than the infamous “MMM” half years earlier. Mr Mavrodi we did not try anything at all “play”, because there was no formal money-back guarantee. Shares, as the more mysterious “tickets MMM, today there are so many, tomorrow so much, and the next day may not be worth anything.
But in 1995 we just don't “get it” - attracted by high interest rates on Bank deposits with full guarantees of payment, duly executed contracts and other attributes of solidity. Rogues are gradually becoming more and more sophisticated and large-scale.
And we have invested money in the Moscow branch of Irkutsk “Prospecting Bank. Abbreviated “StarBank”. There he worked as an accountant friend Volodya Adulova (just bad luck!), and she promised to monitor the situation in the Bank in case, if investors decide to cheat.
After some time, the bookkeeper of the Bank resigned, leaving us in the lurch, and soon the Bank stopped payments on deposits. Everything happened according to the standard scenario - at the entrance lined noisy queue deceived investors, and the Bank has turned into a besieged fortress.
It should be noted that, as always, is among the worst affected poor and the vulnerable “individuals”. For commercial firms to guide every “LLD”, “Char” and, in particular, “our” StarBank approached selectively. Usually held talks with him, find out who the traders, investors that are able to refund.
Mark had a meeting with Chairman of the Board, has threatened “by dismantling the full program” (in such cases usually mark said, and I, with the red askorbinki face and short hair angrily said nothing and was like whether to “ment”, whether at the bandit), and we end up not only returned the money, but even paid almost all interest.
This has allowed us in mid-1995 gradually start importing meat, cheese and butter, mainly from Germany. In the truck, two - for more no money. At the same time I frantically rushed to the banks in search of credit, for without them to increase speed and become competitive on the market was unthinkable.
In the spring of 1995, I took a trip to Nigeria, which is worth a special talk.
About a year before we received a letter from “the high-ranking official of Nigeria”. He allegedly found in secret documents do not fully executed a contract in which the Nigerian national petroleum Corporation (NNPC) someone once underpaid “modest” sum of forty-something million dollars, and now he has the opportunity to organize paid abroad.
Well, my eyes something we mark inexperience on fire! We have entered into correspondence received by Fax a lot saidnasa form letters NNPC, the Central Bank of Nigeria and all the ministries, and then we were asked to predoplata... only a half percent on the cost of money transfer. And the costs allegedly official on this subject sent all sorts of documents and extracts from the Nigerian law.
We just did, not what the doubt and distrust. First, these “official” expenses reason ought not to transfer to Nigeria, and on a clear offshore account in Europe. And secondly, these only half percent of forty million accounted for 60 thousand dollars, we risk not gathered.
Correspondence took a protracted nature, we demanded more and more confirmation, we even with the purpose of exhortation began calling allegedly Deputy Chairman of the Central Bank of Nigeria, but we stood firm and finally decided that we should go to Nigeria and to deal in place. I, unlike Mark, relatively fluent in English, to entrust such a “sensitive issue” we are nobody else could, so there was no choice.
My Nigerian “partners”, thank God, did not name specific time of the visit, in order to have the first opportunity to look around.
After spending the night in transit in the charming Amsterdam, I even after ten hours on a comfortable flight (air company “KLM”) was in Nigeria.
The first thing that happened there - I was detained at the airport “to identification”and I, after spending three hours in very tatty cubbyhole (another good that is not in the ZCTU) among the hordes of policemen understood then, anywhere.
I, however, guessed to behave as a “nigger in the Sheremetyevo: not built from a “cool”, called “lawyer” and with a smile begged black “Sirs” and “officers” to take me to the Russian Embassy. Because of this, I, in the end, was accompanied by an officer there by taxi and taken off a twenty dollar a cab and ten - officer. They say it happens that people with fear paid (or were forced to pay) for several hundred...
All this was really scary. In the countries of the Arab East, for example, so don't feel like, for the Arabs at least in the mass lean and low. Subconsciously understand that at the very least, before you and I will cope, a dozen attackers scatter.
Nigerians as a large, elegant, graceful, athletic, and most importantly - with every fiber of his Negro soul hates whites. The formal reason for their hatred was that they were in the seventies been successfully selling oil, and then the “white” (USA) dropped rates and ruined Nigeria. By the way, the same fall in the world prices at the beginning of the eighties “burnt down and the economy of the USSR.
What are the ten million Lagos, the actual capital of Nigeria - to put it briefly, it is a city of huts, fences and huge freeways, which have remained from the oil boom and slowly destroyed. In the center stands a few skyscrapers, and around - the same shacks and fences...
Lagos is famous Equatorial Africa - “the white man's grave”. Wet malaria climate is “bad” heat, and from water flowing yellow water, which is not recommended to drink even filtered and boiled. In the supermarket the Embassy town sell imported cans of water and drank it.
The dirt, the abundance of debris in the air stink. Moreover, in the streets downed machines people lie, yet they do not accidentally stumble police, but before they would be quiet and keep to bypass. He had seen.
And at the city beach, for example, the military government periodically arranged demonstration penalty - slow execution (first shooting through his hands, then his legs and so on), then the burning alive (usually in car tires).
In Russian Embassy and I talked with the Ambassador, and the Advisor, and several attache, so that told me everything. Naturally, no forty million dollars in this impoverished country and does not smell, just Nigerians so massively stupid fool the world. The US, for example, they are affected by several hundred million - gullible Americans believed the heap solid letters on solid forms...
It is noteworthy that my Nigerian “partners”, knowing that I came and I was in the Embassy, immediately disappeared and the link is no longer appeared.
And I spent a week at Embassy hotel (to change the date of departure cost too much) and looked Lagos. This can be done only during the day and preferably not on foot and by taxi, after dark was unsafe to ride even in a diplomatic car. I sunbathed at the Embassy pool, but rested myself to feel yet could not. The climate took its toll, and in Moscow, I flew with strong furunculosis, and without razor Philips, which was stolen at the customs at the airport of Lagos...
And so I was this terrible Nigeria “got”that, following on the way back a few hours in the humid heat of the Lagos airport, and finally set foot in air-conditioned cool liner “KLM”, I nearly wept.
By the way, we mark in the next few years were at least a dozen letters from Nigeria with similar proposals and amounts, but in the end even stopped them open.
The concept of “privacy” at that time for me almost completely ceased to exist.
Friends I have, except for Mark, almost gone, and besides, I gradually became not only non-family and anti-family man and, accordingly, are not accustomed to anyone to share their problems. So, sometimes you have with someone “to the word”, - say, but in the most General terms.
And about the family - since 1993 I had the material ability to hire a maid, so the need for his wife as a “hostess” anymore. But clean and well maintained “the house - only one side of the family (and if you're lucky). Still, of course, important women's love and affection, but lost out in this regard, I myself never felt a serious and deep relationships are not tied - not before it.
And, moreover, not to children. If women wanted to have a baby for myself, I never objected, but also feelings of their children felt very little. I can even explain why. Couldn't help it - and in their own and others “angel” I see the very beast that many years trying to crush me in school # 40. By the way, it was complex in its pure form, and I still can't completely get rid of it. But who knows what awaits us in the future? Moreover, children tend to grow up and turn into a completely adequate people.
However, it was not only in the complexes. In 1993-98 years of my work in the meat, and then the banking business was so dangerous, and difficult, that I have applied to his words from the song: “I pirate - no wife, no brother.”
Now that there was an analogy with the pirates, remember Vertinsky:
I know, Jimmy, you wanted to be a pirate.
But in our time, this is impossible.
You want to command a frigate,
Wearing boots, a raincoat, a ring with agate.
You want to life dangerous and disturbing...
Minister, you dreamed to cabin boy in the Atlantic swim
A consolation Minister must say that his life is a far greater series of alarms and dangers than not only the cabin boy, and a dozen military captains together. Of course, like, “revolt aboard the finding of the belt to tear the gun”, but this is everyday life politician and businessman provides a huge number of alternatives.
So my subconscious, childish desire to “command the frigate” in these years resulted in quite modern “economic forms. Here and has given orders in all sorts of companies so that, hopefully, “played out” for the rest of your life...
Well, and what a “captain of the frigate” could be a family? Do I have to be fished close to the people unhappy, although the material security of existence?
And in practical terms through the family can be pressed, threaten to take hostages... And in case of bankruptcy (this can happen to anyone, as happened to me once) no longer the material security of existence of the family, that is still one neschastnoi. Indeed, if the captain who survived the crash with his frigate, always arranged at least a mate, then what will happen to his family, spoiled material well-being?
No, probably somewhere else remained heroic “Russian women”, ready to share with loved all the hardships and tribulations, but, first of all, a little, and secondly, let's not forget that the favorite in the times of material prosperity usually spends all day at work and in business trips. A first pass through the continued absence of a prosperous husband, then the constant presence of the ruined - these women certainly are found only in books.
Neither Princess Trubetskaya nor Nadezhda Yakovlevna Mandelshtam did not face problems of modern women “new Russians”. However, worthless compared Decembrists and poets with Directors of companies and banks.
Some “smart” Western book I read, it is useful every three years to change not only the place of work and occupation, in order to develop personally and professionally.
I do not know. If you love your work and I hope to achieve something - of course, it is not. Not enough not to mention three years, and thirty-three. And if you try to do business career - perhaps, Yes. Although it is also doubtful.
But I did and it worked: 1987-89 years - chair, 90-92 programming, 93-95 - meat, 96-98 - banks, specifically Rokobank.
But it was still far away, and yet, in late 1995 and early 1996, I realized what a walk on the banks in a suit and tie, but with an outstretched hand, and everywhere you gently “send”.
Bankers are already people were not that friendly and very polite. By the way, so it was unpleasant to communicate with them: politeness, there was a mock, adopted the Western style, but not more.
I walked, I twenty banks (almost all - the largest in Russia, although a few small, too, “sent”), including Rokobank. Everywhere the situation is similar, though with minor deviations.
First, many attempts to call the Chairman of the Board, then you're going to Deputy Chairman in charge of loans. With him is usually already the opportunity ever to meet and tell what the firm “Granit” - one of Moscow's biggest suppliers of meat and dairy products, and in General, they say, we are incredibly steep, but that's not enough working capital...
The Deputy Chairman politely listened, is head of the Department and asked “approach to the problem with all the attention.”
The head of Department shall appoint a responsible clerk, that you “arijit” a few weeks, requesting all new documents, and then you begin to understand that anything you do not Shine, and even no desire for another few weeks to get through to the Chairman or the Deputy Chairman and complain that you are “not fit”.
And, as I now understand, this process depended not only on the “cool” your company or not satisfied with your Bank Deposit or not. Each Bank has a secret funding mechanism, and even successful arrangements with any officer or clerk, little has been decided - for example, threw the Bank all the money in the Treasury bills market, and all for none penny loans.
The procedure of failure was associated with a huge loss of time. In the largest state banks in Sberbank or Agroprombank hierarchical chain of clerks was very long, resulting in the “party” was held for several months in a commercial-type monsters ONEKSIM, Menatep or Rokobanka several weeks, and in banks “middling” could refuse a week. I'm not saying that all this was due to the long hours of waiting in reception, at least many hours trying to get through...
And, of course, in our company the situation was terribly nervous. Mark pulled me and was accused of failing to “resolve issues”, I too was accused of all mortal sins, in the meetings of the Board of Directors at first we were yelling at each other, and then together “shaking” responsible for the regional program of import of meat and Director of sales, although they are little depended.
The fact that the price of cattle in the region has steadily crept up, but on the meat in Moscow - down (of course, in dollar terms). It was not yet profitable imports, but its profitability with exorbitant fifty or a hundred percent gradually slid up quite Western norms - ten-fifteen.
Started acute competition, and huge firms like “EXIMA” or “Soyuzkontrakt, which turned out cheap state loans and had a huge momentum, began to dumping, i.e. to reduce prices and to oppress the weaker suppliers such as our “Granite”.
However, in 1996 began a short-term prosperity of the Russian economy, based on Western loans and “pyramid” t-bills. Salaries in commercial structures grew even faster than prices. However, “state employees and retirees from this lighter was not - it is the time delay of salaries and pensions have a catastrophic character.
State invent new taxes, traders invent new loopholes, the law is constantly changing...
For example, from value added tax on imported food at one time were released, and then customs legislation tightened, but left a loophole - from VAT were exempt goods imported to the order of foreign investments, that is, as a contribution to capital. Here, like mushrooms, began to grow the company, founded by Western suppliers, and increasingly offshore, with incredibly inflated share capital. The firm one of my friends, for example, authorized capital was quite comparable with the capital of Sberbank...
Then this loophole closed down, but then began to flourish “recipients” - an organization exempt from taxes and customs duties, such as the Moscow Patriarchate or Afghanistan veterans.
With the Patriarchy I had to negotiate several times. In particular, the exemption from customs duties - with the famous “Department for external Church relations, the largest supplier in Russia alcohol and cigarettes. Privileges they have been, and food, and in case of agreement, our goods had to go to them-they are duty - free customs clearance it, and we pay them 50% of savings.
I must say that these negotiations to anything not brought (we soon found the “Fund” veterans of some law enforcement bodies, who took a special customs clearance of much smaller percentage), but communication in the Danilov monastery Archbishop in charge of customs privileges, it was very funny.
I first met with such a high-ranking ecclesiastical person, even on the issue, far from theology, and thought: whether to give him a hand? But it was no problem: he first came up and made a very vigorous handshake.
In the future I do not faced such a problem, and was not surprised when even a very old man, Metropolitan of Kursk, on negotiations regarding the possible construction of a plant for bottling of mineral (formally Holy water was welcomed and accompanied by the representative Rokobanka (i.e. me) absolutely normal handshake. Yes, and talks a good-looking old Metropolitan led an energetic and businesslike, as a good businessman.
To be fair to say that really was a touching interview on the subject of customs privileges with the Chairman of the all-Russian blind society. The first and last time I had to hold business negotiations with totally blind person, and a very noble appearance and habits, and it was very, very strange. In business (and in any communication) opinion of the interlocutor plays a crucial role, and here - blind, and there extrasensory feeling that he looks through you.
As for the Moscow Patriarchate, I, despite official Orthodox (and Catholic) doctrine that the grace of God operates independently of the Holiness of priests themselves, after these meetings could not refer to the Church as much as before. I emphasize - not to Christianity, namely the Church as to the organization and to senior priests as representatives of the organization.
Yes, I understand, you've got to live, but still so open to trade! Well if only vodka and cigarettes, but the government-granted privileges " sorry, somehow too.
Moreover, even formally, from the point of view of “statutory purposes”, all sorts of social organizations of the blind and deaf at least earn money on the needs of their unfortunate members. Undoubtedly, there abuse enough, but that is another question.
And in the case of the Church - what are these incredible earnings (in fact, at the expense of the state for taxes and customs duties should be the income of the latter)? At the service of Jesus Christ? An unlikely Savior is pleased, when his name selling cigarettes, but while still do not pay taxes, which could live pensioners, include hospitals...
I may ask:
"What about you, Mr. Zagraevsky, sinless, and never used any possible loophole in order to pay less taxes?
- Of course, enjoyed, but, firstly, that and repent, and secondly, not formation of an angel, or, at least, of the Bishop. Businessmen are the same rules, but the Church still have to play the other, but something quite wrong turns...
Well, God is for us all to judge. So far, we are not talking about theology, and about business.
© Sergey Zagraevsky